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t T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

t E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, l.h.d. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.b.hist.soc. 










First printed 1931 
ReprirUed 1951. 1959 

Printed in Oreat Britain 


Book I. 
Book II. 
Book III. 
Book IV. 
Book V. 
Book VI. 





§ 1. The Life of Ovid 

On the life of Ovid we have more authentic inform- 
ation than on that of most ancient writers, for not 
only has he interspersed many allusions to it in his 
poems but in one of them he has given us a formal 
autobiography ,<* a species of composition to which the 
ancients were not addicted. Indeed, even the art 
of biography was little cultivated in antiquity, and 
were it not for the splendid portrait gallery which 
Plutarch has bequeathed to us in his Lives our know- 
ledge of the personal character and fortunes of the 
great men of Greece and Rome would be for the 
most part but slight and fragmentary, and for us 
they might have stalked like masked figures, looming 
vast and dim through the mist, across the stage of 

Ovid was born in 4S B.C., the year in which the two 
consuls, Hirtius and Pansa, fell in battle during the 
civil war which followed the assassination of Caesar. 
His birthplace was Sulmo, the modern Solmona, a 
town situated in a well-watered valley of the Apen- 
nines, in the land of the Paelignians, about ninety 
miles to the east of Rome. He has himself described 
tlie happy vale, rich in corn and vines, dotted here 
« Tristia, iv. 10. 



and there with grey olive-groves and traversed by 
winding streams, the ground everywhere kept fresh 
and green even in the baking heat of summer by the 
springs that bubbled up through the grassy turf.* 
No wonder that in his dreary exile on the dismal 
shore of the Black Sea the memory of his sweet 
native dale should have come back on him with 
many a pang of fond regret.^ 

The poet came of an old equestrian or knightly 
family and prided himself on being a knight by birth 
and not by the gift of fortune or, like a multitude of 
newly dubbed knights in that age of civil war, in virtue 
of military service.^ He had a brother a year older 
than himself, who died at the age of twenty. To- 
gether the boys were sent at an early age by their 
father to be educated at Rome, where they were 
placed under the care of eminent masters. His 
brother displayed a taste for rhetoric and looked for- 
ward to the profession of a pleader in the courts.** 
Ovid's own bent from childhood w^as all for poetry. 
In this he received no encouragement from his father, 
who endeavoured to dissuade him from so unprofit- 
able a course of life, holding up to him, as an awful 
warning, the fate of Homer, who had died a poor 
man.* Clearly the old gentleman thought that there 
was no money in the poetical business, and sub- 
stantially he was doubtless right. Gold is not the 
guerdon which the Muses dangle before the eyes of 
their votaries, luring them on "to scorn delights and 
live laborious days." For a time the youthful poet 

* Amores, ii. 16. 1-10. ^ Fasti, iv. 81 sqq, 

* Amoves, ill. 15. 5 sq. ; Tristia, iv. 10. 7 sq. 

" Tristia, iv. 10. 9-18. 

" Tristia, iv. 10. 19-22. 



endeavoured to comply with the paternal injunction. 
He turned his back on the Muses' hill and struggled 
to write prose instead of poetry, but do what he would 
all that he wrote fell naturally and inevitably into 

On attaining to manhood he exchanged the broad 
purple stripe, which as a noble youth he had worn 
on his tunic, for the narrow purple edge which was 
the badge of a Roman knight. At the same time he 
renounced all intention of aspiring to the rank of 
senator, which would have entitled him to flaunt for 
life the broad purple on his tunic. However, he set 
his foot on the first rung of the official ladder by 
accepting a place on the board of minor magistrates 
charged with the duty of inspecting prisons and 
superintending executions — duties which can have 
been but httle to the taste of the poet's gentle and 
sensitive nature.^ But in the company of poets he 
found a society more congenial than that of gaol- 
birds and hangmen. For Rome was then at the very 
zenith of its poetical activity and fame. Virgil and 
Horace, Propertius and Tibullus, were all alive and 
singing M'hen Ovid was a young man at Rome, and 
in the poetical heaven shone lesser stars whose light 
has long been quenched. Among them Ovid sat en- 
tranced, looking on every poet as a god. He was an 
intimate friend of Propertius and listened to the bard 
pouring out his fiery elegiacs. He heard Horace 
chanting his melodious lays to the music of the 
Ausonian lyre.** He lived to mourn the early death 
of Tibullus.^ Virgil our author appears to have seen 

« Tristia, iv. 10. 23-26. 

" Tristia, iv. 10. 27-36. 

• Tristia^ iv. 10. 41-54, ^ Amoresy ill. 9. 



only once without obtaining speech of him," in which 
he was less fortunate than the nobody, recorded by 
Browning, who once had the good fortune to see 
Shelley : 

And did you once see Shelley plain ? 
And did he stop and speak to you ? 

But even in the society of poets Ovid was not con- 
tent to pass all his life in the smoke and din of Rome. 
He travelled widely to see for himself the places of 
which he had read in story. As a student he visited 
Athens,^ and in the company of his friend Macer he 
roamed among the splendid cities of Asia and spent 
the greater part of a year in Sicily, where he beheld 
the famous fountain of Arethuse, the lakes of Enna, 
and the sky ablaze with the flames of Aetna ; and in 
a letter to his friend, written in exile, he recalls the 
happy time they had passed together driving in a 
light car or floating in a painted skiff on the blue 
water, when even the long hours of a summer day 
seemed too short for their talk." 

Ovid was thrice married. His first marriage, con- 
tracted in early youth, was brief and unhappy : his 
second was also brief; but his third wife proved a 
faithful helpmeet to him in his later years and stood 
by him in the last great trial of his life, his exile, 
though she was not allowed to share it.*^ In a letter 
addressed to her from his place of banishment he 
speaks of her as the model of a good wife.* By one 

" Tristia^ iv. 10. 51 "Vergilium vidi tantura." Among 
the intimate friends of Ovid was the grammarian C. Julius 
Hyginus, the head of the Palatine library. See Suetonius, 
De grammaticis^ 20. 

^ Tristia, i. 2. 77. ' Ex Ponto, ii. 10. 21-44. 

«» Tristia, iv. 10. 69-74. « Ex Ponto, iii. 1. 43 sq. 


of his wives Ovid had a daughter to whom he was 
tenderly attached, and who made him twice a grand- 
father, though by different husbands." When he was 
about to give her in marriage, the poet consulted no 
less a personage than the High Priestess of Jupiter 
(the Flaminica Dialis) as to a lucky day for the wed- 
ding, and was warned by her not to let his daughter 
wed in the first half of June or, to be more exact, not 
until the Ides (the thirteenth day of the month) 
should be past.^ 

Meantime his poems had made him famous : his 
acquaintance was sought by younger bards, as he 
himself had courted that of their elders <^ ; and in the 
noble epilogue to his greatest work, the Metamor- 
phoses, the poet anticipated, not unjustly, for his 
works a deathless renown.** 

It was when he was thus in the full enjoyment of 
domestic happiness and literary fame that the sen- 
tence of banishment, pronounced by Augustus, fell 
on Ovid like a bolt from the blue. His fiftieth year 
was past and his hair was already grisled ; we may 
suppose that it was the year 8 of our era.^ The place 
of his exile was to be Tomi on the bleak western shore 
of the Black Sea, where the land of the barbarous 
Getae bordered on the land of the barbarous Sarma- 
tians.^ The alleged reason for the sentence was the 
immoral tendency of his poem The Art of Love,^ but 
that can hardly have been the Emperor's real motive, 
since the offending poem had been published many 

" Tristia, iv. 10. 75 sq. " Fasti, vi. 219-234. 

" Tristia, iv. 10. 53 sqq. 

^ Metamorphoses, xv. 871-879. 

• Tristia, iv. 8. 33, iv. 10. 93-98. 

f Tristia, iv. 10. 97 sq., 109 sqq, 

" Tristia, a. 207, 211 sq. 



years before, apparently without creating a scandal 
at the time. The real motive, as the poet plainly 
implies, was a deep offence which he had given to 
Augustus and which the Emperor never forgave." 
To this the poet alludes again and again, but always 
in veiled language ; he never revealed the exact 
nature of the offence. He protests over and over 
again that the cause of his ruin was an error, not a 
crime. ^ The nearest he comes to lifting the veil is a 
passage in which he asks, in grief and remorse, why 
had he seen something ? why had he made his eyes 
culpable ? why had he been accidentally privy to a 
guilty secret ? and compares his case to that of 
Actaeon who was punished for unwittingly coming 
on Diana naked.^ On the strength of this passage 
some modern writers have suggested that Ovid may 
have accidentally witnessed an escapade of the Em- 
peror's profligate granddaughter Julia, who was 
banished by Augustus in the same year as the poet.^ 
But this is a mere conjecture. Ovid kept the fatal 
secret locked up in his breast, and we shall never 
know it. 

He has described in pathetic language the last 
night he passed in Rome — the passionate grief of his 
weeping wife, now clasping him in her arms, now 
prostrating herself in prayer before the household 
gods at the hearth where the fire was dead as her 
hopes ; the tears and sighs of the grief-stricken house- 
hold, the last farewell to friends ; till, as the night 

« Tristia, ii. 207-210. 

* Tristia, i. 3. 37 sq., iii. 1. 51 sq., ill. 6. 25 sq., iv. 10. 89 sq. 

* Tristia, ii. 103-106 ; compare Tristia, iii. 5. 49 sq., 

Inscia quod crimen viderunt lumina plector, 
peccatumque oculos est habuisse meum. 
«* Suetonius, Augustus, Q5. 1. 


grew late, the sounds of lamentation died away into 
silence in the house, while outside the moonlight 
slept white on the marble fanes of the Capitol close 
at hand. But with break of day the parting hour 
was come, and the Morning Star gave the signal for 

The long and difficult journey to Tomi would seem 
to have been compulsorily undertaken in winter, for 
the poet tells us that in chill December he was shiver- 
ing on the Adriatic, while he wrote versified epistles 
on shipboard to the friends he had left behind him.^ 
Here the ship encountered a storm that threatened 
to drive her back to the port from which she had sailed, 
and the exiled bard was tantalized by seeing, across 
the heaving waters, the distant coast of Italy on 
which he might never set foot again.*' He crossed the 
Isthmus of Corinth and took ship again at the port of 
Cenchreae, only to be again tempest-tossed on the 
Aegean as he had been on the Adriatic, and again to 
scribble verses in the height of the storm, to the 
astonishment, as the poet Imagined, of the very 
Cyclades themselves. After touching at the island of 
Samothrace he landed in Thrace and made his way on 
foot through the country of the Bistones to Tomi.** 
It was doubtless on this land journey through the 
snowy Thracian mountains that our author beheld 
the Sapaeans and other wild highlanders offering the 
entrails of dogs in sacrifice to a barbarous deity whom 
he identified with Diana.* 

At Tomi our author sought to while away the 
tedious hours of exile by inditing poetical epistles to 

" Tristia, i. 3. " Tristia, i. 11. 3 «g. 

« Tristia, i. 4. 1-20. <* Tristia, i. 10. 9-23, i. 11. 1-10. 

' Fasti, i. 389 sq. 



his family, his friends and patrons in Rome, entreat- 
ing them to use their influence with the Emperor to 
ensure his pardon or at least his removal to a less 
distant and less barbarous place of banishment. He 
even addressed himself to Augustus direct in the 
longest of these poems ,° beseeching him for mercy, 
but all in vain. And after the death of Augustus the 
unhappy poet turned to the popular prince Ger- 
manicus the stream of his mingled flattery and prayer 
in the hope of touching his clement heart and obtain- 
ing at least a mitigation of his sentence.* But all his 
entreaties fell on deaf ears. 

The neighbouring barbarians did not add to the 
amenities of life in the frontier town by the random 
flights of poisoned arrows which from time to time 
they sent whizzing over the walls in the hope of pick- 
ing off some fat pursy citizen as he went about his 
peaceful business in the streets. Ovid often alludes 
to these missiles '^ and even contemplated the possi- 
bility of his blood dyeing a Scythian arrow or a Getic 
sword,*^ but we have no reason to suppose that his 
life was thus brought to an untimely end, although, 
when the watchman on the battlements gave the 
signal of an approaching raid, and the hostile cavalry 
were circling at full gallop round the walls, the stout- 
hearted bard used to clap a helmet on his grey head 
and, grasping sword and shield in his tremulous hands, 
hurry to the gate to meet the foe.^ 

However, the valiant poet returned good for evil 
by learning the languages of both the barbarous 

* Tristia, ii. * Ex Ponto^ ii. 1, iv. 8. 21 sqq. 

« Tristia, iii. 10. 63 sq., iv. 1. 77, 84, v. 7. 15 sq. ; Ex 
Ponto, i. 2. 15 sq., iii. 1. 25 sq., iv. 7. 11 sq., 36, iv. 9. 83, 
iv. 10. 31. 

«* Ex Ponto, ii. 1. 65 sq. * Tristia, iv. 1. 73 sqq. 



tribes, the Getae and the Sarmatians,** who infested 
the bleak, treeless, birdless plains that stretched away 
to the horizon from the walls of Tomi — plains where 
spring brought no vernal flowers and autumn no cheer- 
ful reapers, and the only crop that broke the dreary 
prospect was here and there a patch of bitter worm- 
wood.^ But Ovid did more than learn the language 
of his enemies. He composed a poem in the Getic 
language in which he paid high, not to say fulsome, 
compliments to the memory of the deceased Augustus, 
to his surviving widow, to his sons, and to his suc- 
cessor on the throne, the Emperor Tiberius ; and this 
precious effusion he professes to have recited to a 
circle of Getic hearers, who received it with murmurs 
of applause, which they emphasized appropriately by 
rattling their quivers.'' The poet even expressed a 
fear that his study of the Getic language had cor- 
rupted his Latin style.** In the interest of science, if 
not of literature, it is much to be regretted that the 
poem has perished ; had it survived it would have 
been of priceless value as a unique example of a bar- 
barous language preserved for us by the care and 
diligence of a classical writer. 

Among the poet's murmurs at his fate are naturally 
many references to the rigorous climate of his place 
of banishment in the far north, on the very edge of 
the Roman world. He says that winter there was 
almost continuous,* that the sea froze, that the wine 
turned to blocks of ice, and that the barbarians drove 

« Ex Ponto, iii. 2. 40. 

" As to the scenery of the country round Tomi see Ex 
Ponto, i. 2. 23, iii. 1. 5-24. 

« Ex Ponto, iv. 13. 19-38. <* Ex Ponto, iv. 13. 17 sq. 
* Ex Ponto, i. 2. 24. 



their creaking ox-drawn wains over the frozen 
Danube.** Of the society of the place he does not 
paint a flattering portrait. He admits that there was 
a tincture of Greek blood and a smatch of Greek 
culture in them, but adds that in their composition 
there was more of the Getic barbarian, which came 
out in their harsh voices, grim faces, and shaggy 
unkempt hair and beard ; every man carried a bow 
and wore a knife at his side, with which he was ready 
to stab at the smallest provocation.^ However, a resi- 
dence of nine or ten years at this end of the world 
would seem to have in some measure reconciled the 
poet to his lot. In one of his last letters, written to a 
friend from Tomi, he tells him that he keeps all his 
old serenity of mind ; that he had won the goodwill 
of the people of Tomi, who for their own sakes would 
gladly keep him with them, though for his sake they 
would willingly let him depart ; and that they and 
the inhabitants of neighbouring towns had publicly 
testified to their friendship by passing decrees in his 
honour and granting him immunity from taxes.'' 
And in almost the last letter of all he addresses the 
people of Tomi, telling them that not even the folk 
of his dear native vale among the Apennines could 
have been kinder to him in his misfortune and sorrow 
than they had been, and he even adds that Tomi 
had grown as dear to him as Delos to Diana when she 
stayed the wandering island and found in it a place 
of rest and peace.** So the curtain falls gently, almost 
tenderly^ on the exiled poet. He died at the age of 
sixty in the year a.d. 17 or 18, and was buried at 

« Ex Ponto, iv. 7. 7-10, iv. 9. 85 sq. 

» Tristia, v. 7. 9-20. " Ex Ponto, iv. 9. 87-104. 

-* Ex Ponto, iv. 14. 47-62. 



Tomi,° among the people whom he had made his 

§ 2. The Fasti 

The Fasti may rank next to the Metamorphoses as 
the most elaborate and important of Ovid's works. 
It is a poetical treatise on the Roman calendar, which 
it discusses in strictly chronological order, beginning 
with the first day of January and ending with the last 
day of June, where it stops abruptly. But repeated 
references in the poem to later dates in the year, 
of which he purposed to speak, ^ suffice to prove that 
the poet intended to continue his work on the same 
plan to the end of December, no doubt devoting to 
each of the last six months a separate book, as he has 
done with the first six months of the year in the poem 
as we possess it. Indeed, in one of his poems written 
in exile and addressed to Augustus, he expressly says 
that he had written the Fasti in twelve books, each 
book dealing with a separate month, and that he had 
dedicated the whole work to the Emperor, though 
his fate, by which he means his exile, had interrupted 
it.*' We have no reason to reject such a definite state- 
Inent addressed by the author to the man whom of 

" Jerome, in Eusebius, Chronic, ed. A. Schoene, vol. ii. 
(Berlin, 1866), p. 147, under the year of Abraham 2033, 
•' Ovidius poeta in exilio diem obiit et iuxta oppidum Tomos 

" Fasti, iii. 57 sq., 199 sq., v. 147 sq. 

• Tristia, ii. 549 sqq. : 

Sex ego Fastorum scripsi totidemque libellos, 
cumque suo finem mense volumen habet, 

idque tuo nuper scriptum sub nomine, Caesar, 
et tibi sacratum sors mea rupit opus. 



all others he least dared to deceive. But the last 
six books of the poem have disappeared without 
leaving a trace ; for no ancient writer cites or refers 
to them, and the four doggerel verses which a few 
manuscripts insert at the end of the sixth book, pur- 
porting to explain the old name of July (Quintilis), 
are clearly the interpolation of a clumsy scribe. It is 
true that in the seventeenth century the great scholar 
Nicolaus Heinsius mentioned, on the authority of 
Gronovius, a rumour that the last six books of the 
Fasti were preserved by a presbyter in a village near 
Ulm, but the rumour was probably no better founded 
than the reports of the discovery of the lost books of 
Livy, which occasionally startle the more credulous 
portion of the learned world. We can only apparently 
conclude, either that the last six books of the Fasti 
were lost, possibly in the post, which can hardly 
have been very regular or secure at Tomi, or that the 
poet left them in so rough and unfinished a state that 
his literary executors, in justice to the author's repu- 
tation, deemed it prudent to suppress them. Of the 
two alternative suppositions the latter is perhaps the 
more probable, since Ovid's own words seem to imply 
that his exile interrupted his work on the poem and 
prevented him from putting the final touches to it. 
The same conclusion is reinforced by another con- 
sideration. In the poem addressed to Augustus, as 
we have just seen, our author expressly affirms that 
he had dedicated the Fasti to Augustus, but in that 
work, as we have it, the dedication is not to Augustus 
but to Germanicus. The only reasonable explanation 
of this anomaly, as modern editors have seen, appears 
to be that after the death of Augustus the author 
cancelled the original dedication and substituted a 



dedication to Germanicus in the hope that the clement 
and popular prince, himself a poet, would be moved 
by the compliment to intercede with the reigning 
Emperor Tiberius in order to procure the poet's par- 
don, or at least a mitigation of his sentence. What- 
ever the motive, the change of dedication suffices to 
prove that during the later years of his exile Ovid 
was engaged in the revision of the Fasti ; but, so far 
as the substitution of Germanicus for Augustus in 
the place of honour is concerned, the revision appears 
not to have extended beyond the first book, for in 
the remaining five books it is the dead emperor and 
not the living prince at whom the poet aims the shafts 
of his flattery and praise. But other traces of revision 
may be seen in the veiled allusions to his exile which 
Ovid has let fall in some of the later books of the 

While the poet was thus filing and polishing the 
Fasti down to near the end of his life, we have no 
direct evidence as to the time when the work was 
begun. However, the author's own declaration to 
Augustus, quoted above, seems clearly to imply that 
the poem was nearly completed at the date of the 
writer's exile in a.d. 8 when he was about fifty years 
of age. We may conclude, then, that the Fasti was a 
work of Ovid's maturity, when the poet was at the 
height of his intellectual powers and a passed master 
of his art. The subject was happily chosen, for it 
offered him full scope for the display not merely of 
his fancy and eloquence but of his learning, which 
was very considerable. The matter of the poem falls, y 
roughly speaking, into three sections, the historical, 
the astronomical, and the religious, which form, if 

« Fasti, iv. 81 sqq., vi. QQQ, 



we may say so, the three threads out of which the 
artist has woven the web of the Fasti. 

The historical section comprises a considerable por- 
tion of the legends and annals of Rome, so far as these 
were attached to definite dates in the calendar. Thus, 
for example, the author seizes the traditional date of 
the foundation of Rome on the twenty-first of April 
as a peg on which to hang the legend of that momen- 
tous event in the history of the world ^ ; the Ides of 
February recalls the march out and final destruction 
of the three hundred heroic Fabii, which the poet 
recounts at full length ^ ; the notice of the foundation 
of the temple of Fortune on the eleventh of June 
furnishes the author with an opportunity of telling 
the story of the foul murder of the popular king 
Servius Tullius and the infamous conduct of his un- 
natural daughter '^ ; the Flight of the King, which 
the calendar placed on the twenty-fourth of February, 
allows the poet to relate in graphic detail the crime 
which led to the downfall of Tarquin the Proud and 
the expulsion of the kings from Rome.*^ And so on 
with page after page of legend and story ; in a 
sense the Roman calendar was an epitome of Roman 
history, and Ovid's poem is an illuminated edition of 
that epitome, in which the bare mention of an event is 
often expanded into a beautiful picture aglow with 
all the rich colours of poetic fancy. I 

The astronomical section of the poem, which the 
author puts prominently forward in his exordium, is 
much less valuable than the historical. The notices of 
the rising and setting of the constellations, which were 
the hinges whereon the ancient calendars revolved, 

" Fasti, iv. 807 sqq, * Fasti, ii. 193 sqq. 

" Fasti, vi. 569 sqq, * Fasti, ii. 685 sqq, 



are often very inaccurate in the Fasti, and while 
Ovid pays a warm tribute to the genius and lofty 
character of the ancient astronomers," he seems not 
to have learned even the elements of their science. 
Indeed, he has fallen into the strange mistake of men- 
tioning an entirely fictitious constellation, that of the 
Kite,^ which seems to have owed its imaginary exist- 
ence to the blunder of some ignorant Roman calendar- 
maker, who, finding in a Greek calendar the notice 
of the arrival of the kite in spring, converted the first 
appearance of that migratory bird into the rising of 
a constellation of the same name. However, the 
mention of the constellations furnishes our author 
with a reason, or an excuse, for relating some of their 
myths in his usual agreeable style. ° 

The religious section of the poem embraces the 
notices and explanations of those fixed festivals and 
sacred rites which were recorded in the calendar. 
This is for us moderns by far the most interesting and 
valuable part of the work, for our knowledge of Roman 
religion is comparatively meagre and fragmentary, 
and in the absence of more detailed and authoritative 
expositions, such as were doubtless to be found in 
some of the lost books of Varro, the Fasti of Ovid must 
always rank as a document of the first importance. 
To note only a few of the festivals on which the poet has 
thrown light that we could ill afford to spare, we may 
mention the quaint ritual of the Festival of the Dead 
(the Lemuria) in May <* ; the no less curious rites in 
honour of the God of Boundaries * and of the Goddess 

<» Fasti, i. 297 sqq. ^ Fasti, ill. 793 sqq, 

" See for example Fasti, ii. 79 sqq. (the Dolphin) ; ii. 
sqq. (the Bear) ; v. 493 sqq, (Orion). 

«* Fasti, V. 421 sqq. • Fasti, ii. 639 sqq. 



Mildew » ; the Shepherds' Festival of the Parilia, 
with its leaps over three fires and the driving of the 
flocks through the smoke and flames ^ ; the enigmatic 
rites of the Lupercalia with its strange mode of 
conferring the blessing of offspring on women '^ ; 
the merry revels in the flower-decked boats floating 
down the Tiber on Midsummer Eve ^ ; and the very 
different rite in the month of May when Father Tiber 
received those rush-made effigies of men which were 
cast from the old wooden bridge into his yellow 
stream, apparently as a toll to compensate the river- 
god for the loss of the human beings who now passed 
dryshod over the bridge instead of being drowned at 
the ford.^ These and many other sacred rites are 
described by Ovid in the Fasti, and if we cannot 
always accept his explanations of them, we ought 
always to be grateful to him for having recorded the 

A work embracing such a mass of varied informa- 
tion must have entailed a considerable amount of 
research, but Ovid mentions none of his authorities 
by name, contenting himself with saying briefly that 
he had drawn his materials "from annals old." ^ He 
had probably read some of the early Roman historians, 
such as the poet Ennius and the old annalist Quintus 
Fabius Pictor, and it is possible that he may have 
inspected the official Annates Maximi compiled by the 
pontiffs, which formed the real basis of authentic 
Roman history. He must certainly have known and 
used, though he does not mention, the great work of 
his contemporary the historian Livy, as his narratives 

" Fasti, iv. 905 sqq, * Fasti, iv. 721 sqq. 
« Fasti, ii. 267 sqq. ^ Fasti, vi. 773-790. 

« Fasti, V. 621 sqq, f Fasti, i. 7, iv. 11. 


of the tragedy of Lucretia and of the defeat and death 
of the Fabii suffice to prove. He naturally also con- 
sulted the official Roman calendar, of which a number 
of versions, for the most part fragmentary, have come 
do\vn to us and afford invaluable help to a commen- 
tator on the Fasti by enabling him to check and con- 
trol the statements of his author as to the dates of 
festivals and the foundation of temples.* For the 
most part the records of these calendars confirm the 
poet's evidence and strengthen our confidence in the 
general accuracy of his testimony on matters for which 
other witnesses are lacking. He seems to have had 
some knowledge also of the local calendars of various 
Latin and Sabine towns, to which he repeatedly refers.* 
On questions of Roman antiquities and religion we 
cannot doubt that he conned and drew freely on the 
vast stores of the great antiquary Varro, whose exist- 
ing works, scanty and fragmentary as they are, often 
serve to illustrate the topics treated of by Ovid in 
his poem. He may also have known the writings 
of the learned grammarian Verrius Flaccus, whose 
treatise on the signification of words, though it sur- 
vives only in the abridgements of Festus and Paulus 

" The remains of these ancient Roman calendars, whether 
preserved in inscriptions or in manuscript, have been collected 
and published, with valuable commentaries by Theodor 
Mommsen and Christian Huelsen, in the second edition of 
the first part of the first volume of the great Corpus Inscrip- 
tionum Latinarum. For the sake of brevity the volume is 
commonly referred to as C.I.L. i*. It is indispensable to the 
serious student of the Fasti, The English student should 
not fail to consult the late Mr. W. Warde Fowler's learned 
and suggestive work Roman Festivals of the Period of the 
Republic, which is itself almost a commentary on Ovid's 

* Fasti, iii. 87 sqq., vi. 57 sgq, 



Diaconus, is of itself almost a commentary on the 

It has been suggested that Ovid may have 
borrowed the idea of writing the Fasti from the 
Ahia or " Causes " of Callimachus, an elegiac poem 
in four books, in which the learned Alexandrian 
poet set forth many myths and legends explanatory 
of Greek customs and rites. The Aitia as a whole is 
lost, but in recent years some considerable fragments 
of it have been recovered from Egyptian papyri.^ 
The last book of the elegies of Propertius, in which 
that poet relates a number of Roman legends, may 
have served as the immediate model of the Fasti. 

§ 3. Editions of the Fasti 

Of the older editions of the Fasti the most valuable 
is still that of the Dutch scholar, Pieter Burman, pub- 
lished at Amsterdam in 1727 and forming part of the 
third volume of his complete edition of Ovid's works ; 
it contains entire the learned commentaries of the 
early editors, above all the commentary of the great 
scholar, Nicolaus Heinsius, who, by collating many 
manuscripts and correcting many of their errors with 
the help of his wide learning and critical acumen, 
placed the text of the Fasti on a sound basis. Many 
of his conjectural emendations have been accepted 

" This valuable work is now accessible to students in a 
handy edition accurately edited by Professor W. M. Lindsay 
(Leipzig, 1913, in the Teubner series of classical texts). 

'' See A. W. M air's edition of Calhmachus (London, 1921), 
pp. 183 sqq. (in the Loeb Classical Library). As to the 
Aitia see further A. Couat, Alexandrian Poetry under the 
first three Ptolemies^ translated by James Loeb (London, 
1931), pp. 127 sqq,, 549 sqq, 



by later editors and are reproduced in the text of the 
present edition. 

Of editions published in the nineteenth century the 
most important for the constitution of the text is that 
of R. Merkel (Berlin, 1841), which contains a copious 
critical apparatus drawn partly from the collections 
of Heinsius, partly from the editor's own examination 
of manuscripts or from collations made for him by 
others. In learned Latin prolegomena prefixed to 
his edition Merkel discusses many questions concern- 
ing the sources, the successive recensions, and the 
manuscripts of the Fasti. He subsequently edited 
two editions for the Teubner series in which he made 
many changes in the text. The critical edition of 
A. Riese (Leipzig, 1874) contains a full collation of 
the important Vatican manuscript Codex Reginensis 
which was made for the editor by H. Keil. 

Of explanatory editions of the Fasti published in 
the nineteenth century the most useful are those 
of G. E. Gierig with a Latin commentary (Leipzig, 
1812) ; Thomas Keightly, with English notes (First 
Edition, London, 1839 ; Second Edition, London, 
1848) ; F. A. Paley, with an English commentary 
(London, no date) ; and Hermann Peter, with a con- 
cise but adequate and judicious German commentary 
(Second Edition, Leipzig, 1879 ; Third Edition, 
Leipzig, 1889 ; Fourth Edition, Leipzig, 1907). 
Peter's edition has a critical as well as an exegetical 
value, for he collated several manuscripts, including 
the important Munich manuscript Codex Mallers- 
dorfiensis ; the principal results of his collations are 
contained in his dissertation De P. Ovidi Nasonis fastis 
disputatio critica (Meissen, 1877). An edition of the 
Fasti adapted for use in schools was published by 



Mr. G. H. Hallam at London in 1881 and has often 
been reprinted. A separate edition of the Third Book 
with an Introduction and Commentary has been pub- 
hshed by Mr. Cyril Bailey (Oxford, at the Clarendon 
Press, 1921). A critical recension of the text by 
R. Ehwald and F. W. Levy appeared at Leipzig in the 
Teubner series in 1924. The latest critical edition of 
the Fasti is that published in the Corpus Scriptorum 
Latinorum Paravianum (Turin, Milan, etc., 1928) 
under the editorship of the Italian scholar, C. Landi, 
who for the purpose of this edition has collated afresh 
the two chief Vatican codices (A and U) and many 
inferior Italian manuscripts, and has prefixed a use- 
ful bibliography of modern works bearing both on the 
text and on the interpretation of the Fasti. 

The text and translation of the present edition are 
reproduced from the large edition in five volumes 
which I published with a commentary and illustrations 
in 1929 (Macmillan & Co., London). The notes have 
been specially written for this Loeb edition by my 
friend. Dr. W. H. D. Rouse, who has also selected and 
abridged from my commentary the passages which 
are printed as an Appendix to the present volume. I 
thank him for kindly sparing me the labour of reduc- 
ing my large edition to a scale more commensurate 
with the needs of readers of the Loeb Classical 
Library, for whose use the book was originally in- 
tended. At the same time I take this opportunity 
of renewing my grateful thanks to my friend. Dr. 
James Loeb, for the ready and generous permission 
he gave me to transfer the publication of the complete 
edition to Messrs. Macmillan & Co. so soon as it 
appeared that in the process of composition the work 
had outgrown the limits imposed by the plan of the 



Loeb Classical Library. I desire also to thank 
Messrs. Macmillan & Co. for their courtesy in giving 
leave to reproduce the selections from my commen- 
tary which are printed at the end of this volume. 

§ 4. Manuscripts of the Fasti 

Manuscripts of the Fasti are very numerous ; the 
British Museum alone possesses fifteen of them, of 
which the oldest is believed to date from the twelfth 
or early thirteenth century. 

The text of this as of my large edition is based 
mainly on the evidence of six manuscripts, of which 
I append a list, with the symbols by which I designate 
them. Of all six manuscripts I procured complete 
photographs (rotographs), which are now preserved 
in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge. My 
collations of the manuscripts, made chiefly from the 
photographs, are printed in full in my large edition, 
to which I must refer readers desirous of detailed in- 
formation on the subject. In the present edition the 
evidence of the manuscripts is cited only in a few 
passages of special difficulty. The six manuscripts 
are as follows : 

^=the Vatican manuscript. No. 1709, known as 
Codex Reginensis sive Petavianus. This is a manuscript 
of the tenth century written in the Carolingian script : 
it contains the first four books of the Fasti, but the 
last two books are wanting, with the exception of the 
first twenty-four lines of the Fifth Book. It is gener- 
ally esteemed the oldest of the existing manuscripts 
of the Fasti, and is usually taken as the basis of the 
text, so far as it exists. But it is the work of a very 



careless and ignorant scribe and swarms with gross 
and palpable blunders, many of which have been cor- 
rected by a later hand. A full and generally accurate 
collation of the manuscript is published, as we have 
seen, in A. Riese's edition of the Fasti. 

C7=the Vatican manuscript. No. S9.69>, known as 
Codex Ursinianus. This manuscript was written in the 
eleventh century at the monastery of Monte Cassino ; 
the script is that called Lombard. It contains the six 
books of the Fasti, with the curious exception of the 
last twelve lines of the Second Book, which are 
omitted without any sign of a lacuna. The manuscript 
as a whole is much more correctly written than A, but 
it has been to a considerable extent corrected and 
even rewritten by two later hands. A careful and 
generally accurate, but by no means complete, 
collation of the manuscript has been published by 
Mr. Gordon J. Laing, who distinguishes the readings 
of the three different hands." 

D = the Munich manuscript. No. 8122, of the Royal 
Library at Munich, known as Codex Mailer sdorfiensis 
sive Monacensis. This is a manuscript of the twelfth 
or, according to Halm, of the thirteenth century ; it 
contains the six books, except that the first seventy 
lines of the First Book are wanting. The manuscript 
abounds in abbreviations which often create a diffi- 
culty, for the scribe uses the same abbreviation in 
different senses, with a resulting ambiguity which 
can only be resolved by a comparison with other 
manuscripts. A full collation of this manuscript is 

<» Gordon J. Laing, " The three principal manuscripts of 
the Fasti of Ovid, Reginensis 1709 (or Petavianus), Vaticanus 
S262 (or Ursinianus), and Monacensis 8122 (or Mallerstor- 
fiensis N. 2)," American Journal of Archaeology^ Second 
Series, vol. iu. (1899, Norwood, Mass.), pp. 212-228. 


given by R. Merkel in his edition of 1841, and the 
codex has since been again collated by H. Peter and 
R, Ehwald. 

X = the Brussels manuscript, Codex Bruxellensis sive 
Gemblacensis, No. 5369 in the Royal Library at Brussels. 
It was brought to Brussels from the abbey of Gem- 
bloux at the time of the French Revolution in 1794. 
The manuscript has been assigned to the eleventh or 
possibly to the end of the tenth century. The writ- 
ing is a round minuscule, large, bold and clear, wdth 
comparatively few abbreviations. The first 504 verses 
of the First Book are wanting in the manuscript, but 
otherwise, with the exception of a few verses (v. 365- 
366 and the doubtful hnes vi. 271-276, 739-740), the 
poem is complete. The manuscript is undoubtedly 
one of the oldest and best codices of the Fasti, but its 
value and importance were ignored till Mr. E. H. 
Alton called attention to it in 1926." My own 
attention was first drawn to this important manu- 
script by Professor M. A. Kugener of the University 
of Brussels, who has made a special study of it. 
I collated many of the readings at Brussels in 
January 1928 and have given a fairly full collation 
of the manuscript from the photograph in my 
large edition of the Fasti. The manuscript has a 
number of notes written in the margin which contain 
excerpts from ancient authors, such as Gellius, 
Valerius Maximus, Servius, Hyginus, and Macrobius. 
These have been edited and their authorities identi- 
fied by Mr. E. H. Alton.* 

" E. H. Alton, " The Zulichemianus, Mazarinianus, and 
other Mss. of the Fasti of Ovid," Hermathena^ No. xliv. 
(Dublin and London, 1926), pp. 301 sqq. 

^ E. H. Alton. " The mediaeval commentaries on Ovid's 
Fasti,'' Hermathena, No. xliv. (1926), pp. 128-151. 



M=the Paris manuscript, Codex G alliens Mazari" 
nianus, No. 7992 in the National Library at Paris. It 
is a manuscript of the fifteenth or sixteenth century 
and contains the whole of the six books of the Fasti 
beautifully written in a large, clear Italian hand, with 
few abbreviations, very few erasures, and no correc- 
tions by a later hand. The variants written in the 
margin or between the lines appear to be all in the 
handwriting of the original scribe. The reputation 
of this manuscript seems not to stand high, perhaps 
on account of its late date, but I have found it excel- 
lent, generally in agreement with the best tradition 
and possessing the rare merit of being almost every- 
where perfectly legible. In his critical edition of 
1841 Merkel cites this manuscript under the symbol 
g, but he seems to have known little or nothing about 
it ; there are no such lacunae in it as he speaks of. 

m = the Oxford manuscript. Codex Oxordensis sive 
Mazarinianus, Auct. F. 4. 25, in the Bodleian Library. 
It belongs to the early fifteenth century and contains 
the whole of the six books of the Fasti ; there are 
many variants written in the margin or between the 
lines ; some of them are by the hand of Nicolaus 
Heinsius. There seems to be a special relation be- 
tween this Oxford manuscript and the Brussels manu- 
script (X) ; for not only do the readings of the two 
manuscripts often agree, but in both of them the 
same long passage (vi. 33-294) has suffered a curious 
displacement of several hundred lines, without the 
least sign that the copyist was aware of the disorder. 
Mr. E. H. Alton inclhies to believe that this Oxford 
manuscript is " a copy of a comparatively early (pos- 
sibly ninth or tenth century) minuscule original."" 

« E. H. Alton, " The Zulichemianus, Mazarinianus, and 


Besides these six manuscripts I have sometimes 
in my large edition referred to the readings of a few 
others, for a knowledge of which I am dependent 
chiefly on the collections of Merkel in his large critical 
edition of 1841, whose notation of them I follow. 
They are as follows : 

F = ihe Cambridge manuscript, No. 280, in the 
library of Pembroke College, Cambridge, to which 
it came from Dover Priory. According to Dr. M. R. 
James, the manuscript dates from the twelfth cen- 
tury and the writing closely resembles that of Christ 
Church, Canterbury." It is a small volume in vellum, 
with many interlineal and marginal notes. I inspected 
it in the library of Pembroke College, and through 
the kindness of Mr. Attwater, the librarian, procured 
a complete photograph of the manuscript. Circum- 
stances have, to my regret, prevented me from making 
any use of the photograph, but it is now kept, with the 
other photographs of Ovid manuscripts used by me, 
in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

G = a manuscript at Gottingen, thought by Schnei- 
dewin to be not later than the twelfth century. 
Heinsius judged it to be older, but of little value. 
Merkel used a collation of it made for him by W. 
Miiller and E. von Leutsch, and found a few good 
readings in it. 

jB = a manuscript at Leyden, Codex Vossianus sive 
Arundelianus, of the thirteenth century. It contains 
all six books. Heinsius assigned it to the tenth 
century. It has been collated by H. Peter and 
R. Ehwald. 

other Mss. of the Fasti of Ovid," Hermathena^ No. xliv. 
(1926), p. 105. 

" M. R. James, Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Library 
of Pembroke College^ Cambridge (Cambridge, 1905), p. 255. 


C=the collation of a lost manuscript {Codex Vossia- 
nus) inserted by Isaac Voss in an edition of the Fasti 
published at Amsterdam in 1630. The volume is in 
the library at Leyden. H. Peter examined it and 
made a copy of Voss's collation." 

My references to other manuscripts, designated by 
the general symbol r, are derived from Merkel's 
edition of 1841 and from the Ehwald-Levy edition 
of 1924. 

April 1931 

° H. Peter, De P, Ovidi Nasonis fastis disputatio critica 
(Meissen, 1877), p. 5. 




Temper a cum causis Latium digest a per annum 

lapsaque sub terras ortaque signa canam. 
excipe pacato, Caesar Germanice, voltu 

hoc opus et timidae dirige navis iter ; 
5 officioque, levem non aversatus honorem, 

en tibi devoto numine dexter ades. 
sacra recognosces annalibus eruta priscis, 

et quo sit merito quaeque notata dies, 
invenies illic et festa domestica vobis : 
10 saepe tibi pater est, saepe legendus avus ; 
quaeque ferunt illi pictos signantia fastos, 

tu quoque cum Druso praemia fratre feres. 
Caesaris arma canant alii : nos Caesaris aras, 

et quoscumque sacris addidit ille dies. 
15 adnue conanti per laudes ire tuorum, 

deque meo pavidos excute corde metus. 
da mihi te placidum, dederis in carmina viris : 

ingenium voltu statque caditque tuo. 
pagina iudicium docti subitura movetur 
20 principis, ut Clario missa legenda deo. 
quae sit enim culti facundia sensimus oris, 

civica pro trepidis cum tulit arma reis ; 

** Son of Drusus the brother of Tiberius, who adopted his 
nephew a.d. 4. Thus his pater (1. 10) is Tiberius, his avus 
Augustus. Drusus, called his brother (1. 12), was his first cousin, 
the son of Tiberius. By Caesar (1. 13) is meant Augustus. 


The order of the calendar throughout the Latin year, 
its causes, and the starry signs that set beneath 
the earth and rise again, of these I'll sing. Caesar 
Germanicus," accept with brow serene this work and 
steer the passage of my timid bark. Spurn not the 
honour slight, but come propitious as a god to take 
the homage vowed to thee. Here shalt thou read 
afresh of holy rites unearthed from annals old, and 
learn how every day has earned its own peculiar 
mark. There too shalt thou find the festivals 
pertaining to thy house ; often the names of thy 
sire and grandsire will meet thee on the page. The 
laurels that are theirs and that adorn the painted 
calendar, thou too shalt win in company with thy 
brother Drusus. Let others sing of Caesar's wars; 
my theme be Caesar's altars and the days he added 
to the sacred roll. Approve my effort to rehearse the 
praises of thy kin, and cast out quaking terrors from 
my heart. Show thyself mild to me ; so shalt thou 
lend vigour to my song ; at thy look my Muse must 
stand or fall. Submitted to the judgement of a 
learned prince my page doth shiver, even as if sent 
to the Clarian god ^ to read. On thy accomplished 
lips what eloquence attends, we have seen, when it 
took civic arms in defence of trembling prisoners at 
* Apollo of Claros in Ionia, where he had an oracle. 



scimus et, ad nostras cum se tulit impetus artes, 
ingenii currant flumina quanta tui. 
26 si licet et fas est, vates rege vatis habenas, 
auspice te felix totus ut annus eat. 
tempora digereret cum conditor urbis, in anno 

constituit menses quinque bis esse suo. 
scilicet arma magis quam sidera, Romule, noras, 
80 curaque finitimos vincere maior erat. 

est tamen et ratio, Caesar, quae moverit ilium, 

erroremque suum quo tueatur, habet. 
quod satis est, utero matris dum prodeat infans, 
hoc anno statuit temporis esse satis. 
36 per totidem menses a funere coniugis uxor 
sustinet in vidua tristia signa domo. 
haec igitur vidit trabeati cura Quirini, 

cum rudibus populis annua iura daret. 
Martis erat primus mensis, Venerisque secundus : 
40 haec generis princeps, ipsius ille pater, 
tertius a senibus, iuvenum de nomine quartus, 

quae sequitur, numero turba notata fuit. 
at Numa nee lanum nee avitas praeterit umbras, 
mensibus antiquis praeposuitque duos. 
45 ne tamen ignores variorum iura dierum, 
non habet officii Lucifer omnis idem, 
ille nefastus erit, per quem tria verba silentur : 
fastus erit, per quem lege licebit agi. 

« His translation of the Phaenomena of Aratus survives 
in part {Poet. Lat. Minores, i. p. 142). 

'' Mains from maiores, lunius from iuvenes. The rest 
are Quintilis, Sextilis (August), September, etc. See Ap- 
pendix, p. 385. 

" Do, dice, addico the praetor's formula, " Do bonorum 
possessionem, dico ius, addico id de quo ambigitur." In 
the calendars, lawful days were marked by F (fastus), 

FASTI, I. 23-48 

the bar. And when to poetry thy fancy turns,'* we 
know how broad the current of thy genius flows. If 
it is right and lawful, guide a poet's reins, thyself a 
poet, that under thy auspices the year may run its 
entire course happy. 

27 When the founder of the city was setting the 
calendar in order, he ordained that there should be 
twice five months in his year. To be sure, Romulus, 
thou wert better versed in swords than stars, and to 
conquer thy neighbours was thy main concern. Yet, 
Caesar, there is a reason that may have moved him, 
and for his error he might urge a plea. The time 
that suffices for a child to come forth from its mother's 
womb, he deemed sufficient for a year. For just so 
many months after her husband's funeral a wife 
supports the signs of sorrow in her widowed home. 
These things, then, Quirinus in his striped gown had 
in view, when to the simple folk he gave his laws to 
regulate the year. The month of Mars was the first, 
and that of Venus the second ; she was the author 
of the race, and he his sire. The third month took 
its name from the old, and the fourth from the young ^ ; 
the months that trooped after were distinguished by 
numbers. But Numa overlooked not Janus and the 
ancestral shades, and so to the ancient months he 
prefixed two. 

*^ But that you may not be unversed in the rules 
of the different days, not every morning brings the 
same round of duty. That day is unlawful on which 
the three words may not be spoken ^ ; that day is 
lawful on which the courts of law are open. But 

unlawful by N {nefastus)^ the half -days NP {nefastus parte)^ 
or EN (endotercisit intereisi) where the business-part came 
in the middle. 


nee toto perstare die sua iura putaris : 
50 qui iam fastus erit, mane nefastus erat ; 
nam simul exta deo data sunt, licet omnia fari, 

verbaque honoratus libera praetor habet. 
est quoque, quo populum ius est includere saeptis : 
est quoque, qui nono semper ab orbe redit. 
55 vindicat Ausonias lunonis cura Kalendas, 
Idibus alba lovi grandior agna cadit ; 
Nonarum tutela deo caret, omnibus istis 

(ne fallare cave !) proximus ater erit. 
omen ab eventu est, illis nam Roma diebus 
60 damna sub a verso tristia Marte tulit. 
haec mihi dicta semel, totis haerentia fastis, 
ne seriem rerum scindere cogar, erunt. 

1. A • K • IAN • F 

Ecce tibi faustum, Germanice, nuntiat annum 

inque meo primus carmine lanus adest. 
65 lane biceps, anni tacite labentis origo, 

solus de superis qui tua terga vides, 
dexter ades ducibus, quorum secura labore 

otia terra ferax, otia pontus habet : 
dexter ades patribusque tuis populoque Quirini, 
70 et resera nutu Candida templa tuo. 

prospera lux oritur : linguis animisque favete ! 

nunc dicenda bona sunt bona verba die. 

• Called comitiales, marked C in the calendar. 

'' The nundinae^ or market-days. The week was of eight 
days, and the eighth was the nundinae^ counting from the 
last nundinae inclusively. The whole week was called inter- 
nundinum. Similarly, the Nones were eight (not nine) days 
before the Ides. The eight days of the Roman week were 
marked in the calendar with the letters A to H ; but Jan. 1 
was always marked A, and the other days followed in order, 
whenever nundinae might fall. 

FASTI, T. 49-72 

you must not suppose that every day keeps its 
rules throughout its whole length : a lawful day 
may have been unlawful in the morning ; for as 
soon as the inwards have been offered to the god, 
all words may lawfully be spoken, and the honoured 
praetor enjoys free speech. There are days, too, 
on which the people may lawfully be penned in 
the polling-booths ° ; there are also days that come 
round ever in a cycle of nine.* The worship of 
Juno claims Ausonia's Calends : on the Ides a bigger 
white ewe-lamb falls to Jupiter : the Nones lack a 
guardian god. The day next after all these days — 
make no mistake — is black .^ The omen is drawn 
from the event ; for on those days Rome suffered 
grievous losses under the frovm of Mars. These 
remarks apply to the whole calendar ; I have made 
them once for all, that I may not be forced to break 
the thread of my discourse. 

KAL. IAN. 1st 

^ See Janus comes, Germanicus, the herald of a 
lucky year to thee,^ and in my song takes precedence. 
Two-headed Janus, opener of the softly gliding year, 
thou who alone of the celestials dost behold thy back, 

come propitious to the chiefs whose toil ensures 
peace to the fruitful earth, peace to the sea. And 
come propitious to thy senators and to the people 
of Quirinus, and by thy nod unbar the temples white. 
A happy morning dawns. Fair speech, fair thoughts 

1 crave ! Now must good words be spoken on a 
* Ill-omened ; a day on which no action should be taken ; 

much stronger than nefastus. 

^ Probably a.d. 15, 16, or 17, when he was campaigning 
in Germany. 



lite vacent aures, insanaque protinus absint 

iurgia ; differ opus, livida lingua, tuum ! 
76 cernis, odoratis ut luceat ignibus aether, 

et sonet accensis spica Cilissa focis ? 
flamma nitore suo templorum verberat aurum 

et tremulum summa spargit in aede iubar. 
vestibus intactis Tarpeias itur in arces, 
80 et populus festo concolor ipse suo est, 

iamque novi praeeunt fasces, nova purpura fulget, 

et nova conspicuum pondera sentit ebur. 
coUa rudes operum praebent ferienda iuvenci, 

quos aluit campis herba Falisca suis. 
86 luppiter arce sua totum cum spectat in orbem, 

nil nisi Romanum, quod tueatur, habet. 
salve, laeta dies, meliorque revertere semper, 

a populo rerum digna potente coli. 
quern tamen esse deum te dicam, lane biformis ? 
90 nam tibi par nullum Graecia numen habet. 
ede simul causam, cur de caelestibus unus, 

sitque quod a tergo, sitque quod ante, vides ? 
haec ego cum sumptis agitarem mente tabellis, 

lucidior visa est, quam fuit ante, domus. 
96 tunc sacer ancipiti mirandus imagine lanus 

bina repens oculis obtulit ora meis. 
extimui sensique metu riguisse capillos, 

et gehdum subito frigore pectus erat. 
ille tenens baculum dextra clavemque sinistra 
100 edidit hos nobis ore priore sonos : 

" disce metu posito, vates operose dierum, 

quod petis, et voces percipe mente meas. 
me Chaos antiqui (nam sum res prisca) vocabant : 

" The new consuls go in procession to the Capitol. 

" See Appendix, p. 387. 

• Some derived Janus from hiare^ as x^°^ from x'io'f ft"- 

FASTI, I. 73-103 

good day. Let ears be rid of suits, and banish 
mad disputes forthwith ! Thou rancorous tongue, 
adjourn thy wagging ! Dost mark how the sky 
sparkles with fragrant fires, and how CiHcian 
saffron crackles on the kindled hearths ? The flame 
with its own splendour beats upon the temples' gold 
and spreads a flickering radiance on the hallowed 
roof. In spotless garments the procession wends to 
the Tarpeian towers " : the people wear the colour of 
the festal day ; and now new rods of office lead the 
way, new purple gleams, and a new weight is felt by 
the far-seen ivory chair. Heifers, unbroken to tke 
yoke, offer their necks to the axe, heifers that cropped 
the sward on the true Faliscan plains. When from 
his citadel Jupiter looks abroad on the whole globe, 
naught but the Roman empire meets his eye. Hail, 
happy day ! and evermore return still happier, day 
worthy to be kept holy by a people the masters of 
the world. 

®^ But what god am I to say thou art, Janus ^ of 
double shape ? for Greece hath no divinity like thee. 
The reason, too, unfold why alone of all the heavenly 
ones thou dost see both back and front. While 
thus I mused, the tablets in my hand, methought 
the house grew brighter than it was before. Then 
of a sudden sacred Janus, in his two-headed shape, 
offered his double visage to my wondering eyes. 
A terror seized me, I felt my hair stiffen with fear, 
and with a sudden chill my bosom froze. He, 
holding in his right hand his staff and in his left the 
key, to me these accents uttered from his front 
mouth : " Dismiss thy fear, thy answer take, 
laborious singer of the days, and mark my words. 
The ancients called me Chaos,*' for a being from of 



aspice, quam longi temporis acta canam. 
105 lucidus hie aer et quae tria eorpora restant, 

ignis, aqua et tellus, unus acervus erat. 
ut semel haec rerum secessit lite suarum 

inque novas abiit massa soluta domos, 
flamma petit altum, propior locus aera cepit, 
110 sederunt medio terra fretumque solo. 

tunc ego, qui fueram globus et sine imagine moles, 

in faciem redii dignaque membra deo. 
nunc quoque, confusae quondam nota parva figurae, 

ante quod est in me postque, videtur idem. 
115 accipe, quaesitae quae causa sit altera formae, 

hanc simul ut noris officiumque meum. 
quicquid ubique vides, caelum, mare, nubila, terras, 

omnia sunt nostra clausa patentque manu. 
me penes est unum vasti custodia mundi, 
120 et ius vertendi cardinis omne meum est. 
cum libuit Pacem placidis emittere tectis, 

libera perpetuas ambulat ilia vias : 
sanguine letifero totus miscebitur orbis, 

ni teneant rigidae condita bella serae. 
125 praesideo foribus caeli cum mitibus Horis : 

it, redit officio luppiter ipse meo. 
inde vocor I anus, cui cum Ceriale sacerdos 

imponit libum mixtaque farra sale, 
nomina ridebis ; modo namque Patulcius idem 
130 et modo sacrifico Clusius ore vocor. 
scilicet alterno voluit rudis ilia vetustas 

nomine diversas significare vices, 
vis mea narrata est. causam nunc disce figurae : 

iam tamen hanc aliqua tu quoque parte vides. 

" As from eo ; so Cicero suggests, for Eanus {Nat. D. ii. 
27. 1). Ovid has a craze for derivations, which are mostly 

FASTI, I. 104-134 

old am I ; observe the long, long ages of which my 
song shall tell. Yon lucid air and the three other 
bodies, fire, water, earth, were huddled all in one. 
When once, through the discord of its elements, the 
mass parted, dissolved, and went in diverse ways to 
seek new homes, flame sought the height, air filled 
the nearer space, while earth and sea sank in the 
middle deep. 'Twas then that I, till that time a 
mere ball, a shapeless lump, assumed the face and 
members of a god. And even now, small index of 
my erst chaotic state, my front and back look just 
the same. Now hear the other reason for the shape 
you ask about, that you may know it and my office 
too. Whate'er you see anywhere — sky, sea, clouds, 
earth — all things are closed and opened by my hand. 
The guardianship of this vast universe is in my hands 
alone, and none but me may rule the wheeling pole. 
When I choose to send forth peace from tranquil 
halls, she freely walks the ways unhindered. But 
with blood and slaughter the whole world would 
welter, did not the bars unbending hold the barri- 
cadoed wars. I sit at heaven's gate with the gentle 
Hours ; my office regulates the goings and the comings 
of Jupiter himself. Hence Janus is my name ^ ; but 
when the priest offers me a barley cake and spelt 
mingled with salt, you would laugh to hear the 
names he gives me, for on his sacrificial Hps I'm 
now Patulcius and now Clusius called.^ Thus rude 
antiquity made shift to mark my changing functions 
with the change of name. My business I have told. 
Now learn the reason of my shape, though already 
you perceive it in part. Every door has two fronts, 

* As from pateo and claudo (cludo). 



136 omnis habet geminas, hinc atque hinc, ianua frontis, 

e quibus haec populum spectat, at ilia larem ; 
utque sedens primi vester prope limina tecti 

ianitor egressus introitusque videt, 
sic ego perspicio caelestis ianitor aulae 
140 Eoas partes Hesperiasque simul. 

ora vides Hecates in tres vertentia partes, 

servet ut in ternas compita secta vias ; 
et mihi, ne flexu cervicis tempora perdam, 

cernere non mo to corpore bina licet." 
145 dixerat et voltu, si plura requirere vellem, 

difficilem mihi se non fore fassus erat. 
sumpsi animum gratesque deo non territus egi 

verbaque sum spectans pauca locutus humum i 
*' die, age, frigoribus quare novus incipit annus, 
160 qui melius per ver incipiendus erat ? 

omnia tunc florent, tunc est nova temporis aetas, 

et nova de gravido palmite gemma tumet, 
et modo formatis operitur frondibus arbor, 

prodit et in summum seminis herba solum, 

165 et tepidum volucres concentibus aera mulcent, 

ludit et in pratis luxuriatque pecus. 
tum blandi soles, ignotaque prodit hirundo 

et luteum celsa sub trabe figit opus : 
tum patitur cultus ager et renovatur aratro. 
160 haec anni no vitas iure vocanda fuit." 
quaesieram multis : non multis ille moratus 

contulit in versus sic sua verba duos : 
" bruma novi prima est veterisque novissima solis : 

principium capiunt Phoebus et annus idem." 

166 post ea mirabar, cur non sine litibus esset 

prima dies. " causam percipe " lanus ait. 

FASTI, I. 135-166 

this way and that, whereof one faces the people 
and the other the house-god ; and just as your 
human porter, seated at the threshold of the house- 
door, sees who goes out and in, so I, the porter of 
the heavenly court, behold at once both East and 
West. Thou seest Hecate's faces turned in three 
directions that she may guard the crossroads where 
they branch three several ways ; and lest I should 
lose time by twisting my neck, I am free to look 
both ways without budging." 

^*5 Thus spake the god, and by a look confessed 
that, were I fain to ask him more, he would not grudge 
reply. I plucked up courage, thanked the god com- 
posedly, and with eyes turned to the ground I spoke 
in few : ** Come, say, why doth the new year begin 
in the cold season ? Better had it begun in spring. 
Then all things flower, then time renews his age, and 
new from out the teeming vine-shoot swells the 
bud ; in fresh - formed leaves the tree is draped, 
and from earth's surface sprouts the blade of corn. 
Birds with their warblings winnow the warm air ; 
the cattle frisk and wanton in the meads. Then 
suns are sweet, forth comes the stranger swallow and 
builds her clayey structure under the lofty beam. 
Then the field submits to tillage and is renewed by 
the plough. That is the season which rightly should 
have been called New Year." 

^^^ Thus questioned I at length ; he answered 
prompt and tersely, throwing his words into twain 
verses, thus : " Midwinter is the beginning of the 
new sun and the end of the old one. Phoebus and 
the year take their start from the same point." 

^^^ Next I wondered why the first day was not 
exempt from lawsuits. ** Hear the cause," quoth 



" tempora commisi nascentia rebus agendis, 

tot us ab auspicio ne foret annus iners. 
quisque suas artes ob idem delibat agendo 
170 nee plus quam solitum testificatur opus." 

mox ego, " cur, quamvis aliorum numina placem, 

lane, tibi primum tura merumque fero ? " 
" ut possis aditum per me, qui limina servo, 

ad quoscumque voles " inquit " habere deos.'* 
175 " at cur laeta tuis dicuntur verba Kalendis, 

et damus alternas accipimusque preces ? " 
tum deus incumbens baculo, quem dextra gerebat, 

" omina principiis " inquit " inesse solent. 
ad primam vocem timidas advertitis aures, 
180 et visam primum consulit augur avem. 

templa patent auresque deum, nee lingua caducas 

concipit ulla preces, dictaque pondus habent.'* 
desierat lanus. nee longa silentia feci, 

sed tetigi verbis ultima verba meis : 
185 " quid volt palma sibi rugosaque carica " dixi 

" et data sub niveo Candida mella cado ? ** 
" omen " ait " causa est, ut res sapor ille sequatur, 

et peragat coeptum dulcis ut annus iter." 
" dulcia cur dentur, video, stipis adice causam, 
190 pars mihi de festo ne labet ulla tuo." 

risit et " o quam te fallunt tua saecula," dixit 

" qui stipe mel sumpta dulcius esse putes ! 
vix ego Saturno quemquam regnante videbam, 

cuius non animo dulcia lucra forent. 
195 tempore crevit amor, qui nunc est summus, habendi 

vix ultra, quo iam progrediatur, habet. 


FASTI, I. 167-196 

Janus. " I assigned the birthday of the year to 
business, lest from the auspice idleness infect the 
whole. For the same reason every man just handsels 
his calling, nor does more than but attest his usual 

1^^ Next I asked, " Why, Janus, while I propitiate 
other divinities, do I bring incense and wine first of 
all to thee ? " Quoth he, " It is that through me, 
who guard the thresholds, you may have access to 
whatever gods you please." " But why are glad 
words spoken on thy Calends ? and why do we give 
and receive good wishes ? " Then, leaning on the 
staff he bore in his right hand, the god replied ; 
" Omens are wont," said he, "to wait upon begin- 
nings. At the first word ye prick up anxious ears ; 
from the first bird he sees the augur takes his cue. 
(On the first day) the temples and ears of the gods 
are open, the tongue utters no fruitless prayers, and 
words have weight." So Janus ended. I kept not 
silence long, but caught up his last words with my 
own : " What mean the gifts of dates and wrinkled 
figs," I said, " and honey glistering in snow-white 
jar?" "It is for the sake of the omen," said he, 
" that the event may answer to the flavour, and that 
the whole course of the year may be sweet, Hke its 
beginning." " I see," said I, " why sweets are given. 
But tell me, too, the reason for the gift of cash, that 
I may be sure of every point in thy festival." The god 
laughed, and "Oh," quoth he, " how little you know 
about the age you hve in if you fancy that honey is 
sweeter than cash in hand ! Why, even in Saturn's 
reign I hardly saw a soul who did not in his heart 
find lucre sweet. As time went on the love of pelf 
grew, till now it is at its height and scarcely can go 



pluris opes nunc sunt, quam prisci temporis annis, 

dum populus pauper, dum nova Roma fuit, 
dum casa Martigenam capiebat parva Quirinum, 
200 et dabat exiguum fluminis ulva torum. 
luppiter angusta vix totus stabat in aede, 

inque lovis dextra fictile fulmen erat. 
fro idibus ornabant quae nunc Capitolia gemmis, 
pascebatque suas ipse senator oves ; 
205 nee pudor in stipula placidam cepisse quietera 
et faenum capiti supposuisse fuit. 
iura dabat populis posito modo praetor aratro, 

et levis argenti lammina crimen erat. 
at postquam fortuna loci caput extulit liuius, 
210 et tetigit summos vertice Roma deos, 
creverunt et opes et opum furiosa cupido, 

et, cum possideant plurima, plura petunt. 
quaerere, ut absumant, absumpta requirere certant, 
atque ipsae vitiis sunt alimenta vices. 
215 sic quibus intumuit sufFusa venter ab unda, 
quo plus sunt potae, plus sitiuntur aquae, 
in pretio pretium nunc est : dat census honores, 

census amicitias : pauper ubique iacet. 
tu tamen auspicium si sit stipis utile, quaeris, 
220 curque invent vestras aera vetusta manus ? 
aera dabant olim, melius nunc omen in auro est, 

victaque concessit prisca moneta novae, 
nos quoque templa iuvant, quamvis antiqua pro- 
aurea : maiestas convenit ista deo. 
225 laudamus veteres, sed nostris utimur annis : 
mos tamen est aeque dignus uterque coli." 

* The casa Romuli was preserved on the Palatine Hill. 
This was supposed to be the cottage in which Romulus lived. 

* He alludes to Cincinnatus, 458 B.C. 

FASTI, I. 197-226 

farther. Wealth is more valued now than in the 
years of old, when the people were poor, when 
Rome was new, when a small hut sufficed to lodge 
Quirinus," son of Mars, and the river sedge supplied 
a scanty bedding. Jupiter had hardly room to stand 
upright in his cramped shrine, and in his right hand 
was a thunderbolt of clay. They decked with leaves 
the Capitol, which now they deck with gems, and 
the senator himself fed his own sheep. It was 
no shame to take one's peaceful rest on straw and 
to pillow the head on hay. The praetor put aside 
the plough to judge the people,^ and to own a light 
piece of silver plate was a crime. But ever since 
the Fortune of this place has raised her head on high, 
and Rome with her crest has touched the topmost 
gods, riches have grown and with them the frantic lust 
of wealth, and they who have the most possessions still 
crave for more. They strive to gain that they may 
waste, and then to repair their wasted fortunes, and 
thus they feed their vices by ringing the changes on 
them. So he whose belly swells with dropsy, the 
more he drinks, the thirstier he grows. Nowadays 
nothing but money counts : fortune brings honours, 
friendships ; the poor man everywhere lies low. 
And still you ask me. What's the use of omens drawn 
from cash, and why do ancient coppers tickle your 
palms ! In the olden time the gifts were coppers, 
but now gold gives a better omen, and the old- 
fashioned coin has been vanquished and made 
way for the new. We, too, are tickled by golden 
temples, though we approve of the ancient ones : 
such majesty befits a god. We praise the past, 
but use the present years ; yet are both customs 
worthy to be kept." He closed his admonitions ; 



finierat monitus. placidis ita rursus, ut ante, 

clavigerum verbis adloquor ipse deum : 
" multa quidem didici : sed cur navalis in aere 
230 altera signata est, altera forma biceps ? " 
" noscere me duplici posses sub imagine," dixit 

" ni vetus ipsa dies extenuasset opus, 
causa rartis superest : Tuscum rate venit in amnem 

ante pererrato falcifer orbe deus. 
235 hac ego Saturnum memini tellure receptum < 

caelitibus regnis a love pulsus erat. 
inde diu genti mansit Saturnia nomen ; 

dicta quoque est Latium terra, latente deo. 
at bona posteritas puppem formavit in aere, 
240 hospitis adventum testificata dei. 

ipse solum colui, cuius placidissima laevum 

radit harenosi Thybridis unda latus. 
hie, ubi nunc Roma est, incaedua silva virebat, 

tantaque res paucis pascua bubus erat. 
245 arx mea collis erat, quem volgus nomine nostro 

nuncupat, haec aetas laniculumque vocat. 
tunc ego regnabam, patiens cum terra deorum 

esset, et humanis numina mixta locis. 
nondum lustitiam facinus mortale fugarat 
250 (ultima de superis ilia reliquit humum), 

proque metu populum sine vi pudor ipse regebat ; 

nullus erat iustis reddere iura labor, 
nil mihi cum bello : pacem postesque tuebar 

et " clavem ostendens " haec " ait " arma gero." 
255 presserat ora deus. tunc sic ego nostra resolvi 

voce mea voces eliciente dei : 

« The ancient as. See Smith's Diet, of Antiq. i. p. 202, 
for a picture. 

'' Looking down the river ; on the river's left bank was 

FASTI, I. 227-256 

but again in calm speech, as before, I addressed 
the god who bears the key : "I have learned 
much indeed ; but why is the figure of a ship 
stamped on one side of the copper coin," and a 
two-headed figure on the other ? " " Under the 
double image," said he, " you might have recognized 
myself, if the long lapse of time had not worn the 
type away. Now for the reason of the ship. In a 
ship the sickle-bearing god came to the Tuscan river 
after wandering over the world. I remember how 
Saturn was received in this land : he had been driven 
by Jupiter from the celestial realms. From that 
time the folk long retained the name of Saturnian, 
and the country, too, was called Latium from the 
hiding (latente) of the god. But a pious posterity 
inscribed a ship on the copper money to commemorate 
the coming of the stranger god. Myself inhabited 
the ground whose left side ^ is lapped by sandy Tiber's 
glassy wave. Here, where now is Rome, green 
forest stood unfelled, and all this mighty region was 
but a pasture for a few kine. My castle was the 
hill which common folk call by my name, and which 
this present age doth dub Janiculum. I reigned in 
days when earth could bear with gods, and divinities 
moved freely in the abodes of men. The sin of 
mortals had not yet put Justice to flight (she was 
the last of the celestials to forsake the earth) : 
honour's self, not fear, ruled the people without 
appeal to force : toil there was none to expound the 
right to righteous men. I had naught to do with 
war : guardian was I of peace and doorways, and 
these," quoth he, showing the key, " these be the 
arms I bear." The god now closed his lips. Then I 
thus opened mine, using my voice to lure the voice 



*' cum tot sint lani, cur stas sacratus in uno, 

hie ubi iuncta foris templa duobus habes ? " 
ille manu mulcens propexam ad pectora barbain 
260 protinus Oebalii rettulit arma Tati, 
utque levis custos armillis capta Sabinos 

ad summae tacitos duxerit arcis iter. 
" inde, velut nunc est, per quem descenditis," inquit 
" arduus in valles et for a clivus erat. 
265 et iam contigerant portam, Saturnia cuius 
dempserat oppositas invidiosa seras. 
cum tanto veritus committere numine pugnam 

ipse meae movi callidus artis opus, 
oraque, qua pollens ope sum, fontana reclusi 
270 sumque repentinas eiaculatus aquas ; 
ante tamen madidis subieci sulphura venis, 

clauderet ut Tatio fervidus humor iter, 
cuius ut utilitas pulsis percepta Sabinis, 
quae fuerat, tuto reddita forma loco est. 
275 ara mihi posita est parvo coniuncta sacello : 
haec adolet flammis cum strue farra suis." 
** at cur pace lates motisque recluderis armis ? " 

nee mora, quaesiti reddita causa mihi est : 
** ut populo reditus pateant ad bella profecto, 
280 tota patet dempta ianua nostra sera, 
pace fores obdo, ne qua discedere possit ; 

Caesareoque diu numine clusus ero." 
dixit et attollens oculos diversa videntes 
aspexit toto quicquid in orbe fuit. 
285 pax erat et, vestri, Germanice, causa triumph!, 

" Archways were commonly called iani ; but one between 
the Forum Romaniim and Forum lulium was a temple, and 
had a statue of the god. 

* The Sabines claimed descent from the Spartans, and 
Oebalus was a king of Sparta. 


FASTI, I. 257-286 

divine. " Since there are so many archways, why 
dost thou stand thus consecrated in one alone, here 
where thou hast a temple adjoining two forums"? " 
Stroking with his hand the beard that fell upon his 
breast, he straightway told the warlike deeds of 
Oebalian ^ Tatius, and how the traitress keeper,^ 
bribed by armlets, led the silent Sabines the way 
to the summit of the citadel. " From there," quoth 
he, " a steep slope, the same by which even now ye 
descend, led down into the valleys and the forums. 
And now the foe had reached the gate from which 
Saturn's envious daughter'* had removed the opposing 
bars. Fearing to engage in fight with so redoubtable 
a deity, I slyly had recourse to a device of my own 
craft, and by the power I wield I opened the fountains' 
mouths and spouted out a sudden gush of water ; 
but first I threw sulphur into the water channels, 
that the boiling liquid might bar the way against 
Tatius. This service done, and the Sabines re- 
pulsed, the place, now rendered safe, resumed its 
former aspect. An altar was set up for me, joined 
to a Httle shrine : in its flames it burns the sacrificial 
spelt and cake." " But why hide in time of peace 
and open thy gates when men take arms ? " With- 
out delay he rendered me the reason that I sought. 
" My gate, unbarred, stands open wide, that when 
the people hath gone forth to war, the road for their 
return may be open too. I bar the doors in time of 
peace, lest peace depart, and under Caesar's star 
I shall be long shut up." He spoke, and lifting up 
his eyes that saw in opposite directions, he surveyed 
all that the whole world held. Peace reigned, and 
on the Rhine already, Germanicus, thy triumph had 
* Tarpeia. ** Juno. 



tradiderat famulas iam tibi Rhenus aquas, 
lane, fac aeternos pacem pacisque ministros, 

neve suum, praesta, deserat auctor opus, 
quod tamen ex ipsis licuit mihi discere fastis, 
290 sacravere patres hac duo templa die. 

accepit Phoebo nymphaque Coronide natum 

insula, dividua quam premit amnis aqua, 
luppiter in parte est ; cepit locus unus utrumque 

iunctaque sunt magno templa nepotis avo. 

2. BF 3. CG 4. DC 

295 Quis vetat et Stellas, ut quaeque oriturque caditque, 
dicere ? promissi pars fuit ista mei. 
felices animae, quibus haec cognoscere prirais 

inque domus sup eras scandere cura fuit ! 
credibile est illos pariter vitiisque locisque 
300 altius humanis exeruisse caput. 

non Venus et vinum sublimia pectora fregit 

officiumque fori militiaeve labor ; 
nee levis ambitio perfusaque gloria fuco 
magnarumque fames soUicitavit opum. 
306 admovere oculis distantia sidera nostris 
aetheraque ingenio supposuere suo. 
sic petitur caelum ; non ut ferat Ossan Olympus, 

summaque Peliacus sidera tangat apex, 
nos quoque sub ducibus caelum metabimur illis 
310 ponemusque suos ad vaga signa dies. 

" The triumph of Germanicus and Tiberius, 26 May a.d. 17. 

FASTI, I. 286-310 

been won, when the river yielded up her waters to 
be thy slaves." O Janus, let the peace and the 
ministers of peace endure for aye, and grant that 
its author may never forgo his handiwork. 

289 But now for what I have been allowed to learn 
from the calendar itself. On this day the senate 
dedicated two temples. The island, which the river 
hems in with its parted waters, received him whom 
the nymph Coronis bore to Phoebus.^ Jupiter has 
his share of the site. One place found room for both, 
and the temples of the mighty grandsire and the 
grandson are joined together. 

295 Who says me nay if I would tell also of the stars, 
their risings and their settings ? That was part of 
my promise. Ah happy souls, who first took thought 
to know these things and scale the heavenly mansions! 
Well may we believe they lifted up their heads alike 
above the frailties and the homes of men. Their 
lofty natures neither love nor wine did break, nor 
civil business nor the toils of war ; no low ambition 
tempted them, nor glory's tinsel sheen, nor lust of 
hoarded pelf. The distant stars they brought 
within our ken, and heaven itself made subject to 
their wit. So man may reach the sky : no need that 
Ossa on Olympus should be piled, and that Pelion's 
peak should touch the topmost stars. Under these 
leaders we, too, will plumb the sky and give their 
own days to the wandering signs. 

It had been decreed two years before, so Ovid speaks of 
it prospectively. The river Rhine, with other rivers and 
mountains, was actually represented in the procession : see 
Tacitus, Ann. ii. 41. 
^ Aesculapius. 


Ergo ubi nox aderit Venturis tertia Nonis, 
sparsaque caelesti rore madebit humus, 

octipedis frustra quaerentur brachia Cancri 
praeceps occiduas ille subibit aquas. 

316 Institerint Nonae, missi tibi nubibus atris 
signa dabunt imbres exoriente Lyra. 

5. E NON • F 6. FF 7. GG 8. HO 
9. A AGON 

Quattuor adde dies ductos ex ordine Nonis, 

lanus Agonali luce piandus erit. 
nominis esse potest succinctus causa minister, 
320 hostia caelitibus quo feriente cadit, 

qui calido strictos tincturus sanguine cultros 

semper " agone," rogat, nee nisi iussus agit. 
pars, quia non veniant pecudes, sed agantur, ab actu 

nomen Agonalem credit habere diem. 
325 pars putat hoc festum priscis Agnalia dictum, 

una sit ut proprio litter a dempta loco, 
an, quia praevisos in aqua timet hostia cultros, 

a pecoris lux est ipsa notata metu ? 
fas etiam fieri solitis aetate priorum 
330 nomina de ludis Graeca tulisse diem, 
et pecus antiquus dicebat agonia sermo ; 

veraque iudicio est ultima causa meo. 

" Ovid has confused the morning with the evening setting 
of the Crab. 

'' The apparent rising is on November 5, the real rising 
still earlier. 

" The real meaning of Agon in the calendar is not known, 
but it may be for agonium^ a general word for sacrifice. 

FASTI, I. 311-332 

III. NoN. 3rd 

3^1 Therefore when the third night before the Nones 
has come, and the ground is sprinkled and drenched 
with heavenly dew, you shall look in vain for the 
claws of the eight-footed Crab : headlong he'll plunge 
beneath the western waves ** 

NoN. 5th 

3^^ Should the Nones be at hand, showers discharged 
from sable clouds will be your sign, at the rising of 
the Lyre.*' 

V. Id. 9th 

3^' Add four successive days to the Nones, and on 
the Agonal morn Janus must be appeased.^ The day 
may take its name from the attendant who, in garb 
succinct, fells at a blow the victim of the gods ; for 
just before he dyes the brandished knife in the warm 
blood, he always asks " Agone ? " (" Shall I proceed ? "), 
and not until he is bidden does he proceed. Some 
beheve that the day is named Agonal from the 
driving of the victims, because the sheep do not come 
but are driven (agantur) to the altar. Others think 
the ancients called this festival Agnalia (** festival of 
lambs "), dropping a single letter from its proper 
place. Or perhaps, because the victim fears the 
knives mirrored in the water before they strike, the 
day may have been so styled from the brute's agony. 
It may be also that the day took a Greek name from 
the games {agones) which were wont to be held in 
the olden time. In the ancient tongue, too, agonia 
meant a sheep, and that last, in my judgement, is the 
true reason of the name. And though that is not 



utque ea non certa est, ita rex placare sacrorum 

numina lanigerae coniuge debet ovis. 
335 victima, quae dextra cecidit victrice, vocatur ; 

hostibus a domitis hostia nomen habet. 
ante, deos homini quod conciliare valeret, 

far erat et puri lucida mica sails, 
nondum pertulerat lacrimatas cortice murras 
340 acta per aequoreas hospita navis aquas, 
tura nee Euphrates nee miserat India costum, 

nee fuerant rubri cognita fila croci. 
ara dabat fumos herbis contenta Sabinis 

et non exiguo laurus adusta sono. 
345 si quis erat, factis prati de flore coronis 

qui posset violas addere, dives erat. 
hie, qui nunc aperit percussi viscera tauri, 

in sacris nullum culter habebat opus, 
prima Ceres avidae gavisa est sanguine porcae 
350 ulta suas merita caede nocentis opes ; 
nam sata vere novo teneris lactentia sulcis 

eruta saetigerae comperit ore suis. 
sus dederat poenas : exemplo territus huius 

palmite debueras abstinuisse, caper. 
355 quem spectans aliquis dentes in vite prementem 

talia non tacito dicta dolore dedit : 
** rode, caper, vitem ! tamen hinc, cum stabis ad aram, 

in tua quod spargi cornua possit, erit.'* 
verba fides sequitur : noxae tibi deditus hostis 
360 spargitur adfuso cornua, Bacche, mero. 

culpa sui nocuit, nocuit quoque culpa capellae : 

quid bos, quid placidae commeruistis oves ? 
flebat Aristae us, quod apes cum stirpe necatas 

viderat inceptos destituisse favos. 

FASTI, I. 333-364 

certain, still the King of the Sacred Rites is bound to 
placate the divinities by sacrificing the mate of a 
woolly ewe. The victim is so called because it is 
felled by a victorious right hand ; the hostia (sacrificial 
victim) takes its name from conquered hostes (foes). 
337 Of old the means to win the goodwill of gods for 
man were spelt and the sparkling grains of pure salt. 
As yet no foreign ship had brought across the ocean 
waves the bark-distilled myrrh ; the Euphrates had 
sent no incense, India no balm, and the red saffron's 
filaments were still unknown. The altar was content 
to smoke with savine, and the laurel burned with 
crackling loud. To garlands woven of meadow 
flowers he who could violets add was rich indeed. 
The knife that now lays bare the bowels of the 
slaughtered bull had in the sacred rites no work to 
do. The first to joy in blood of greedy sow was 
Ceres, who avenged her crops by the just slaughter 
of the guilty beast ; for she learned that the milky 
grain in early spring had been routed up in the 
loose furrows by the snout of bristly swine. The 
swine was punished : terrified by her example, 
billy-goat, you should have spared the vine-shoot. 
Watching a he-goat nibbling at a vine somebody 
vented his ill-humour in these words : " Pray gnaw 
the vine, thou he-goat ; yet when thou standest at 
the altar, the vine will yield something that can be 
sprinkled on thy horns." The words came true. 
Thy foe, Bacchus, is given up to thee for punishment, 
and wine out-poured is sprinkled on his horns. The 
sow suffered for her crime, and the she-goat suffered, 
too, for hers. But the ox and you, ye peaceful sheep, 
what was your sin ? Aristaeus wept because he saw 
his bees killed, root and branch, and the unfinished 



366 caerula quern genetrix aegre solata dolentem 
addidit haec dictis ultima verba suis : 
" siste, puer, lacrimas ! Proteus tua damna levabit, 

quoque modo repares quae periere, dabit. 
decipiat ne te versis tamen ille figuris, 
370 impediant geminas vincula firma manus." 
pervenit ad vatem iuvenis resolutaque somno 

alligat aequorei brachia capta senis. 
ille sua faciem transformis adulterat arte : 
mox domitus vinclis in sua membra redit, 
375 oraque eaerulea tollens rorantia barba, 

" qua " dixit " repares arte, requiris, apes ? 
obrue mactati corpus tellure iuvenci : 

quod petis a nobis, obrutus ille dabit.** 
iussa facit pastor : fervent examina putri 
380 de bove : mille animas una necata dedit. 
poscit ovem fatum : verbenas improba carpsit, 

quas pia dis ruris ferre solebat anus, 
quid tuti superest, animam cum ponat in aris 
lanigerumque pecus ruricolaeque boves ? 
385 placat equo Persis radiis Hyperiona cinctum, 
ne detur celeri victima tarda deo. 
quod semel est triplici pro virgine caesa Dianae, 

nunc quoque pro nulla virgine cerva cadit. 
exta canum vidi Trivia e libare Sapaeos, 
390 et quicumque tuas accolit, Haeme, nives. 
caeditur et rigido custodi ruris asellus ; 

causa pudenda quidem, sed tamen apta deo. 
festa corymbiferi celebrabas, Graecia, Bacchi, 

" Cyrene, a water-nymph. 

'' Properly an epithet of the sun, " going above." 
" Iphigeneia, at Aulis, according to one version of the 

FASTI, I. 366-393 

hives abandoned. Scarce could his azure mother" 
soothe his grief, when to her speech she these last 
words subjoined. " Stay, boy, thy tears ! Thy 
losses Proteus will retrieve and will show thee how 
to make good all that is gone. But lest he elude 
thee by shifting his shape, see that strong bonds dc 
shackle both his hands." The stripling made his 
way to the seer, and bound fast the arms, relaxed in 
slumber, of the Old Man of the Sea. By his art the 
wizard changed his real figure for a semblance false ; 
but soon, by the cords mastered, to his true form 
returned. Then lifting up his dripping face and 
azure beard, ** Dost ask," said he, " in what way thou 
mayest repair the loss of thy bees ? Kill a heifer and 
bury its carcase in the earth. The buried heifer will 
give the thing thou seekest of me." The shepherd did 
his bidding : swarms of bees hive out of the putrid 
beeve : one life snuffed out brought to the birth a 
thousand. Death claims the sheep : shameless it 
cropped the holy herbs which a pious beldame used 
to offer to the rural gods. What creature is safe, 
when even the wool-bearing sheep and ploughing 
oxen lay down their lives upon the altars ? Persia 
propitiates the ray-crowned Hyperion ^ with a horse, 
for no sluggard victim may be offered to the swift 
god. Because a hind was once sacrificed to the triple 
Diana in room of a maiden,*' a hind is even now felled 
for her, though not in a maiden's stead. I have 
seen the entrails of a dog offered to the Goddess of 
the Triple Roads (Trivia) by the Sapaeans and those 
whose homes border on thy snows. Mount Haemus. 
A young ass, too, is slain in honour of the stiff guardian 
of the country-side : the cause is shameful, but be- 
seems the god. A feast of ivy-berried Bacchus, thou 




tertia quae solito tempore bruma refert. 
395 di quoque cultores in idem venere Lyaei, 
et quicumque iocis non alienus erat, 
Panes et in Venerem Satyrorum prona inventus, 

quaeque colunt amnes solaque rura deae. 
venerat et senior pando Silenus asello, 
400 quique ruber pavidas inguine terret aves, 
dulcia qui dignum nemus in convivia nacti 

gramine vestitis accubuere toris. 
vina dabat Liber, tulerat sibi quisque coronam, 
miscendas large rivus agebat aquas. 
405 Naides efFusis aliae sine pectinis usu, 

pars aderant pusitis arte manuque comis : 
ilia super suras tunicam collecta ministrat, 

altera dissuto pectus aperta sinu : 
exserit haec humerum, vestem trahit ilia per herbas, 
410 impediunt teneros vincula nulla pedes, 
hinc aliae Satyris incendia mitia praebent, 

pars tibi, qui pinu tempora nexa geris. 
te quoque, inextinetae Silene libidinis, urunt : 
nequitia est, quae te non sinit esse senem, 
415 at ruber, hortorum decus et tutela, Priapus 
omnibus ex illis Lotide captus erat : 
banc cupit, banc optat, sola suspirat in ilia, 

signaque dat nutu, soUicitatque notis. 
fastus inest pulehris, sequiturque superbia formam : 
420 irrisum voltu despicit ilia suo. 

nox erat, et vino somnum faciente iacebant 

corpora diversis victa sopore Iocis. 
Lotis in herbosa sub acernis ultima ramis, 
sicut erat lusu fessa, quievit humo. 
425 surgit amans animamque tenens vestigia furtim 

" That is, a biennial festival, called by the ancient inclusive 
mode, triennial (rpterTjpis). See on i. 54, above. 

FASTI, I. 394-426 

wast wont to hold, O Greece, a feast which the third 
winter brought about at the appointed time .° Thither 
came, too, the gods who wait upon Lyaeus and all 
the jocund crew, Pans and young amorous Satyrs, 
and goddesses that haunt rivers and lonely wilds. 
Thither, too, came old Silenus on an ass with hollow 
back, and the Crimson One ^ who by his lewd image 
scares the timid birds. They lit upon a dingle 
meet for joyous wassails, and there they laid them 
down on grassy beds. Liber bestowed the wine : 
each had brought his garland : a stream supplied 
water in plenty to dilute the wine. Naiads were 
there, some with flowing locks uncombed, others with 
tresses neatly bound. One waits upon the revellers 
with tunic tucked above the knee ; another through 
her ripped robe reveals her breast ; another bares 
her shoulder ; one trails her skirt along the grass ; 
no shoes cumber their dainty feet. So some in 
Satyrs kindle amorous fires, and some in thee, whose 
brows are wreathed with pine." Thou too, Silenus, 
burnest for the nymphs, insatiate lecher ! 'Tis 
wantonness alone forbids thee to grow old. But 
crimson Priapus, glory and guard of gardens, lost his 
heart to Lotis, singled out of the whole bevy. For 
her he longs, for her he prays, for her alone he sighs ; 
he gives her signs by nodding and woos by making 
marks. But the lovely are disdainful, and pride on 
beauty waits : she flouted him and cast at him a 
scornful look. 'Twas night, and wine makes drowsy, 
so here and there they lay overcome with sleep. 
Weary with frolic, Lotis, the farthest of them all, 
sank to her rest on the grassy ground under the 
maple boughs. Up rose her lover, and holding his 
* Priapus : so 11. 415, 440. " Pan. 



suspense digitis fert taciturna gradu. 
ut tetigit niveae secreta cubilia nymphae, 

ipsa sui flatus ne sonet aura, cavet. 
et iam finitima corpus librabat in herba : 
430 ilia tamen multi plena soporis erat. 

gaudet et, a pedibus tracto velamine, vota 

ad sua felici coeperat ire via. 
ecce rudens rauco Sileni vector asellus 

intempestivos edidit ore sonos. 
435 territa consurgit nymphe manibusque Priapum 

reicit et fugiens concitat omne nemus ; 
at deus obscena nimium quoque parte paratus 

omnibus ad lunae lumina risus erat. 
morte dedit poenas auctor clamoris, et haec est 
440 Hellespontiaco victima grata deo. 
intactae fueratis aves, solacia ruris, 

adsuetum silvis innocuumque genus, 
quae facitis nidos et plumis ova fovetis 

et facili dulces editis ore modos ; 
445 sed nil ista iuvant, quia linguae crimen habetis, 

dique putant mentes vos aperire suas. 
nee tamen hoc falsum : nam, dis ut proxima quaeque, 

nunc penna veras, nunc datis ore notas. 
tuta diu volucrum proles tum denique caesa est, 
450 iuveruntque deos indicis exta sui. 
ergo saepe suo coniunx abducta marito 

uritur Idaliis alba columba focis ; 
nee defensa iuvant Capitolia, quo minus anser 

det iecur in lances, Inachi lauta, tuas ; 
465 nocte deae Nocti cristatus caeditur ales, 

quod tepidum vigili provocet ore diem. 

" i.e.y of revealing their secrets to the augur and the 
auspex^ words which are connected with avis. 

FASTI, I. 426-456 

breath stole secretly and silently on tiptoe to the 
fair. When he reached the lonely pallet of the 
snow-white nymph, he drew his breath so warily that 
not a sound escaped. And now upon the sward fast 
by he balanced on his toes, but still the nymph slept 
sound. He joyed, and drawing from off her feet the 
quilt, he set him, happy lover ! to snatch the wished- 
for hour. But lo, Silenus' saddle-ass, with raucous 
weasand braying, gave out an ill-timed roar ! The 
nymph in terror started up, pushed off Priapus, and 
flying gave the alarm to the whole grove ; but, ready 
to enter the lists of love, the god in the moonlight 
was laughed at by all. The author of the hubbub 
paid for it with his life, and he is now the victim 
dear to the Hellespontine god. 

**^ Ye birds, the solace of the countryside, ye 
haunters of the woods, ye harmless race, that build 
your nests and warm your eggs under your plumes, and 
with glib voices utter descant sweet, ye were inviolate 
once ; but all that avails not, because ye are accused 
of chattering,** and the gods opine that ye reveal their 
thoughts. Nor is the charge untrue ; for the nearer 
ye are to the gods, the truer are the signs ye give, 
whether by wing or voice. Long time immune, the 
brood of birds was slaughtered then at last, and the 
gods gloated on the guts of the talebearing fowls. 
That is why the white dove, torn from her mate, is 
often burned upon Idalian hearths ; nor did his 
saving of the Capitol protect the goose from yielding 
up his liver on a charger to thee, daughter of Inachus,** 
goddess demure ; by night to Goddess Night the 
crested fowl is slain, because with wakeful notes he 
summons up the warm day. 

* The Egyptian Isis, as identified with Argive lo. 

c S3 


Interea Delphin clarum super aequora sidus 
tollitur et patriis exerit ora vadis. 

10. B EN 

Postera lux hiemem medio discrimine signat, 
460 aequaque praeteritae, quae superabit, erit. 

11. G CAR-NP 12. DC 

Proxima prospiciet Tithono Aurora relieto 

Arcadiae sacrum pontificale deae. 
te quoque lux eadem, Turni soror, aede recepit, 

hie ubi Virginea Campus obitur aqua. 
465 unde petam causas horum moremque sacrorum ? 

diriget in medio quis mea vela freto ? 
ipsa mone, quae nomen habes a carmine ductum, 

propositoque fave, ne tuus erret honor, 
orta prior luna (de se si creditur ipsi) 
470 a magno tellus Arcade nomen habet. 

hie fuit Evander, qui, quamquam clarus utroque, 

nobilior sacrae sanguine matris erat ; 
quae simul aetherios animo conceperat ignes, 

ore dabat pleno carmina vera dei. 
475 dixerat haec nato motus instare sibique, 

multaque praeterea tempore nacta fidem. 

" The rising was really on December 31, in Ovid's time. 

* The Carmentalia, in honour of Carmenta or Carmentis, 
one of the Camenae, mother of Evander. 

" The nymph Juturna. 

^ Aqua Virgo, an aqueduct built by Agrippa in 19 b.c. 
which still brings water to Rome, and fills the fountain of 

FASTI, I. 457-476 

*^' Meantime the bright constellation of the Dolphin 
rises above the sea, and from his native waters puts 
forth his face.** 

IV. Id. 10th 

*^^ The morrow marks midwinter ; what remains 
of winter will be equal to what has gone before. 

III. Id. nth 

461 When next Aurora quits Tithonus' couch, she shall 
behold the rite pontifical of the Arcadian goddess.^ 
Thee, too, sister of Turnus,^ the same morn enshrined 
at the spot where the Virgin Water ^ circles the Field 
of Mars. Whence shall I learn the causes and 
manner of these rites ? Who will pilot my bark in 
mid ocean ? Thyself, enlighten me, O thou (Car- 
mentis), who dost take thy name from song {carmen)^ 
be kind to my emprise, lest I should fail to give thee 
honour due. The land that rose before the moon (if 
we may take its word for it) derives its name from the 
great Areas.* In that land Evander was, who, though 
illustrious on both sides, yet was the nobler for 
the blood of his sacred mother (Carmentis), who, 
soon as her soul conceived the heavenly fire, 
chanted with swelling voice true strains divine. She 
had foretold that troubles were at hand for her son 
and for herself, and much beside she had forecast, 
which time proved true. Too true, indeed, the 

* Son of Callisto, ii. 153. " The Arcadians are fabled to 
have lived before the moon," Apoll. Rhod. iv. 264. See 
below, p. 79. 



nam iuvenis nimium vera cum matre fugatus 

deserit Arcadiam Parrhasiumque larem. 
cui genetrix flenti " fortuna viriliter " inquit 
480 " (siste, precor, lacrimas) ista ferenda tibi est. 
sic erat in fatis ; nee te tua culpa fugavit, 

sed deus ; ofFenso pulsus es urbe deo. 
non meriti poenam pateris, sed numinis iram : 

est aliquid magnis crimen abesse malis. 
485 conscia mens ut cuique sua est, ita concipit intra 

pectora pro facto spemque metumque suo. 
nee tamen ut primus maere mala talia passus : 

obruit ingentes ista procella viros. 
passus idem est, Tyriis qui quondam pulsus ab oris 
490 Cadmus in Aonia constitit exul humo : 

passus idem Tydeus et idem Pagasaeus lason, 

et quos praeterea longa referre mora est. 
omne solum forti patria est, ut piscibus aequor, 

ut volucri, vacuo quicquid in orbe patet. 
495 nee fera tempestas toto tamen horret in anno : 

et tibi (crede mihi) tempora veris erunt." 
vocibus Evander firmata mente parentis 

nave secat fluctus Hesperiamque tenet, 
iamque ratem doctae monitu Carmentis in amnem 
500 egerat et Tuscis obvius ibat aquis ; 

fluminis ilia latus, cui sunt vada iuncta Tarenti, 

aspicit et sparsas per loca sola casas ; 
utque erat, immissis puppem stetit ante capillis 

continuitque manum torva regentis iter, 
606 et procul in dextram tendens sua bracchia ripam 

pinea non sano ter pede texta ferit ; 
neve daret saltum properans insistere terrae, 

vix est Evandri vixque retenta manu. 

* The Parrhasii were an Arcadian tribe. 
^ Boeotia. • A place in the Field of Mars. 


FASTI, I. 477-508 

mother proved when, banished with her, the youth 
forsook Arcadia and the god of his Parrhasian" home. 
He wept, but she, his mother, said, " Check, prithee, 
thy tears ; bear Hke a man thy fortune. 'Twas 
fated so ; no fault of thine has banished thee, the deed 
is God's ; an offended god has driven thee from the 
city. What thou dost endure is not the punishment 
of sin but heaven's ire : in great misfortunes it is 
something to be unstained by crime. As each man's 
conscience is, so doth it, for his deeds, conceive 
within his breast or hope or fear. Nor mourn these 
sufferings as if thou wert the first to suffer ; such 
storms have whelmed the mighty. Cadmus endured 
the same, he, who of old, driven from Tyrian coasts, 
halted an exile on Aonian soil.^ Tydeus endured the 
same, and Pagasaean Jason too, and others more 
of whom it were long to tell. Every land is to 
the brave his country, as to the fish the sea, as to 
the bird whatever place stands open in the void 
world. Nor does the wild tempest rage the whole 
year long ; for thee, too, trust me, there will be spring- 
time yet." Cheered by his parent's words, Evander 
cleft in his ship the billows and made the Hesperian 
land. And now at sage Carmentis' bidding he had 
steered his bark into a river and was stemming the 
Tuscan stream. Carmentis spied the river bank, 
where it is bordered by Tarentum's shallow pool " ; she 
also spied the huts dotted about these solitudes. And 
even as she was, with streaming hair she stood before 
the poop and sternly stayed the steersman's hand ; 
then stretching out her arms to the right bank, she 
thrice stamped wildly on the pinewood deck. 
Hardly, yea hardly did Evander hold her back from 
leaping in her haste to land. " All hail ! " she cried, 



" di " que " petitorum " dixit " salvete locorum, 
510 tuque novos caelo terra datura deos, 

fluminaque et fontes, quibus utitur hospita tellus, 

et nemorum nymphae naiadumque chori ! 
este bonis avibus visi natoque mihique, 

ripaque felici tacta sit ista pede ! 
615 fallor, an hi fient ingentia moenia colles, 

iuraque ab hac terra cetera terra petet ? 
montibus his olim totus promittitur orbis : 

quis tantum fati credat habere locum ? 
et iam Dardaniae tangent haec litora pinus : 
620 hie quoque causa novi femina Martis erit. 
care nepos, Palla, funesta quid induis arm a ? 

indue ! non humili vindice caesus eris. 
victa tamen vinces eversaque, Troia, resurges i 

obruet hostiles ista ruina domos. 
525 urite victrices Neptunia Pergama flammae ! 

num minus hie toto est altior orbe cinis ? 
iam pius Aeneas sacra et, sacra altera, patrem 

adferet : Iliacos accipe, Vesta, deos ! 
tempus erit, cum vos orbemque tuebitur idem, 
630 et fient ipso sacra colente deo, 

et penes Augustos patriae tutela manebit : 

banc fas imperii frena tenere domum. 
inde nepos natusque dei, licet ipse recuset, 

pondera caelesti mente paterna feret ; 

<» Lavinia. 

* Pallas, son of Evander, was slain by Tiirnus ; but was 
avenged by Aeneas, who slew Turnus. Ovid has the Aeneid 
in mind here. 

« The Vestal fire and the Penates of the Roman people 
were believed to have been brought by Aeneas from Troy. 


FASTI, I. 509-534 

" Gods of the Promised Land ! And hail 1 thou 
country that shalt give new gods to heaven ! Hail 
rivers and fountains, which to this hospitable land 
pertain ! Hail nymphs of the groves and bands 
of Naiads ! May the sight of you be of good 
omen to my son and me ! And happy be the foot 
that touches yonder bank ! Am I deceived ? or 
shall yon hills by stately walls be hid, and from this 
spot of earth shall all the earth take law ? The 
promise runs that the whole world shall one day 
belong to yonder mountains. Who could believe 
that the place was big with such a fate ? Anon 
Dardanian barks shall ground upon these shores : 
here, too, a woman ° shall be the source of a new war. 
Pallas, my grandson dear, why don those fatal arms ? ^ 
Ah, put them on ! By no mean champion shalt thou 
be avenged. Howbeit, conquered Troy, thou shalt yet 
conquer and from thy fall shalt rise again : thy very 
ruin shall o'erwhelm the dwellings of thy foes. Ye 
conquering flames, consume Neptunian Per^amum ! 
Shall that prevent its ashes from o'ertopping all the 
world ? Anon pious Aeneas shall hither bring his 
sacred burden, and, burden no whit less sacred, his 
own sire ; Vesta, admit the gods of Ilium ^ ! The 
time will come when the same hand shall guard you 
and the world, and when a god shall in his own person 
hold the sacred rites. ** In the line of Augustus the 
guardianship of the fatherland shall abide : it is 
decreed that his house shall hold the reins of empire. 
Thereafter the god's son and grandson, despite 
his ovni refusal, shall support with heavenly mind 
the weight his father bore ; and even as I myself 

** This a})plies both to JuUus and to Augustus, who is the 
** son " of 1. 533 ; the " grandson " is Tiberius. 



636 utque ego perpetuis olim sacrabor in aris, 
sic Augusta novum lulia numen erit." 
talibus ut dictis nostros descendit in annos, 
substitit in medios praescia lingua sonos. 
puppibus egressus Latia stetit exul in herba, 
640 felix, exilium cui locus ille fuit ! 

nee mora longa fuit : stabant nova tecta, neque alter 

montibus Ausoniis Arcade maior erat. 
ecce boves illuc Erytheidas applicat heros 
emensus longi claviger orbis iter ; 
645 dumque huic hospitium domus est Tegeaea, vagantur 
incustoditae lata per arva boves. 
mane erat : excussus somno Tirynthius actor 

de numero tauros sentit abesse duos, 
nulla videt quaerens taciti vestigia furti : 
650 traxerat aversos Cacus in antra ferox, 

CacuSj Aventinae timor atque infamia silvae, 

non leve finitimis hospitibusque malum, 
dira viro facies, vires pro corpore, corpus 

grande : pater monstri Mulciber huius erat : 
665 proque domo longis spelunca recessibus ingens, 
abdita, vix ipsis invenienda feris. 
ora super postes adfixaque brachia pendent, 
squalidaque humanis ossibus albet humus, 
servata male parte boum love natus abibat : 
660 mugitum rauco furta dedere sono. 

" accipio revocamen " ait, vocemque secutus 

" By the will of Augustus, Livia was adopted into the 
Julian family and became Julia Augusta : Ovid anticipates 
her deification by her grandson Claudius (Suetonius, 
Claud. 11). 

* Evander landed at the foot of the Palatine hill, here called 
after him " Arcadian." 

" Hercules came from Spain with the herds of Geryon, 
which he had taken there, to visit Evander ; Erythea is in 

FASTI, I. 635-561 

shall one day be sanctified at eternal altars, so 
shall Julia Augusta ** be a new divinity." When 
in these words she had brought her story down to 
our own time, her prophetic tongue stopped short 
at the middle of her discourse. Landing from his 
ships, Evander stood an exile on the Latian sward, 
fortunate indeed to have that ground for place of 
exile ! But little time elapsed until new dwellings 
rose, and of all the Ausonian mounts not one sur- 
passed the Arcadian.^ 

^^^ Lo ! the club-bearer ^ hither drives the Erythean 
kine ; a long road he had travelled across the world ; 
and while he is kindly entertained in the Tegean house, 
the kine unguarded stray about the spacious fields. 
When morning broke, roused from his sleep the 
Tirynthian drover perceived that of the tale two bulls 
were missing. He sought but found no tracks of the 
noiselessly stolen beasts. Fierce Cacus had dragged 
the bulls backwards into his cave, Cacus the terror 
and the shame of the Aventine wood, to neighbours 
and to strangers no small curse. Grim was his 
aspect, huge his frame, his strength to match ; the 
monster's sire was Mulciber. For house he had a 
cavern vast with long recesses, hidden so that hardly 
could the wild beasts themselves discover it. Above 
the doorway skulls and arms of men were fastened 
pendent, while the ground bristled and bleached with 
human bones. The son of Jove was going off with 
the loss of part of the herd, when the stolen cattle 
lowed hoarsely. ** I accept the recall," quoth he, and 
following the sound he came, intent on vengeance, 

S.W. Spain. This capture was one of his Labours. He was 
son of Alcmena, princess of Tiryns. Evander's house is 
called Tegean, for Arcadian. 



impia per silvas ultor ad antra venit. 
ille aditum fracti praestruxerat obice montis ; 

vix iuga movissent quinque bis illud opus. 
665 nititur hie humeris (caelum quoque sederat illis) 

et vastum motu conlabefactat onus, 
quod simul eversum est, fragor aethera terruit ipsum, 

ictaque subsedit pondere molis humus. 

prima movet Cacus collata proelia dextra 

570 remque ferox saxis stipitibusque gerit. 

quis ubi nil agitur, patrias male fortis ad artes 

confugit et flammas ore sonante vomit ; 
quas quotiens proflat, spirare Typhoea credas 

et rapidum Aetnaeo fulgur ab igne iaci. 
675 occupat Alcides, adductaque clava trinodis 

ter quater adverso sedit in ore viri. 
ille cadit mixtosque vomit cum sanguine fumos 

et lato moriens pectore plangit humum. 
immolat ex illis taurum tibi, luppiter, unum 
680 victor et Evandrum ruricolasque vocat, 

constituitque sibi, quae Maxima dicitur, aram, 

hie ubi pars urbis de bove nomen habet. 
nee tacet Evandri mater prope tempus adesse, 

Hereule quo tellus sit satis usa sue. 
685 at felix vates, ut dis gratissima vixit, 

possidet hunc lani sic dea mense diem. 

IS. E EID • N* U. F EN dies • vitios • ex • s • c 

Idibus in magni castus lovis aede sacerdos 
semimaris flammis viscera libat ovis ; 

« See iv. 491. 

" The Flamen Dialis, who was subject to many ceremonial 

FASTI, I. 562-688 

through the woods to the unholy cave. But the robber 
had blocked the entrance with a barricade of crag; 
scarcely could twice five yoke of oxen have stirred that 
mass. Hercules shoved it with his shoulders — the 
shoulders on which the sky itself had once rested — 
and by the shock he loosened the vast bulk. Its over- 
throw was followed by a crash that startled even the 
upper air, and the battered ground sank under the 
ponderous weight. At first Cacus fought hand to 
hand, and waged battle fierce with rocks and logs. 
But when these naught availed him, worsted he had 
recourse to his sire's tricks, and belched flames from 
his roaring mouth ; at every blast you might deem 
that Typhoeus blew, and that a sudden blaze shot 
out from Etna's fires." But Alcides was too quick 
for him ; up he heaved the triple-knotted club, and 
brought it thrice, yea four times down full on the 
foeman's face. He fell, vomiting smoke mixed with 
blood, and dying beat the ground with his broad breast. 
Of the bulls the victor sacrificed one to thee, Jupiter, 
and invited Evander and the swains to the feast ; and 
for himself he set up the altar which is called the 
Greatest at the spot where a part of the city takes its 
name from an ox. Nor did Evander 's mother hide 
the truth that the time was at hand when earth 
would have done with its hero Hercules. But the 
happy prophetess, even as she lived in highest favour 
with the gods, so now herself a goddess hath she 
this day in Janus* month all to herself. 

Idus. 13th 

^^■^ On the Ides the chaste priest * offers in the 
flames the bowels of a gelded ram in the temple of 



redditaque est omnis populo provincia nostro, 
590 et tuus Augusto nomine dictus avus. 
perlege dispositas generosa per atria ceras : 

contigerunt nulli nomina tanta viro. 
Africa victorem de se vocat, alter Isauras 

aut Cretum domitas testificatur opes ; 
596 hunc Numidae faciunt, ilium Messana superbum, 

ille Numantina traxit ab urbe notam, 
et mortem et nomen Druso Germania fecit — 

me miserum, virtus quam brevis ilia fuit ! 
si petat a victis, tot sumat nomina Caesar, 
600 quot numero gentes maximus orbis habet. 
ex uno quidam celebres aut torquis adempti 

aut corvi titulos auxiliaris habent. 
Magne, tuum nomen rerum est mensura tuarum : 

sed qui te vicit, nomine maior erat. 
605 nee gradus est supra Fabios cognominis uUus : 

ilia domus meritis Maxima dicta suis. 
sed tamen humanis celebrantur honoribus omnes 

hie socium summo cum love nomen habet. 
sancta vocant augusta patres, augusta vocantur 
610 templa sacerdQtum rite dicata manu ; 
huius et augurium dependet origine verbi, 

et quodcumque sua luppiter auget ope. 
augeat imperium nostri ducis, augeat annos, 

protegat et vestras querna corona fores, 

" Son of Livia by her first husband, Tiberius Claudius 
Nero, and brother of the Emperor Tiberius. He died 9 b.c, 
of a fall from his horse, aged 31. 

* T. Manlius Torquatus, 361 b.c. ; M. Valerius Corvus 
or Corvinus, 349 b.c. 

" The title came from Q. Fabius Maximus, 304 b.c 

* It was voted to Augustus in perpetuum^ in token of his 

FASTI, I. 689-614 

great Jove. On that day, too, every province was 
restored to our people, and thy grandsire received 
the title of Augustus. Peruse the legends graved 
on waxen images ranged round noble halls ; titles 
so lofty never were bestowed on man before. Africa 
named her conqueror after herself; another by his 
style attests Isaurian or Cretan power subdued: 
one gloried in Numidians laid low, another inMessana, 
while from the city of Numantia yet a third drew 
his renown. To Germany did Drusus " owe his title 
and his death : woe's me ! that all that goodness 
should be so short-hved ! Did Caesar take his 
titles from the vanquished, then must he assume as 
many names as there are tribes in the whole world. 
Some have earned fame from single enemies, taking 
their names either from a necklace won or from a 
raven confederate in the fight .^ Pompey, thy name 
of Great is the measure of thy deeds, but he who 
conquered thee was greater still in name. No 
surname can rank above that which the Fabii bear : 
for their services their family was called the Greatest.^ 
But yet the honours bestowed on all of these are 
human : Augustus alone bears a name that ranks 
with Jove supreme. Holy things are by the fathers 
called august : the epithet august is applied to 
temples that have been duly dedicated by priestly 
hands : from the same root come augury and all 
such augmentation as Jupiter grants by his power. 
May he augment our prince's empire and augment 
his years, and may an oaken crown ** protect your 
doors. Under the auspices of the gods may the 

care for his people : and hung up in his palace : " For saving 
the life of citizens," see Monumentum Ancyranum, vi. 3 n., 
in Velleius Paterculus (Lx)eb Classical Library), p. 399. 



616 auspicibusque deis tanti cognominis heres 
omine suscipiat, quo pater, orbis onus ! 

15. G GAR 

Respiciet Titan actas ubi tertius Idus, 

fient Parrhasiae sacra relata deae. 
Nam prius Ausonias matres carpenta vehebant 
620 (haec quoque ab Evandri dicta parente reor) ; 
mox honor eripitur, matronaque destinat omnis 

ingratos nulla prole novare viros, 
neve daret partus, ictu temeraria caeco 
visceribus crescens excutiebat onus. 
625 corripuisse patres ausas immitia nuptas, 
ius tamen ereptum restituisse ferunt ; 
binaque nunc pariter Tegeaeae sacra parent! 

pro pueris fieri virginibusque iubent. 
scortea non illi fas est inferre sacello, 
630 ne violent puros exanimata focos. 

siquis amas veteres ritus, adsiste precanti : 

nomina percipies non tibi nota prius. 
Porrima placatur Postvertaque, sive sorores 
sive fugae comites, Maenali diva, tuae : 
635 altera, quod porro fuerat, cecinisse putatur, 
altera, venturum postmodo quicquid erat. 

16. HG 

Candida, te niveo posuit lux proxima temple, 
qua fert sublimes alta Moneta gradus : 

« See notes on II. 470, 478. 
* Carmenta ; Maenalus was a mountain in Arcadia. 

FASTI, I. 615-638 

same omens, which attended the sire, wait upon 
the heir of so great a surname, when he takes upon 
himself the burden of the world. 

XVIII. Kal. Feb. 15th 

^^"^ When the third sun shall look back on the past 
Ides, the sacred rites will be repeated in honour 
of the Parrhasian goddess .° For of old Ausonian 
matrons drove in carriages (carpentd), which I ween 
were also called after Evander's parent (Carmentis). 
Afterwards the honour was taken from them, and 
every matron vowed not to propagate the hne of 
her ungrateful spouse by giving birth to offspring ; 
and lest she should bear children, she rashly by a 
secret thrust discharged the growing burden from 
her womb. They say the senate reprimanded the 
wives for their daring cruelty, but restored the right of 
which they had been mulcted ; and they ordained 
that now two festivals be held alike in honour of 
the Tegean mother to promote the birth of boys 
and girls. It is not lawful to bring leather into her 
shrine, lest her pure hearths should be defiled by 
skins of slaughtered beasts. If thou hast any love 
of ancient rites, attend the prayers offered to her : 
you shall hear names you never knew before. 
Porrima and Postverta are placated, whether they 
be thy sisters, Maenalian goddess,^ or companions of 
thine exile : the one is thought to have sung of 
what was long ago (jporro), the other of what should 
come to pass hereafter (yenturum postmodo). 

XVII. Kal. 16th 

^3' Fair goddess, thee the next morning set in thy 
snow-white fane, where high Moneta lifts her steps 



nunc bene prospicies Latiam, Concordia, turbam, 
640 nunc te sacratae constituere manus. 
Furius antiquam populi superator Etrusci 

voverat et voti solverat ille fidem. 
causa, quod a patribus sumptis secesserat armis 
volgus, et ipsa suas Roma timebat opes. 
645 causa recens melior : passos Germania crines 
porrigit auspiciis, dux venerande, tuis ; 
inde triumphatae libasti munera gentis 

templaque fecisti, quam colis ipse, deae. 
hanc tua constituit genetrix et rebus et ara, 
660 sola toro magni digna reperta lovis. 

17. AC 18. BC 19. CC 20 DC 
21. EC 22. FC 23. GC 

Haec ubi transierint, Capricorno, Phoebe, relicto 
per iuvenis curres signa gerentis aquam. 

Septimus hinc oriens cum se demiserit undis, 
fulgebit toto iam Lyra nulla polo. 

666 Sidere ab hoc ignis venienti nocte, Leonis 
qui micat in medio pectore, mersus erit. 

24. HC 25. AC 26. BC 

Ter quater evolvi signantes tempora fastos, 
nee Sementiva est uUa reperta dies : 

«» The new temple of Juno Moneta was on the Capitol, and 
a flight of steps led up from the Forum, near which was the old 
temple of Concord. 

"^ M. Furius Camillus, 367 b.c. The temple was rebuilt 
by Tiberius out of the spoils of Germany, a.d. 10. 

" Livia. See vi. 637 below. 

<* The apparent setting then was on January 28, the 
true setting on February 9. 

FASTI, I. 639-658 

sublime : " now, Concord, shalt thou well o'erlook the 
Latin throng, now consecrated hands have stablished 
thee. Furius, the vanquisher of the Etruscan folk, 
had vowed the ancient temple, and he kept his vow.^ 
The cause was that the common folk had taken up 
arms and seceded from the nobles, and Rome dreaded 
her own puissance. The recent cause was better : 
Germany presented her dishevelled locks at thy com- 
mand, leader revered ; hence didst thou offer the spoil 
of the vanquished people, and didst build a temple to 
that goddess whom thou thyself dost worship. That 
goddess thy mother *' did stablish both by her life and 
by an altar, she who alone was found worthy to share 
the bed of mighty Jupiter. 

XVI. Kal. 17th 

651 When that is over, thou wilt quit Capricorn, O 
Phoebus, and wilt take thy course through the sign 
of the youth who carries water (Aquarius). 

X. Kal. 23rd 

653 When the seventh sun, reckoned from that day, 
shall have set in the sea, the Lyre will shine no 
longer anywhere in the sky.<* 

IX. Kal. 24th 

*^^ After the setting of that constellation (the Lyre), 
the fire that glitters in the middle of the Lion's 
breast will be sunk below the horizon at nightfall.^ 

^^■^ Three or four times I searched the record of the 
calendar, but nowhere did I find the Day of Sowing. 
• This is the date of the true morning setting. 


cum mihi (sensit enim) " lux haec indicitur," inquit 
660 Musa, " quid a fastis non stata sacra petis ? 
utque dies incerta sacro, sic tempora certa : 

seminibus iactis est ubi fetus ager." 
state coronati plenum ad praesaepe iuvenci : 

cum tepido vestrum vere redibit opus. 
665 rusticus emeritum palo suspendat aratrum : 

omne reformidat frigida volnus humus, 
vilice, da requiem terrae semente peracta ; 

da requiem, terram qui coluere, viris. 
pagus agat festum : pagum lustrate, coloni, 
670 et date paganis annua liba focis. 

placentur frugum matres, Tellusque Ceresque, 

farre suo gravidae visceribusque suis. 
officium commune Ceres et Terra tuentur : 

haec praebet causam frugibus, ilia locum. 
675 " consortes operis, per quas correcta vetustas 

quernaque glans victa est utiliore cibo, 
frugibus immensis avidos satiate colonos, 

ut capiant cultus praemia digna sui. 
vos date perpetuos teneris sementibus auctus, 
680 nee nova per gelidas herba sit usta nives. 
cum serimus, caelum ventis aperite serenis ; 

cum latet, aetheria spargite semen aqua, 
neve graves cultis Cerialia rura, cavete, 

agmine laesuro depopulentur aves. 
685 vos quoque, formicae, subiectis parcite granis : 

post messem praedae copia maior erit. 
interea crescat scabrae robiginis expers, 

nee vitio caeli palleat aegra seges, 
et neque deficiat macie neque pinguior aequo 


FASTI, I. 659-689 

Seeing me puzzled, the Muse observed, " That day 
is appointed by the priests. Why look for movable 
feasts in the calendar ? And while the day of the 
feast may shift, the season is fixed : it is when the 
seed has been sown and the field fertilized." Ye 
steers, take your stand with garlands on your heads 
at the full crib : with the warm spring your toil will 
return. Let the swain hang up on the post the plough 
that has earned its rest : the cold ground shrinks 
from every wound inflicted by the share. Thou bailiff, 
when the sowing is done, let the land rest, and let 
the men who tilled the land rest also. Let the 
parish keep festival ; purify the parish, ye husband- 
men, and offer the yearly cakes on the parish hearths. 
Propitiate Earth and Ceres, the mothers of the corn, 
with their own spelt and flesh of teeming sow. 
Ceres and Earth discharge a common function : 
the one lends to the corn its vital force, the other 
lends it room. *' Partners in labour, ye who re- 
formed the days of old and replaced the acorns of 
the oak by food more profitable, O satisfy the eager 
husbandmen with boundless crops, that they may reap 
the due reward of their tillage. O grant unto the 
tender seeds unbroken increase ; let not the sprout- 
ing shoot be nipped by chilly snows. When we sow, 
let the sky be cloudless and winds blow fair ; but 
when the seed is buried, then sprinkle it with water 
from the sky. Forbid the birds — ^pests of the tilled 
land — to devastate the fields of corn with their 
destructive flocks. You too, ye ants, O spare the 
sown grain ; so shall ye have a more abundant booty 
after the harvest. Meantime may no scurfy mildew 
blight the growing crop nor foul weather blanch it 
to a sickly hue ; may it neither shrivel up nor swell 



690 divitiis pereat luxuriosa suis. 

et careant loliis oculos vitiantibus agri, 

nee sterilis eulto surgat avena solo, 
triticeos fetus passuraque farra bis ignem 
hordeaque ingenti fenore reddat ager ! " 
695 haec ego pro vobis, haec vos optate coloni, 
efRciatque ratas utraque diva preces. 
bella diu tenuere viros : erat aptior ensis 

vomere, cedebat taurus arator equo ; 
sarcula cessabant, versique in pila ligones, 
700 factaque de rastri pondere cassis erat. 
gratia dis domuique tuae ; religata catenis 
iampridem vestro sub pede bella iacent. 
sub iuga bos veniat, sub terras semen aratas 1 
pax Cererem nutrit, pacis alumna Ceres. 

27. CC 28. DC 29. EC 

705 At quae venturas praecedit sexta Kalendas, 
hac sunt Ledaeis templa dicata deis : 
fratribus ilia deis fratres de gente deorum 
circa luturnae composuere lacus. 

30. FISP 31. GC 

Ipsum nos carmen deduxit Pacis ad aram. 
710 haec erit a mensis fine secunda dies. 

frondibus Actiacis comptos redimita capillos, 
Pax, ades et toto mitis in orbe mane. 

<» It was supposed to damage the sight if eaten ; Plautus, 
Mil. 01. 323 " mirum lolio victitare te," i.e. " you cannot see 
what is before your face." 

* Spelt was toasted before it was baked. See ii. 520. 

" Castor and Pollux. The temple had been dedicated 


FASTI, I. 690-712 

unduly and be choked by its own rank luxuriance. 
May the fields be free from darnel, that spoils the 
eyes," and may no barren wild oats spring from the 
tilled ground. May the farm yield, with manifold 
interest, crops of wheat, of barley, and of spelt, which 
twice shall bear the fire." ^ These petitions I offer for 
you, ye husbandmen, and do ye offer them yourselves, 
and may the two goddesses grant our prayers. Long 
time did wars engage mankind ; the sword was 
handier than the share ; the plough ox was ousted by 
the charger ; hoes were idle, mattocks were turned 
into javelins, and a helmet was made out of a heavy 
rake. Thanks be to the gods and to thy house ! 
Under your foot long time War has been laid in 
chains. Yoke the ox, commit the seed to the 
ploughed earth. Peace is the nurse of Ceres, and 
Ceres is the foster-child of Peace. 

VI. Kal. 27th 

'^^ On the sixth day before the coming Calends 
a temple was dedicated to Leda's divine sons '^ : 
brothers of the race of the gods founded that temple 
for the brother gods beside Juturna's ^ pools. 

III. Kal. 30th 

™' The course of my song hath led me to the altar 
of Peace. The day will be the second from the end 
of the month. Come, Peace, thy dainty tresses 
wreathed with Actian^ laurels, and let thy gentle 

anew in a. d. 6 by Tiberius, who added the name of his dead 
brother Dnisus to the dedication. 

<* See above, 1. 463. 

* Referring to the victory of Actium, 31 b,c. 



dum desint hostes, desit quoque causa triumphi : 

tu ducibus bello gloria maior eris. 
716 sola gerat miles, quibus arma coerceat, arma, 

canteturque fera nil nisi pompa tuba, 
horreat Aeneadas et primus et ultimus orbis : 

si qua parum Romam terra timebat, amet. 
tura, sacerdotes, pacalibus addite flammis, 
720 albaque percussa victima fronte cadat, 

utque domus, quae praestat eam, cum pace perennet 

ad pia propensos vota rogate deos. 
sed iam prima mei pars est exact a laboris, 

cumque suo finem mense libellus habet. 

FASTI, I. 713-724 

presence abide in the whole world. So but there be 
nor foes nor food for triumphs, thou shalt be unto 
our chiefs a glory greater than war. May the 
soldier bear arms only to check the armed aggressor, 
and may the fierce trumpet blare for naught but 
solemn pomp ! May the world near and far dread 
the sons of Aeneas, and if there be any land that 
feared not Rome, may it love Rome instead ! Add 
incense, ye priests, to the flames that burn on the 
altar of Peace, let a white victim fall with cloven 
brow, and ask of the gods, who lend a favouring ear 
to pious prayers, that the house, which is the 
warranty of peace, with peace may last for ever. 

'23 But now the first part of my labour is done, and 
with the month of which it treats the book doth end. 



lanus habet finem. cum carmine crescit et annus t 

alter ut hie mensis, sic liber alter eat. 
nunc primum velis, elegi, maioribus itis : 

exiguum, memini, nuper eratis opus. 
6 ipse ego vos habui faciles in amore ministros, 

cum lusit numeris prima iuventa suis. 
idem sacra cano signataque tempora fastis : 

ecquis ad haec illinc crederet esse viam ? 
haec mea militia est : ferimus quae possumus armai 
10 dextraque non omni munere nostra vacat. 
si mihi non valido torquentur pila lacerto, 

nee bellatoris terga premuntur equi, 
nee galea tegimur nee acuto cingimur ense, 

(his habilis telit quilibet esse potest), 
16 at tua prosequimur studioso pectore, Caesar, 

nomina, per titulos ingredimurque tuos. 
ergo ades et placido paulum mea munera voltu 

respice, pacando si quid ab hoste vacas. 

februa Romani dixere piamina patres : 
20 nunc quoque dant verbo plurima signa fidem. 
pontifices ab rege petunt et flamine lanas, 
quis veterum lingua februa nomen erat, 

" Augustus. This passage is probably the original dedi- 
cation of the Fasti. *• The Rex Sacrorum. 



January is over. The year progresses with my 
song : even as this second month, so may my second 
book proceed. 

^ My elegiacs, now for the first time ye do sail with 
ampler canvas spread : as I remember, up till now 
your theme was slender. Myself I found you pliant 
ministers of love, when in the morn of youth I toyed 
with verse. Myself now sing of sacred rites and of 
the seasons marked in the calendar : who could 
think that this could come of that ? Herein is all 
my soldiership : I bear the only arms I can : my 
right hand is not all unserviceable. If I can neither 
hurl the javelin with brawny arm, nor bestride the 
back of war horse ; if there is no helinet on my head, 
no sharp sword at my belt — at such weapons any 
man may be a master of fence — still do I rehearse 
with hearty zeal thy titles, Caesar,^* and pursue thy 
march of glory. Come, then, and if the conquest 
of the foe leaves thee a vacant hour, O cast a kindly 
glance upon my gift. 

^^ Our Roman fathers gave the name oifehrua to 
instruments of purification : even to this day there are 
many proofs that such was the meaning of the word. 
The pontiffs ask the King ^ and the Flamen for woollen 
cloths, which in the tongue of the ancients had the 



quaeque capit lictor domibus purgamina versis 

torrida cum mica farra, vocantur idem ; 
25 nomen idem ramo, qui caesus ab arbore pura 

casta sacerdotum tempora fronde tegit. 
ipse ego flaminicam poscentem februa vidi ; 

februa poscenti pinea virga data est. 
denique quodcumque est, quo corpora nostra piantur, 
30 hoc apud intonsos nomen habebat avos. 
mensis ab his dictus, secta quia pelle Luperci 

omne solum lustrant idque piamen habent, 
aut quia placatis sunt tempora pura sepulcris, 

tunc cum ferales praeteriere dies. 
35 omne nefas omnemque mah purgamina causam 

credebant nostri tollere posse senes. 
Graecia principium moris dedit : ilia nocentis 

impia lustratos ponere facta put at. 
Actoriden Peleus, ipsum quoque Pelea Phoci 
40 caede per Haemonias solvit Acastus aquas : 
vectam frenatis per inane draconibus Aegeus 

credulus inmerita Phasida fovit ope : 
Amphiare'iades Naupactoo Acheloo 

" solve nefas " dixit, solvit et ille nefas. 
45 a ! nimium faciles, qui tristia crimina caedis 

fluminea tolli posse putatis aqua ! 
sed tamen (antiqui ne nescius ordinis erres) 

primus, ut est, lani mensis et ante fuit ; 

• Uncertain : perhaps the pine (28). 
«• See below, 1. 267. 

« See below, 1. 533. 

** Patroclus, grandson of Actor. 

* Medea, named from Phasis, a river of Colchis. She 
went to Athens from Corinth in a flying chariot drawn by 

^ Alcmaeon, who had slain his mother Eriphyle, for 


FASTI, II. 23-48 

name oi februa. When houses are swept out, the 
toasted spelt and salt which the officer gets as means 
of cleansing are called by the same name. The same 
name is given to the bough, which, cut from a pure 
tree," wreaths with its leaves the holy brows of priests. 
I myself have seen the Flamen's wife (Flaminicd) 
begging for februa ; at her request for februa a twig 
of pine was given her. In short, anything used to 
cleanse our bodies went by that name in the time of 
our unshorn forefathers. The month is called after 
these things, because the Luperci ^ purify the whole 
ground with strips of hide, which are their instru- 
ments of cleansing, or because the season is pure 
after that peace-offerings have been made at the 
graves and the days devoted to the dead are past.*' 
Our sires believed that every sin and every cause 
of ill could be wiped out by rites of purgation. 
Greece set the example : she deems that the 
guilty can rid themselves of their crimes by being 
purified. Peleus cleansed Actorides,^ and Acastus 
cleansed Peleus himself from the blood of Phocus 
by the Haemonian waters. Wafted through the 
void by bridled dragons, the Phasian witch* received 
a welcome, which she little deserved, at the hands of 
trusting Aegeus. The son of Amphiaraus^ said to 
Naupactian^ Achelous, " O rid me of my sin," and 
the other did rid him of his sin. Fond fools alack ! 
to fancy murder's gruesome stain by river water 
could be washed away ! But yet, lest you should 
err through ignorance of the ancient order, know 
that the month of Janus was of old the first, even as 

accepting the bribe of a necklace to persuade him to attack 
Thebes. He was purified by water from the Achelous. 
« A mistake : Naupactus was far from the Achelous. 



qui sequitur lanum, veteris fait ultimus anni : 
50 tu quoque sacrorum, Termine, finis eras, 
primus enim lani mensis, quia ianua prima est : 

qui sacer est imis manibus, imus erat. 
postmodo creduntur spatio distantia longo 

tempora bis quini continuasse viri. 

b. H-K-FEB-N oj^, 

65 Principio mensis Phrygiae contermina Matri" ' 
Sospita delubris dicitur aucta no vis. 
nunc ubi sint illis, quaeris, sacrata Kalendis 

templa deae ? longa procubuere die. 
cetera ne simili caderent labefacta ruina, 
60 cavit sacrati provida cura ducis, 

sub quo delubris sentitur nulla senectus ; 
nee satis est homines, obligat ille deos. 
templorum positor, templorum sancte repostor, 
sit superis, opto, mutua cura tui ! 
65 dent tibi caelestes, quos tu caelestibus, annos, 
proque tua maneant in statione domo ! 
tunc quoque vicini lucus celebratur Helerni/ 
qua petit aequoreas advena Thybris aquas. 
' ad penetrale Numae Capitolinumque Tonantem 
70 inque lovis summa caeditur arce bidens. 
saepe graves pluvias adopertus nubibus auster 

concitat, aut posita sub nive terra latet. 
^ Helerni Heinsius: ai\erni AX^ Mm^ : asyli UDm^t asiliJL^. 

^ Ovid seems to have supposed that in the old Roman year 
January was the first month and February the last, so that 
they were separated by the " long interval " of ten months ; 
but the Decemvirs brought them together by making February 
to follow January immediately within the same year instead 
of immediately preceding it in the last year. 

" Near the mouth of the Tiber. 

• The temple of Vesta. 

FASTI, II. 49-72 

now it is ; the month that follows January was the 
last of the old year." Thy worship too, O Terminus, 
formed the close of all the sacred rites. For the 
month of Janus came first because the door {janua) 
comes first ; that month was nethermost which to 
the nether shades was consecrated. Afterwards 
the Decemvirs are beHeved to have joined together 
times which had been parted by a long interval. 

Kal. Feb. 1st 

^^ At the beginning of the month Saviour (Sospita) 
Juno, the neighbour of the Phrygian Mother Goddess, 
is said to have been honoured with new shrines. 
If you ask, where are now the temples which on those 
Calends were dedicated to the goddess ? tumbled 
down they are with the long lapse of time. All the 
rest had in like sort gone to wrack and ruin, had it 
not been for the far-seeing care of our sacred chief, 
under whom the shrines feel not the touch of eld ; 
and not content with doing favours to mankind he 
does them to the gods. O saintly soul, who dost 
build and rebuild the temples, I pray the powers 
above may take such care of thee as thou of them ! 
May the celestials grant thee the length of years 
which thou bestowest on them, and may they stand 
on guard before thy house ! 

^■^ Then , too , the grove of H elernus ^ is thronged with 
worshippers, fast by the spot where Tiber, coming 
from afar, makes for the ocean waves. At Numa's 
sanctuary," at the Thunderer's fane upon the Capitol, 
and on the summit of Jove's citadel a sheep is slain. 
Often, muffled in clouds, the South Wind brings up 
heavy rains, or under fallen snow the earth is hid. 



2. AN 3. BN 

Proximus Hesperias Titan abiturus in undas 
gemmea purpureis cum iuga demet equis, 
76 ilia nocte aliquis tollens ad sidera voltum 

dicet " ubi est hodie quae Lyra fulsit heri ? " 
dumque Lyram quaeret, medii quoque terga Leonis 
in Hquidas subito mersa notabit aquas. 

4. CN 

Quern modo caelatum stellis Delphina videbas, 
80 is fugiet visus nocte sequente tuos : 
seu fuit occultis felix in amoribus index, 

Lesbida cum domino seu tulit ille lyram. 
quod mare non novit, quae nescit Ariona tellus ? 

carmine currentes ille tenebat aquas. 
85 saepe sequens agnam lupus est a voce retentus, 

saepe avidum fugiens restitit agna lupum ; 
saepe canes leporesque umbra iacuere sub una, 

et stetit in saxo proxima cerva leae, 
et sine lite loquax cum Palladis alite cornix 
90 sedit, et accipitri iuncta columba fuit. 
Cynthia saepe tuis fertur, vocalis Arion, 

tamquam fraternis obstipuisse modis. 
nomen Arionium Siculas impleverat urbes, 

captaque erat lyricis Ausonis ora sonis ; 
95 inde domum repetens puppem conscendit Arion, 

atque it a quaesitas arte ferebat opes, 
forsitan, infelix, ventos undasque timebas, 

at tibi nave tua tutius aequor erat. 

« See i. 653 note. 
* The story is told by Herodotus, i. 24. 
• The owl. * Diana. 

FASTI, II. 73-98 

IV. NoN. 2nd 

"^ When the next sun, before he sinks into the 
western waves, shall from his purple steeds undo 
the jewelled yoke, someone that night, looking up 
at the stars, shall say, *' Where is to-day the Lyre* 
which yesterday shone bright ? " And while he 
seeks the Lyre, he will mark that the back of the 
Lion also has of a sudden plunged into the watery 

III. NoN. 3rd 

'^ The Dolphin, which of late thou didst see 
fretted with stars, will on the next night escape thy 
gaze. (He was raised to heaven) either because he 
was a lucky go-between in love's intrigues, or because 
he carried the Lesbian lyre and the lyre's master. 
What sea, what land knows not Arion ? ^ By his song 
he used to stay the running waters. Often at his 
voice the wolf in pursuit of the lamb stood still, often 
the lamb halted in fleeing from the ravening wolf; 
often hounds and hares have couched in the same 
covert, and the hind upon the rock has stood beside 
the lioness ; at peace the chattering crow has sat 
with Pallas' bird,^ and the dove has been neighbour 
to the hawk. 'Tis said that Cynthia'^ oft hath stood 
entranced, tuneful Arion, at thy notes, as if the notes 
had been struck by her brother's hand. Arion 's 
fame had filled Sicilian cities, and by the music of 
his lyre he had charmed the Ausonian land. Thence 
wending homewards, he took ship and carried 
with him the wealth his art had won. Perhaps, 
poor wretch, thou didst dread the winds and 
waves, but in sooth the sea was safer for thee than 



namque gubernator destricto constitit ense 
100 ceteraque armata conscia turba manu. 

quid tibi cum gladio ? dubiam rege, navita, puppemi 

non haec sunt digitis arma tenenda tuis. 
ille, metu pavidus, " mortem non deprecor " inquit, 

" sed liceat sumpta pauca referre lyra." 
105 dant veniam ridentque moram. capit ille coronam, 

quae possit crines, Phoebe, decere tuos ; 
induerat Tyrio bis tinctam murice pallam : 

reddidit icta suos pollice chorda sonos, 
flebilibus numeris veluti canentia dura 
110 traiectus penna tempora cantat olor. 
protinus in medias ornatus desilit undas : 

spargitur impulsa caerula puppis aqua, 
inde (fide maius) tergo delphina recurve 

se memorant oneri supposuisse novo ; 
116 ille sedens citharamque tenet pretiumque vehendi 

cantat et aequoreas carmine mulcet aquas. 
di pia facta vident : astris delphina recepit 

luppiter et Stellas iussit habere novem. 

5. D NON 

Nunc mihi mille sonos, quoque est memoratus Achilles, 
120 vellem, Maeonide, pectus inesse tuum, 
dum canimus sacras alterno pectine Nonas : 

maximus hie fastis accumulatur honos. 
deficit ingenium, maioraque viribus urgent : 

haec mihi praecipuo est ore canenda dies. 
125 quid volui demens elegis imponere tantum 

ponderis ? heroi res erat ista pedis, 
sancte pater patriae, tibi plebs, tibi curia nomen 

<» Homer : an epithet applied to him as, according to some 
writers, he was born in Maeonia, the ancient name for a 
portion of Lydia. * Augustus. 


FASTI, II. 99-127 

thy ship. For the helmsman took his stand with a 
drawn sword, and the rest of the conspiring gang 
had weapons in their hands. What wouldst thou 
with a sword ? Steer the crazy bark, thou mariner ; 
these weapons ill befit thy hands. Quaking with fear 
the bard, " I deprecate not death," said he, " but 
let me take my lyre and play a httle." They gave 
him leave and laughed at the delay. He took the 
crown that might well, Phoebus, become thy locks ; 
he donned his robe twice dipped in Tyrian purple : 
touched by his thumb, the strings gave back a music 
all their own, such notes as the swan chants in 
mournful numbers when the cruel shaft has pierced 
his snowy brow. Straightway, with all his finery 
on, he leaped plump down into the waves : the 
refluent water splashed the azure poop. Thereupon 
they say (it sounds past credence) a dolphin did 
submit his arched back to the unusual weight ; 
seated there Arion grasped his lyre and paid his fare 
in song, and with his chant he charmed the ocean 
waves. The gods see pious deeds : Jupiter received 
the dolphin among the constellations, and bade him 
have nine stars. 

NoN. 5th 

129 ^Q^ could I wish for a thousand tongues and 
for that soul of thine, Maeonides," which glorified 
Achilles, while I sing in distiches the sacred Nones. 
This is the greatest honour that is heaped upon the 
calendar. My genius faints ; the burden is beyond 
my strength : this day above all others is to be sung 
by me. Fool that I was, how durst I lay so great 
a weight on elegiac verse ? the theme was one for 
the heroic stanza. Holy Father of thy Country,'' this 
D 65 


hoc dedit, hoc dedimus nos tibi nomen, eques. 
res tamen ante dedit. sere quoque vera tulisti 
130 nomina, iam pridem tu pater orbis eras. 

hoc tu per terras, quod in aethere luppiter alto. 

nomen habes : hominum tu pater, ille deum. 
Romule, concedes : facit hie tua magna tuendo 

moenia, tu dederas transilienda Remo. 
135 te Tatius parvique Cures Caeninaque sensit : 

hoc duce Romanum est solis utrumque latus 
tu breve nescio quid victae telluris habebas : 

quodcumque est alto sub love, Caesar habet, 
tu rapis, hie castas duce se iubet esse maritas : 
140 tu recipis luco, reppulit ille nefas. 

vis tibi grata fuit, florent sub Caesare leges. 

tu domini nomen, principis ille tenet, 
te Remus incusat, veniam dedit hostibus ille. 

caelestem fecit te pater, ille patrem. 
145 iam puer Idaeus media tenus eminet alvo 

et liquidas mixto nectare fundit aquas, 
en etiam, siquis Borean horrere solebat, 

gaudeat : a Zephyris mollior aura venit. 

6. EN 7. FN 8. GN 9. HN 10. AN 

Quintus ab aequoreis nitidum iubar extulit undis 
150 Lucifer, et primi tempora veris erunt. 

•* See Monumentum Ancyranum^ vi. 35, in L.C.L. Velleius 
Paterculus, p. 401. 

" Tatius was king and Cures capital of the Sabines : 
Caenina, a city of Latium associated with them. 

• Augustus encouraged marriage by legislation. 

** Augustus rejected the title dominus, " master of slaves," 
see Suetonius, Aug. 53. 1, preferring that of princeps^ 
"foremost" or "chief." There is no proof that Romulus 
was ever called dominus. 

* Ganymede, popularly identified with Aquarius. The 


FASTI, II. 128-150 

title hath been conferred on thee by the people, 
by the senate, and by us, the knights.'* But history 
had already conferred it ; yet didst thou also receive, 
though late, thy title true ; long time hadst thou 
been the Father of the World. Thou bearest on 
earth the name which Jupiter bears in high heaven : 
of men thou art the father, he of the gods. Romulus, 
thou must yield pride of place. Caesar by his guardian 
care makes great thy city walls ; the walls thou 
gavest to the city were such as Remus could o'erleap. 
Thy power was felt by Tatius,^ the little Cures, and 
Caenina ; under Caesar's leadership whate'er the sun 
beholds on either side is Roman. Thou didst own 
a little stretch of conquered land : all that exists 
beneath the canopy of Jove is Caesar's own. Thou 
didst rape wives : Caesar bade them under his rule be 
chaste." Thou didst admit the guilty to thy grove : he 
hath repelled the wrong. Thine was a rule of force : 
under Caesar it is the laws that reign. Thou didst the 
name of master bear ^ : he bears the name of prince. 
Thou hast an accuser in thy brother Remus : Caesar 
pardoned foemen. To heaven thy father raised thee : 
to heaven Caesar raised his sire. 

1*^ Already the Idaean boy^ shows himself down to 
the waist, and pours a stream of water mixed with 
nectar. Now joy too, ye who shrink from the north 
wind ; from out the west a softer gale doth blow. 

V. Id. 9th 
149 When five days later the Morning Star has lifted 
up its radiance bright from out the ocean waves, 
then is the time that spring begins. But yet be 

true morning rising was then on January 22, the apparent 
rising on February 22, 



ne fallare tamen, restant tibi frigora, restant, 
magnaque discedens signa reliquit hiems. 

11. BN 12. CN 

Tertia nox veniat : Custodem protinus Ursae 

aspicies geminos exeruisse pedes. 
156 inter Hamadryadas iaculatricemque Dianam 

Callisto sacri pars fuit una chori. 
ilia deae tangens arcus " quos tangimus arcus, 

este meae testes virginitatis " ait. 
Cynthia laudavit, " promissa " que " foedera serva, 
160 et comitum princeps tu mihi " dixit '* eris." 
foedera servasset, si non formosa fuisset : 

cavit mortales, de love crimen habet. 
mille feras Phoebe silvis venata redibat 

aut plus aut medium sole tenente diem. 
166 ut tetigit lucum (densa niger ilice lucus, 

in medio gelidae fons erat altus aquae), 
** hie " ait " in silva, virgo Tegeaea, lavemur ! " 

erubuit falso virginis ilia sono. 
dixerat et nymphis : nymphae velamina ponunt, 
170 banc pudet et tardae dat mala signa morae. 
exuerat tunicas ; uteri manifesta tumore 

proditur indicio ponderis ipsa suo. 
cui dea " virgineos, periura Lycaoni, coetus 

desere nee castas pollue " dixit " aquas." 

" Arctophylax, also called Bootes. 

* Called also here Cynthia and Phoebe, in Ovid's allusive 

« See Metam. ii. 409-507. 

FASTI, II. 151-174 

not deceived, cold days are still in stoie for thee, 
indeed they are : departing winter leaves behind 
great tokens of himself. 

III. Id. nth 

^^^ Come the third night, thou shalt straightway 
remark that the Bear-Ward" has thrust forth both 
his feet. Among the Hamadryads in the train 
of the archeress Diana ^ one of the sacred band 
was Callisto." Laying her hand on the bow of the 
goddess, " Thou bow," quoth she, ** which thus I 
touch, bear witness to my virginity." Cynthia 
approved the vow, and said, " Keep but thy 
plighted troth and thou shalt be the foremost of my 
company." Her troth she would have kept if she 
had not been fair. With mortals she was on her 
guard ; it was with Jove she sinned. Of wild beasts 
in the forest Phoebe had chased full many a score, 
and home she was returning at noon or after noon. 
No sooner had she reached the grove — the grove 
where the thick holm-oaks cast a gloom and in the 
midst a deep fountain of cool water rose — than the 
goddess spake : " Here in the wood," quoth she, 
" let's bathe, thou maid of Arcady." At the false 
name of maid the other blushed. The goddess 
spoke to the nymphs as well, and they put off 
their robes. Callisto was ashamed and bashfully 
delayed. But when she doffed her tunic, too plainly, 
seff-convicted, her big belly betrayed the weight 
she bore. To whom the goddess spake : " Daughter 
of Lycaon forsworn, forsake the company of maids and 
defile not the pure waters." Ten times the horned 



176 luna novum decies implerat comibus orbem : 
quae fuerat virgo credita, mater erat. 
laesa furit luno, formam mutatque puellae. 

quid facis ? invito est pectore passa lovem. 
utque ferae vidit turpes in paelice voltus, 
180 " huius in amplexus luppiter " inquit " eat ! '* 
ursa per incultos errabat squalida montes, 

quae fuerat summo nuper amata lovi. 
iam tria lustra puer furto conceptus agebat, 
cum mater nato est obvia facto suo. 
186 ilia quidem, tamquam cognosceret, adstitit amens 
et gemuit : gemitus verba parentis erant. 
banc puer ignarus iaculo fixisset acuto, 

ni foret in superas raptus uterque domos. 
signa propinqua micant : prior est, quam dicimus 
190 Arctophylax formam terga sequentis habet. 
saevit adhuc canamque rogat Saturnia Tethyn, 
Maenaliam tactis ne lavet Arcton aquis. 


Idibus agrestis fumant altaria Fauni 
hie, ubi discretas insula rumpit aquas. 
195 haec fuit ilia dies, in qua Veientibus armis 
ter centum Fabii ter cecidere duo. 
una domus vires et onus susceperat urbis : 

sumunt gentiles arma professa manus. 
egreditur castris miles generosus ab isdem, 
200 e quis dux fieri quilibet aptus erat. 

"In northern latitudes the Bear never sets. 
» The island of the Tiber. 

* The family of the Fabii oiFered to carry on the war against 
Veil alone. Three hundred and six went forth through the 


FASTI, II. 175-200 

moon had filled her orb afresh, when she who had 
been thought a maid was proved a mother. The 
injured Juno raged and changed the damsel's shape. 
Why so ? Against her will Jove ravished her. And 
when in the leman she beheld the ugly features of 
the brute, quoth Juno, ** Let Jupiter now court her 
embraces." But she, who of late had been beloved 
by highest Jove, now roamed, a shaggy she-bear, 
the mountains wild. The child she had conceived in 
sin was now in his third lustre when his mother met 
him. She indeed, as if she knew him, stood distraught 
and growled ; a growl was all the mother's speech. 
Her the stripling with his sharp javelin would have 
pierced, but that they both were caught up into the 
mansions on high. As constellations they sparkle 
beside each other. First comes what we call the 
Bear ; the Bear- Ward seems to follow at her back. 
Still Saturn's daughter frets and begs grey Tethys 
never to touch and wash with her waters the Bear 
of Maenalus." 

Idus. ISth 

^^3 On the Ides the altars of rustic Faunus smoke, 
there where the island^ breaks the parted waters. 
This was the day on which thrice a hundred and thrice 
two Fabii fell by Veientine arms." A single house 
had undertaken the defence and burden of the city : 
the right hands of a single clan proffered and drew 
their swords. From the same camp a noble soldiery 
marched forth, of whom any one was fit to be a 

Carmental gate, and built a fort by the Cremera, which they 
held for two years. But in 477 b.c. they were all destroyed 
by an ambush. See Livy ii. 48-50. 



Carmentis portae dextro^ est via proxima lar.o i 

ire per hanc noli, quisquis es ; omen habet. 
ilia fama refert Fabios exisse trecentos : 

porta vacat culpa, sed tamen omen habet. 
205 ut celeri passu Cremeram tetigere rapaeem 

(turbidus hibernis ille fluebat aquis), 
castra loco ponunt : destrictis ensibus ipsi 

Tyrrhenum valido Marte per agmen eunt, 
non aliter quam cum Libyca de gente leones 
210 invadunt sparsos lata per arva greges. 
difFugiunt hostes inhonestaque volnera tergo 

accipiunt : Tusco sanguine terra rubet. 
sic iterum, sic saepe cadunt. ubi vincere aperte 

non datur, insidias armaque tecta parant. 
215 campus erat, campi claudebant ultima coUes 

silvaque montanas occulere apta feras. 
in medio paucos armentaque rara relinquunt, 

cetera virgultis abdita turba latet. 
ecce velut torrens undis pluvialibus auctus 
220 aut nive, quae Zephyro victa tepente fluit, 
per sata perque vias fertur nee, ut ante solebat, 

riparum clausas margine finit aquas : 
sic Fabii vallem latis discursibus implent, 

quodque vident, sternunt, nee metus alter inest. 
225 quo ruitis, generosa domus ? male creditis hosti : 

simplex nobilitas, perfida tela cave ! 
fraude perit virtus : in apertos undique campos 

prosiliunt hostes et latus omne tenent. 
quid faciant pauci contra tot milia fortes ? 
230 quidve, quod in misero tempore restet, habent ? 

^ dextroX^m^: dextra, A{corrected)UMm\ 

" The right-hand arch of the Porta Carmentalis, next to 
the temple of Janus, was unlucky. 


FASTI, II. 201-230 

leader. The nearest way is by the right-hand arch 
of Carmentis' gate : " go not that way, whoe'er thou 
art : 'tis ominous. By it, the rumour runs, the three 
hundred Fabii went forth. No blame attaches to 
the gate, but still 'tis ominous. When at quick 
pace they reached the rushing Cremera ^ (it flowed 
turbid with winter rain) they pitched their camp on 
the spot, and with drawn swords broke through the 
Tyrrhenian array right valiantly, even as lions of 
the Libyan breed attack herds scattered through 
spacious fields. The foemen flee dispersed, stabbed 
in the back with wounds dishonourable : with Tuscan 
blood the earth is red. So yet again, so oft they fall. 
When open victory was denied them, they set an 
ambush of armed men in wait. A plain there was, 
bounded by hills and forest, where the mountain 
beasts could find commodious lair. In the midst the 
foe left a few of their number and some scattered 
herds : the rest of the host lurked hidden in the 
thickets. Lo, as a torrent, swollen by rain or snow 
which the warm West Wind has melted, sweeps 
across the cornfields, across the roads, nor keeps its 
waters pent within the wonted limit of its banks, 
so the Fabii rushed here and there broadcast about 
the vale ; all that they saw they felled ; no other 
fear they knew. Whither away, ye scions of an 
illustrious house? 'Tis ill to trust the foe. O 
noble hearts and simple, beware of treacherous 
blades ! By fraud is valour vanquished : from 
every hand the foe leaps forth into the open plain, 
and every side they hold. What can a handful of 
the brave do against so many thousands ? Or where 
can they look for help in such extremity ? As a 
* A stream near Veii. 



sicut aper longe silvis Laurentibus actus 

fulmineo celeres dissipat ore canes, 
mox tamen ipse perit, sic non moriuntur inulti 

volneraque alterna dantque feruntque manu. 
235 una dies Fabios ad bellum miserat omnes : 

ad bellum missos perdidit una dies, 
ut tamen Herculeae superessent semina gentis, 

credibile est ipsos consuluisse deos ; 
nam puer impubes et adhuc non utilis armis 
240 unus de Fabia gente relictus erat, 
scilicet ut posses olim tu, Maxime, nasci, 

cui res cunctando restituenda foret. 

14. EN 

Continuata loco tria sidera, Corvus et Anguis 
et medius Crater inter utrumque iacet. 
245 Idibus ilia latent, oriuntur nocte sequenti. 
quae tibi cur tria sint tam sociata, canam. 
forte lovi Phoebus festum sollemne parabat 
(non faciet longas fabula nostra moras) : 

* i, mea " dixit " avis, ne quid pia sacra moretur, 
250 et tenuem vivis fontibus adfer aquam." 

corvus inauratum pedibus cratera recurvis 

tollit et aerium pervolat altus iter, 
stabat adhuc duris ficus densissima pomis : 

temptat eam rostro ; non erat apta legi. 
255 inmemor imperii sedisse sub arbore fertur, 

dum fierent tarda dulcia poma mora, 
iamque satur nigris longum rapit unguibus hydrum 

ad dominumque redit fictaque verba refert : 

* The Fabii claimed descent from Hercules and Evander. 

^ Q. Fabius Maximus Cunctator. 
* The astronomical lore is incorrect. 


FASTI, II. 231-268 

boar, hunted afar from the Laurentine woods, 
scatters the swift hounds with thunderous snout, 
but soon himself is slain, so do they die not un- 
avenged, giving and taking wounds alternately. One 
day sent forth to war the Fabii all : one day undid all 
that were sent to war. Yet may we believe that the 
gods themselves took thought to save the seed of 
the Herculean ° house ; for a boy under age, too young 
to bear arms, was left alone of all the Fabian clan, 
to the end, no doubt, that thou, Maximus,^ mightest 
one day be born to save the commonwealth by 
biding time. 

XVI. Kal. Mart. 14th 

243 Three constellations are grouped together — the 
Raven, the Snake, and the Bowl, which Ues midway 
between the other two. On the Ides they are 
invisible : they rise the following night.*' Why the 
three are so closely linked together, I will tell to 
thee in verse. It chanced that Phoebus was pre- 
paring a solemn feast for Jupiter : my tale shall not 
waste time. ** Go, my bird," said Phoebus, ** that 
naught may delay the pious rites, and bring a little 
water from running springs." The raven caught up 
a gilded bowl in his hooked claws and flew aloft on 
his airy journey. A fig-tree stood loaded with fruit 
still unripe : the raven tried it with his beak, but 
it was not fit to gather. Unmindful of his orders 
he perched, 'tis said, under the tree to wait till 
the fruit should sweeten hngeringly. And when 
at last he ate his fill, he snatched a long water- 
snake in his black talons, and returning to his 
master brought back a lying tale : ** This snake 




" hie mihi causa morae, vi varum obsessor aquarum : 
260 hie tenuit fontes offieiumque meum." 

" addis " ait *' eulpae mendaeia," Phoebus " et audes 

fatidicum verbis fallere velle deum ? 
at tibi, dum laetens haerebit in arbor e fieus, 
de nullo gelidae fonte bibentur aquae.** 
265 dixit, et antiqui monumenta perennia faeti, 
Anguis, Avis, Crater sidera iuncta micant. 

15. F LVPER • NP 

Tertia post Idus nudos aurora Lupercos 

aspicit, et Fauni sacra bicornis eunt. 
dicite, Pierides, sacrorum quae sit origo, 
270 attigerint Latias unde petit a domos. 

Pana deum pecoris veteres coluisse feruntur 

Arcades : Arcadiis plurimus ille iugis. 
testis erit Pholoe, testes Stymphalides undae, 

quique citis Ladon in mare currit aquis, 
275 cinctaque pinetis nemoris iuga Nonacrini, 

altaque Cyllene^ Parrhasiaeque nives. 
Pan erat armenti, Pan ilhc numen equarum ; 

munus ob incolumes ille ferebat oves. 
transtulit Evander silvestria numina secum ; 
280 hie, ubi nunc urbs est, tum locus urbis erat. 
inde deum colimus, devectaque sacra Pelasgis 

^ cyllene m^ : cillene X^ : troezenae A Um^ : troezene X^ : 
troezenae D : troezeniae M^ : traicene M^ : Tricrene MerkeV 

" Here identified with Faunus. 

* A mountain in Arcadia, source of the river Ladon. 

" A lake in Arcadia. 

* Nonacris, a town of Arcadia. 

• A mountain in Arcadia. 


FASTI, II. 259-281 

was the cause of my delay : he blocked the living 
water : he kept the spring from flowing and me 
from doing my duty." " You aggravate your fault," 
quoth Phoebus, " by your lies, and dare attempt 
to cheat the god of prophecy by fibs ? But as for 
you, you shall drink cool water from no spring until 
the figs upon the tree grow juicy." He spake, and 
for a perpetual memorial of this ancient incident 
the constellations of the Snake, the Bird, and the 
Bowl now sparkle side by side. 

XV. Kal. 15th 

28' The third morn after the Ides beholds the naked 
Luperci, and then, too, come the rites of two-horned 
Faunus. Declare, Pierian Muses, the origin of 
the rites, and from what quarter they were fetched 
and reached our Latin homes. The Arcadians of 
old are said to have worshipped Pan,** the god of 
cattle, him who haunts the Arcadian ridges. Witness 
Mount Pholoe,'' witness the Stymphalian waters,'' and 
the Ladon that seaward runs with rapid current : 
witness the ridges of the Nonacrine^ grove begirt 
with pinewoods : witness high Cyllene ^ and the 
Parrhasian snows. There Pan was the deity of 
herds, and there, too, of mares; he received gifts for 
keeping safe the sheep. Evander brought with him 
across the sea his woodland deities ; where now the 
city stands, there was then naught but the city's 
site. Hence we worship the god, and the Flamen 
Dialis still performs in the olden way the rites ^ 

' The Lupercalia. See Appendix, p. 389. 



flamen adhuc prisco more Dialis obit.^ 
cur igitur currant, et cur (sic currere mos est) 

nuda ferant posita corpora veste, rogas ? 
285 ipse deus velox discurrere gaudet in altis 

montibus et subitas concipit ipse fugas ; 
ipse deus nudus nudos iubet ire ministros, 

nee satis ad cursus commoda vestis erat. 
ante lovem genitum terras habuisse feruntur 
290 Arcades, et luna gens prior ilia fuit. 
vita feris similis, nullos agitata per usus : 

artis adhuc expers et rude volgus erat. 
pro domibus frondes norant, pro frugibus herbas, 

nectar erat palmis hausta duabus aqua. 
295 nullus anhelabat sub adunco vomere taurus, 

nulla sub imperio terra eolentis erat : 
nullus adhuc erat usus equi, se quisque ferebat : 

ibat ovis lana corpus amicta sua. 
sub love durabant et corpora nuda gerebant 
300 docta graves imbres et tolerare Notos. 

nunc quoque detecti referunt monumenta vetusti 

moris et antiquas testificantur opes, 
sed cur praecipue fugiat velamina Faunus, 

traditur antiqui fabula plena ioci. 
305 forte comes dominae iuvenis Tirynthius ibat : 

vidit ab excelso Faunus utrumque iugo. 
vidit et incaluit, " montana " que " numina," dixit 

" nil mihi vobiscum est : hie meus ardor erit." 

1 adhuc three r : ad haec A UDX^M^m^ : ab hoc M^m^S". 
obit Bentley, Madvig (Adversaria ii. 106, reading adhuc /or 
ad haec): erit A{corrected)DM^: erat UXM^m: eat or 
adit Heinsius: agit Burman. The usual reading ad haec 
. . . erat (or erit) yields no adequate sense. OBIT for ERIT 
is an easy and probable correction, 


FASTI, II. 282-308 

brought hither by the Pelasgians." You ask, 
Why then do the Luperci run ? and why do they 
strip themselves and bear their bodies naked, for so 
it is their wont to run ? The god himself loves to 
scamper, fleet of foot, about the high mountains, 
and he himself takes suddenly to flight. The god 
himself is nude and bids his ministers go nude : 
besides, raiment sorted not well with running. The 
Arcadians are said to have possessed their land before 
the birth of Jove, and that folk is older than the 
moon.^ Their life was like that of beasts, unprofit- 
ably spent ; artless as yet and raw was the common 
herd. Leaves did they use for houses, herbs for 
corn : water scooped up in two hollows of the hands 
to them was nectar. No bull panted under the 
weight of the bent ploughshare : no land was under 
the dominion of the husbandman : there was as yet 
no use for horses, every man carried his own weight : 
the sheep went clothed in its own wool. Under the 
open sky they lived and went about naked, inured 
to heavy showers and rainy winds. Even to this 
day the unclad ministers recall the memory of the 
olden custom and attest what comforts the ancients 

30^ But to explain why Faunus should particularly 
eschew the use of drapery a merry tale is handed 
down from days of old. As chance would have it, 
the Tirynthian youth was walking in the company of 
his mistress " ; Faunus saw them both from a high ridge. 
He saw and burned. " Ye mountain elves," quoth 
he, " I'm done with you. Yon shall be my true flame." 

* Evander, as an Arcadian, for the Arcadians were said to 
be Pelasgians. ^ They were called irpoaeX-npoi. 

* Hercules and Omphale, a princess of Lydia (Maeonia). 



ibat odoratis humeros perfusa capillis 
310 Maeonis aurato conspicienda sinu : 
aurea pellebant tepidos umbracula soles, 

quae tamen Herculeae sustinuere manus. 
iam Bacchi nemus et Tmoli vineta tenebat, 
Hesperos et fusco roscidus ibat equo. 
315 antra subit tofis laqueata et pumice vivo ; 
garrulus in primo limine rivus erat. 
dumque parant epulas potandaque vina ministri, 

cultibus Alciden instruit ilia suis. 
dat tenuis tunicas Gaetulo murice tinctas, 
320 dat teretem zonam, qua modo cincta fuit. 

ventre minor zona est ; tunicarum vincla relaxat, 

ut posset magnas exeruisse manus. 

fregerat armillas non ilia ad brachia fact as, 

scindebant magni vincula parva pedes. 

325 ipsa capit clavamque gravem spoliumque leonis 

conditaque in pharetra tela minora sua. 

sic epulis functi sic dant sua corpora somno, 

et positis iuxta secubuere toris ; 
causa, repertori vitis quia sacra parabant, 
330 quae facerent pure, cum foret orta dies. 

noctis erat medium, quid non amor improbus audet ? 

roscida per tenebras Faunus ad antra venit, 
utque videt comites somno vinoque solutos, 
spem capit in dominis esse soporis idem. 
335 intrat, et hue illuc temerarius errat adulter 
et praefert cautas subsequiturque manus. 
venerat ad strati captata cubilia lecti 

« A mountain in Lydia. 

* Made of the murex dye, for which the north African 
coast was famous. 

FASTI, II. 309-337 

As the Maeonian damsel tripped along, her scented 
locks streamed down her shoulders ; her bosom shone 
resplendent with golden braid. A golden parasol 
kept off the sun's warm beams ; and yet it was the 
hands of Hercules that bore it up. Now had she 
reached the grove of Bacchus and the vineyards 
of Tmolus," and dewy Hesperus rode on his dusky 
steed. She passed within a cave, whereof the 
fretted roof was all of tufa and of living rock, and at 
the mouth there ran a babbling brook. While the 
attendants were making ready the viands and the 
wine for the wassail, she arrayed Alcides in her own 
garb. She gave him gauzy tunics in Gaetuhan 
purple ^ dipped ; she gave him the dainty girdle, 
which but now had girt her waist. For his belly the 
girdle was too small ; he undid the clasps of the 
tunics to thrust out his big hands. The bracelets 
he had broken, not made to fit those arms ; his big 
feet split the Httle shoes. She herself took the 
heavy club, the hon's skin, and the lesser weapons 
stored in their quiver. In such array they feasted, 
in such array they resigned themselves to slumber, 
and lay down apart on beds set side by side ; the 
reason was that they were preparing to celebrate in 
all purity, when day should dawn, a festival in honour 
of the discoverer of the vine. 'Twas midnight. 
What durst not wanton love essay ? Through the 
gloom came Faunus to the dewy cave, and when 
he saw the attendants in drunken slumber sunk, he 
conceived a hope that their masters might be as 
sound asleep. He entered and, rash lecher, he 
wandered to and fro ; with hands outstretched before 
him he felt his cautious way. At last he reached by 
groping the beds, where they were spread, and at 



et felix prima sorte futurus erat. 
ut tetigit fulvi saetis hirsuta leonis 
340 vellera, pertimuit sustinuitque manum 
attonitusque metu rediit, ut saepe viator 

turbatus viso rettulit angue pedem. 
inde tori, qui iunctus erat, velamina tangit 
mollia, mendaci decipiturque nota. 
345 ascendit spondaque sibi propiore recumbit, 
et tumidum cornu durius inguen erat. 
interea tunicas ora subducit ab ima : 
horrebant densis aspera crura pilis. 
cetera temptantem subito Tirynthius heros 
350 reppulit : e summo decidit ille toro. 

fit sonus, inclamat comites et lumina poscit 

Maeonis : inlatis ignibus acta patent, 
ille gemit lecto graviter deiectus ab alto, 
membraque de dura vix sua tollit humo. 
355 ridet et Alcides et qui videre iacentem, 
ridet amatorem Lyda puella suum. 
veste deus lusus fallentes lumina vestes 
non amat et nudos ad sua sacra vocat. 
adde peregrinis causas, mea Musa, Latinas, 
360 inque suo noster pulvere currat equus. 
cornipedi Fauno caesa de more capella 
venit ad exiguas turba vocata dapes. 
dumque sacerdotes veribus transuta salignis 
exta parant, medias sole tenente vias, 
365 Romulus et frater pastoralisque iuventus 
solibus et campo corpora nuda dabant ; 
caestibus et iaculis et misso pondere saxi 

brachia per lusus experienda dabant : 
pastor ab excelso " per devia rura iuvencos, 
370 Romule, praedones, et Reme," dixit " agunt." 

■ Hercules and Lydian Omphale. See 11. 305, 310. 

FASTI, II. 338-370 

his first venture fortune smiled on him. When he 
touched the sjkin, all shagged with bristles, of the 
tawny lion, he was terrified, and stayed his hand, 
and thunderstruck recoiled, as oft at sight of a 
snake a wayfarer starts back dismayed. Next he 
touched the soft drapery of the neighbouring couch, 
and its deceptive touch beguiled him. He mounted 
and laid him down on the nearer side. . . . There 
he encountered legs that bristled with thick rough 
hair. When he would have proceeded further, the 
Tirynthian ° hero thrust him away of a sudden, and 
down he fell from the top of the bed. There was a 
crash. The Maeonian damsel called for her attendants 
and demanded a light : torches were brought in, and 
the murder was out. After his heavy fall from the 
high couch Faunus groaned and scarce could lift his 
limbs from the hard ground. Alcides laughed, and 
so did all who saw him lying ; the Lydian wench 
laughed also at her lover. Thus betrayed by vesture, 
the god loves not garments which deceive the eye, 
and he bids his worshippers come naked to his rites. 
^^^ To foreign reasons add, my Muse, some Latin 
ones, and let my steed career in his own dusty course. 
A she-goat had been sacrificed as usual to hoof-footed 
Faunus, and a crowd had come by invitation to 
partake of the scanty repast. While the priests 
were dressing the inwards, stuck on willow spits, 
the sun then riding in mid heaven, Romulus and his 
brother and the shepherd youth were exercising 
their naked bodies in the sunshine on the plain ; 
they tried in sport the strength of their arms by the 
gloves and javelins and by hurling ponderous stones. 
Cried a shepherd from a height, " O Romulus and 
Remus, robbers are driving off the bullocks across the 



longum erat armari : diversis exit uterque 

partibus ; occursu praeda recepta Remi. 
ut rediit, veribus stridentia detrahit exta 

atque ait " haec certe non nisi victor edet." 
375 dicta facit Fabiique simul. venit inritus illuc 

Romulus et mensas ossaque nuda videt ; 
risit et indoluit Fabios potuisse Remumque 

vincere, Quintilios non potuisse suos. 
fama manet facti ; posito velamine currunt, 
380 et memorem famam, quod bene cessit, habet. 
forsitan et quaeras, cur sit locus ille Lupercal, 

quaeve diem tali nomine causa notet. 
Silvia Vestalis caelestia semina partu 

ediderat patruo regna tenente suo. 
385 is iubet auferri parvos et in amne necari : 

quid facis ? ex istis Romulus alter erit. 
iussa recusantes peragunt lacrimosa ministri, 

flent tamen et geminos in loca iussa ferunt. 
Albula, quem Tiberim mersus Tiberinus in undis 
390 reddidit, hibernis forte tumebat aquis : 
hie, ubi nunc fora sunt, lintres errare videres, 

quaque iacent valles, Maxime Circe, tuae. 
hue ubi venerunt (neque enim procedere possunt 

longius), ex illis unus et alter ait : 
396 " at quam sunt similes ! at quam formosus uterque ! 

plus tamen ex illis iste vigoris habet. 
si genus arguitur voltu, nisi fallit imago, 

nescio quem in vobis suspicor esse deum — 

<* Ovid is endeavouring to explain the foundations of the 
two colleges of Luperci, the Fabii or Fabiani, and the Quintilii 
or Quintiliales. 

'' A cave on the E. of the Palatine, said to have been the 
she-wolf's den. " See iv. 47. 


FASTI, II. 371-398 

pathless lands." To arm would have been tedious ; 
out went the brothers both in opposite directions ; 
but 'twas Remus who fell in with the freebooters 
and brought the booty back. On his return he drew 
the hissing inwards from the spits and said, " None 
but the victor surely shall eat these." He did as he 
had said, he and the Fabii together. Thither came 
Romulus foiled, and saw the empty tables and bare 
bones. He laughed, and grieved that Remus and the 
Fabii could have conquered when his own Quintilii 
could not. The fame of the deed endures : they run 
stripped, and the success of that day enjoys a lasting 

^1 Perhaps you may also ask why that place ^ is called 
the Lupercal, and what is the reason for denoting 
the day by such a name. Silvia, a Vestal, had given 
birth to heavenly babes, what time her uncle sat 
upon the throne. He ordered the infant boys to 
be carried away and drowned in the river. Rash 
man ! one of those babes will yet be Romulus. 
Reluctantly his servants carry out the mournful 
orders. Yet they weep as they bear the twins to the 
place appointed. It chanced that the Albula, which 
took the name of Tiber from Tiberinus," drowned 
in its waves, was swollen with winter rain : where 
now the forums'* are, and where the valley of the 
Circus Maximus hes, you might see boats floating 
about. Hither when they were come, for farther 
they could not go, one or other of them said : " But 
how like they are ! how beautiful is each ! Yet of 
the two this one has more vigour. If lineage may 
be infen-ed from features, unless appearances deceive 
me, I fancy that some god is in you — but if some god 
•* Forum Romanura and Forum Boarium. 



at si quis vestrae deus esset originis auctor, 
400 in tarn praecipiti tempore ferret opem ; 
ferret opem certe, si non ope mater egeret, 

quae facta est uno mater et orba die. 
nata simul, moritura simul, simul ite sub undas 
corpora ! " desierat deposuitque sinu. 
405 vagierunt ambo pariter : sensisse putares, 
hi redeunt udis in sua tecta genis. 
sustinet impositos summa cavus alveus unda : 

heu quantum fati parva tabella tulit ! 
alveus in limo silvis adpulsus opacis 
410 paulatim fluvio deficiente sedet. 

arbor erat : remanent vestigia, quaeque vocatur 

Rumina nunc ficus, Romula ficus erat. 
venit ad expositos (mirum !) lupa feta gemellos : 
quis credat pueris non nocuisse feram ? 
415 non nocuisse parum est, prodest quoque : quos lupa 
perdere cognatae sustinuere manus. 
constitit et cauda teneris blanditur alumnis 

et fingit lingua corpora bina sua. 
Marte satos scires : timor afuit, ubera ducunt 
420 nee sibi promissi lactis aluntur ope. 
ilia loco nomen fecit, locus ipse Lupercis. 
magna dati nutrix praemia lactis habet. 
quid vetat Arcadio dictos a monte Lupercos ? 
Faunus in Arcadia templa Lycaeus habet. 
425 nupta, quid expectas ? non tu pollentibus herbls 

* Rumina or Ruminalis, from ruma or rumis^ a " dug." 
'' He now suggests a Greek derivation, on the supposition 
that the Lupercalia had been brought from Arcadia. The 
mountain is Mt. Lycaeus, where was a sanctuary of Pan, 
whom he identifies with Faunus. 


FASTI, II. 399-425 

were indeed the author of your being, he would come 
to your rescue in so perilous an hour ; surely he 
would come to the rescue, unless the mother needed 
his help, she who has borne and lost her children in 
a single day. Ye bodies, born together to die 
together, together pass beneath the waves ! " He 
ended, and from his bosom he laid down the twins. 
Both squalled alike : you would fancy they under- 
stood. With wet cheeks the bearers wended their 
homeward way. The hollow ark in which the babes 
were laid supported them on the surface of the 
water : ah me ! how big a fate the little plank 
upbore ! The ark drifted towards a shady wood, 
and, as the water gradually shoaled, it grounded 
on the mud. There was a tree (traces of it still 
remain), which is now called the Rumina" fig-tree, 
but was once the Romulan fig-tree. A she-wolf 
which had cast her whelps came, wondrous to tell, 
to the abandoned twins : who could believe that 
the brute would not harm the boys ? Far from 
harming, she helped them ; and they whom ruth- 
less kinsfolk would have killed with their own hands 
were suckled by a wolf! She halted and fawned 
on the tender babes with her tail, and licked into 
shape their two bodies with her tongue. You 
might know they were scions of Mars : fearless, 
they sucked her dugs and were fed on a supply of 
milk that was never meant for them. The she-wolf 
(lupa) gave her name to the place, and the place gave 
their name to the Luperci. Great is the reward the 
nurse has got for the milk she gave. Why should 
not the Luperci have been named after the Arcadian 
mountain ? Lycaean Faunus has temples in Arcadia.'' 
*25 Thou bride, why tarry ? Neither potent herbs, 



nee prece nee magico carmine mater eris ; 
excipe fecundae patienter verbera dextrae, 

iam socer optatum nomen habebit avi. 
nam fuit ilia dies, dura eum sorte maritae 
430 reddebant uteri pignora rara sui. 

** quid mihi " clamabat " prodest rapuisse Sabinas/ 

Romulus (hoc illo sceptra tenente fuit) 
" si mea non vires, sed bellum iniuria fecit ? 

utilius fuerat non habuisse nurus." 
435 monte sub Esquilio multis incaeduus annis 

lunonis magnae nomine lucus erat. 
hue ubi venerunt, pariter nuptaeque virique 

suppliciter posito procubuere genu, 
cum subito motae tremuere cacumina silvae 
440 et dea per lucos mira locuta suos : 

" Italidas matres " inquit " sacer hircus inito.*' 

obstipuit dubio territa turba sono. 
augur erat (nomen longis intercidit annis, 

nuper ab Etrusca venerat exul humo), 
445 ille caprum mactat, iussae sua terga puellae 

pellibus exsectis percutienda dabant. 
luna resumebat decimo nova cornua motu, 

virque pater subito nuptaque mater erat. 
gratia Lucinae ! dedit haec tibi nomina lucus, 
450 aut quia principium tu, dea, lucis habes. 
parce, precor, gravidis, facilis Lucina, puellis 

maturumque utero molliter aufer onus. 

orta dies fuerit, tu desine credere ventis : 

" Juno Lucina, who aided women in childbed. 


FASTI, II. 426-453 

nor prayer, nor magic spells shall make of thee a 
mother ; submit with patience to the blows dealt 
by a fruitful hand, soon will your husband's sire 
enjoy the wished -for name of grandsire. For there 
was a day when a hard lot ordained that wives but 
seldom gave their mates the pledges of the womb. 
Cried Romulus (for this befell when he was on 
the throne), " What boots it me to have ravished 
the Sabine women, if the wrong I did has brought 
me not strength but only war ? Better it were 
our sons had never wed." Under the Esquiline 
Mount a sacred grove, untouched by woodman's 
axe for many a year, went by the name of the great 
Juno." Hither when they had come, husbands and 
wives alike in supplication bowed the knee, when of 
a sudden the tops of the trees shook and trembled, 
and wondrous words the goddess spake in her own 
holy grove : " Let the sacred he-goat," said she, " go 
in to Italian matrons." At the ambiguous words the 
crowd stood struck with terror. There was a certain 
augur (his name has dropped out with the long 
years, but he had lately come an exile from the 
Etruscan land) : he slew a he-goat, and at his bidding 
the damsels offered their backs to be beaten with 
thongs cut from the hide. When in her tenth circuit 
the moon was renewing her horns, the husband was 
suddenly made a father and the wife a mother. 
Thanks to Lucina ! this name, goddess, thou didst 
take from the sacred grove (lucus), or because with 
thee is the fount of light (lucis). Gracious Lucina, 
spare, I pray, women with child, and gently lift the 
ripe burden from the womb. 

453 When that day has dawned, then trust no more 



perdidit illius temporis aura fidem ; 
465 flamina non constant, et sex reserata diebus 

carceris Aeolii ianua lata patet. 
iam levis obliqua subsedit Aquarius urna : 

proximus aetherios excipe, Piscis, equos. 
te memorant fratremque tuum (nam iuncta micatis 
460 signa) duos tergo sustinuisse deos. 

terribilem quondam fugiens Typhona Dione, 

tunc cum pro caelo luppiter arma tulit, 
venit ad Euphraten comitata Cupidine parvo 

inque Palaestinae margine sedit aquae. 
465 populus et cannae riparum summa tenebant, 

spemque dabant salices hos quoque posse tegi. 
dum latet, insonuit vento nemus ; ilia timore 

pallet et hostiles credit adesse manus, 
utque sinu tenuit natum, " succurrite, nymphae, 
470 et dis auxilium ferte duobus ! " ait. 

nee mora, prosiluit. pisces subiere gemelli ; 

pro quo nunc dignum sidera munus habent. 
inde nefas ducunt genus hoc Imponere mensis 

nee violant timidi piscibus ora Syri. 

16. G EN 17. H QVIR • M> 

475 Proxima lux vacua est, at tertia dicta Quirino : 
qui tenet hoc nomen, Romulus ante fuit, 
sive quod hasta curis priscis est dicta Sabinis 

(bellicus a telo venit in astra deus), 
sive suum regi nomen posuere Quirites, 
480 seu quia Romanis iunxerat ille Cures. 

" Aeolus, king of the winds, kept them in his house (Homer, 
Od. X. 1-27, Virg. Aen. i. 52). 

* Mother of Venus, here for Venus herself. 

« See 1. 135 n. 

FASTI, II. 454-480 

the winds : at that season the breezes keep not 
faith ; fickle are the blasts, and for six days the 
door of the Aeolian^ gaol unbarred stands open wide. 
Now the light Water-Carrier (Aquarius) sets with 
his tilted urn : next in turn do thou, O Fish, receive 
the heavenly steeds. They say that thou and thy 
brother (for ye are constellations that sparkle side 
by side) did support twain gods upon your backs. 
Once on a time Dione,^ fleeing from the dreadful 
Typhon, when Jupiter bore arms in defence of 
heaven, came to the Euphrates, accompanied by 
the little Cupid, and sat down by the brink of the 
Palestinian water. Poplars and reeds crowned the 
top of the banks, and willows offered hope that the 
fugitives also could find covert there. While she 
lay hid, the grove rustled in the wind. She turned 
pale with fear, and thought that bands of foes were 
near. Holding her child in her lap, " To the rescue, 
nymphs ! " she said, ** and to two deities bring 
help ! " Without delay she sprang forward. Twin 
fish received her on their backs, wherefore they now 
possess the stars, a guerdon meet. Hence scrupulous 
Syrians count it sin to serve up such fry upon the 
table, and will not defile their mouths with fish. 

Xni. Kal. 17th 

*'5 Next day is vacant, but the third is dedicated 
to Quirinus. He who owns this name was Romulus 
before, whether because the ancient Sabines called a 
spear curis, and by his weapon the warlike god won 
his place among the stars ; or because the Quirites 
gave their own name to their king ; or because 
he united Cures'' to Rome. For when the father, 



nam pater armipotens, postquam nova moenia vidit 

multaque Romulea bella peracta manu, 
" luppiter," inquit, " habet Romana potentia vires : 

sanguinis officio non eget ilia mei. 
485 redde patri natum. quamvis intercidit alter, 

pro se proque Remo, qui mihi restat, erit. 
* unus erit, quern tu tolles in caerula caeli * 

tu mihi dixisti : sint rata dicta lovis." 
luppiter adnuerat. nutu tremefactus uterque 
490 est polus, et caeli pondera movit Atlas, 
est locus, antiqui Capreae dixere paludem : 

forte tuis illic, Romule, iura dabas. 
sol fugit, et removent subeuntia nubila caelum, 

et gravis efFusis decidit imber aquis. 
495 hinc tonat, hinc missis abrumpitur ignibus aether : 

fit fuga, rex patriis astra petebat equis. 
luctus erat, falsaeque patres in crimine caedis, 

haesissetque animis forsitan ilia fides ; 
sed Proculus Longa veniebat lulius Alba, 
500 lunaque fulgebat, nee facis usus erat, 

cum subito motu saepes tremuere sinistrae : 

rettulit ille gradus, horrueruntque comae, 
pulcher et humano maior trabeaque decorus 

Romulus in media visus adesse via 
605 et dixisse simul " prohibe lugere Quirites, 

nee violent lacrimis numina nostra suis ; 
tura ferant placentque novum pia turba Quirinum 

et patrias artes militiamque colant." 
iussit et in tenues ocuHs evanuit auras ; 

*• Line 487 is borrowed from Ennius. 
* This story is told by Cicero, De rep. ii. 10. 20, and Livy I 


FASTI, II. 481-509 

lord of arms, saw the new walls and the many wars 
waged by the hand of Romulus, " O Jupiter," 
he said, " the Roman power hath strength : it 
needs not the services of my offspring. To the 
sire give back the son. Though one of the two has 
perished, the one who is left to me will suffice both 
for himself and for Remus. Thou thyself hast said 
to me that there will be one whom thou wilt exalt to 
the blue welkin." Let the word of Jupiter be kept." 
Jupiter nodded assent. At his nod both the poles 
shook, and Atlas shifted the burden of the sky. 
There is a place which the ancients call the She- 
goat's Marsh. It chanced that there, Romulus, 
thou wast judging thy people. The sun vanished 
and rising clouds obscured the heaven, and there 
fell a heavy shower of rain in torrents. Then it 
thundered, then the sky was riven by shooting flames. 
The people fled, and the king upon his father's 
steeds soared to the stars. There was mourning, 
and the senators were falsely charged with murder, 
and haply that suspicion might have stuck in the 
popular mind. But Julius Proculus ^ was coming from 
Alba Longa ; the moon was shining, and there was 
no need of a torch, when of a sudden the hedges on 
his left shook and trembled. He recoiled and his hair 
bristled up. It seemed to him that Romulus, fair of 
aspect, in stature more than human, and clad in a 
goodly robe, stood there in the middle of the road 
and said, " Forbid the Quirites to mourn, let them 
not profane my divinity by their tears. Bid the 
pious throng bring incense and propitiate the new 
Quirinus, and bid them cultivate the arts their fathers 
cultivated, the art of war." So he ordered, and from 
the other's eyes he vanished into thin air. Proculus 


610 convocat hie populos iussaque verba refert. 
templa deo fiunt, collis quoque dictus ab illo est, 

et referunt certi sacra paterna dies, 
lux quoque cur eadem Stultorum festa vocetur, 
accipe. parva quidem causa, sed apta subest. 
615 non habuit doctos tellus antiqua colonos : 
lassabant agiles aspera bella viros. 
plus erat in gladio quam curvo laudis aratro I 

neglectus domino pauca ferebat ager. 
farra tamen veteres iaciebant, farra metebant, 
620 primitias Cereri farra resecta dabant. 
usibus admoniti flammis torrenda dederunt 

multaque peccato damna tulere suo. 
nam modo verrebant nigras pro farre favillas, 
nunc ipsas ignes corripuere casas ; 
625 facta dea est Fornax : laeti Fornace coloni 
orant, ut fruges temperet ilia suas. 
curio legitimis nunc Fornacalia verbis 

maximus indicit nee stata sacra facit, 
inque foro, multa circum pendente tabella, 
530 signatur certa curia quaeque nota ; 

stultaque pars populi, quae sit sua curia, nescit, 
sed facit extrema sacra relata die. 

18. AG 19. BG 20. GG 21. D FERAL -F 

Est honor et tumulis. Animas placate paternas 
parvaque in extinct as munera ferte pyras. 

« See i. 693. 

^ Each tribe was subdivided into ten curiae, each with its 
curio or warden. These priests formed a college presided 
over by one of their number, the Curio Maximus, 


FASTI, II. 510-534 

called the peoples together and reported the words 
as he had been bid. Temples were built to the god, 
and the hill also was named after him, and the rites 
observed by our fathers come round on fixed days, 

^^2 Learn also why the same day is called the Feast 
of Fools. The reason for the name is trifling but 
apt. The earth of old was tilled by men unlearned : 
war's hardships wearied their active frames. More 
glory was to be won by the sword than by the curved 
plough ; the neglected farm yielded its master but 
a small return. Yet spelt" the ancients sowed, and 
spelt they reaped ; of the cut spelt they offered the 
first-fruits to Ceres. Taught by experience they 
toasted the spelt on the fire, and many losses they 
incurred through their own fault. For at one time 
they would sweep up black ashes instead of spelt, 
and at another time the fire caught the huts them- 
selves. So they made the oven into a goddess of 
that name (Fornax) ; delighted with her, the farmers 
prayed that she would temper the heat to the corn 
committed to her charge. At the present day the 
Prime Warden {Curio Maximus) ^ proclaims in a set 
form of words the time for holding the Feast of Ovens 
(Fornacalid), and he celebrates the rites at no fixed 
date ; and round about the Forum hang many tablets, 
on which every ward has its own particular mark. 
The foolish part of the people know not which is 
their own ward, but hold the feast on the last day to 
which it can be postponed. 

XII.-IX. Kal. 18th-21st 

^33 Honour is paid, also, to the tombs. Appease 
the souls of your fathers and bring small gifts to the 



535 parva petunt manes, pietas pro divite grata est 
munere : non avidos Styx habet ima deos. 
tegula porrectis satis est velata coronis 
et sparsae fruges parcaque mica salis 
inque mero mollita Geres violaeque solutae : 
540 haec habeat media testa relicta via. 

nee maiora veto, sed et his placabilis umbra est 

adde preces positis et sua verba focis. 
hunc morem Aeneas, pietatis idoneus auctor, 
attulit in terras, iuste Latine, tuas ; 
645 ille patris Genio sollemnia dona ferebat : 
hinc populi ritus edidicere pios. 
at quondam, dum longa gerunt pugnacibus armis 

bella, Parentales deseruere dies, 
non impune fuit ; nam dicitur omine ab isto 
560 Roma suburbanis incaluisse rogis. 

vix equidem credo : bustis exisse feruntur 

et tacitae questi tempore noctis avi, 
perque vias urbis latosque ululasse per agros 
deformes animas, volgus inane, ferunt. 
555 post ea praeteriti tumulis redduntur honores, 
prodigiisque venit funeribusque modus, 
dum tamen haec fiunt, viduae cessate puellae : 

expectet puros pinea taeda dies, 
nee tibi, quae cupidae matura videbere matri, 
560 comat virgineas hasta recurva comas. 

conde tuas, Hymenaee, faces et ab ignibus atris 
aufer ! habent alias maesta sepulchra faces. 

" At the Feraliay or feasts in memory of the dead, offerings 
were made to them. The chief day was Feb. 21. Parentalia 
is also a name of the festival. 


FASTI, II. 535-562 

extinguished pyres." The ghosts ask but little : 
they value piety more than a costly gift : no greedy 
gods are they who in the world below do haunt the 
banks of Styx. A tile wreathed with votive garlands, 
a sprinkUng of corn, a few grains of salt, bread soaked 
in wine, and some loose violets, these are offerings 
enough : set these on a potsherd and leave it in the 
middle of the road. Not that I forbid larger offerings, 
but even these suffice to appease the shades : add 
prayers and the appropriate words at the hearths set 
up for the purpose. This custom was introduced 
into thy lands, righteous Latinus, by Aeneas, fit 
patron of piety. He to his father's spirit solemn 
offerings brought ; from him the peoples learned the 
pious rites. But once upon a time, waging long wars 
with martial arms, they did neglect the All Souls' 
Days. The negligence was not unpunished ; for 
'tis said that from that ominous day Rome grew hot 
with the funeral fires that burned without the city. 
They say, though I can hardly think it, that the 
ancestral souls did issue from the tombs and make 
their moan in the hours of stilly night ; and hideous 
ghosts, a shadowy throng, they say, did howl about 
the city streets and the wide fields. Afterwards the 
honours which had been omitted were again paid to 
the tombs, and so a limit was put to prodigies and 
funerals. But while these rites are being performed, 
ye ladies change not your widowed state ; let the 
nuptial torch of pine wait till the days are pure. And 
O, thou damsel, who to thine eager mother shalt 
appear all ripe for marriage, let not the bent-back 
spear comb down thy maiden hair ! O God of 
Marriage, hide thy torches, and from these sombre 
fires bear them away ! Far other are the torches 
E 97 


di quoque templorum foribus celentur opertis, 
ture vacent arae stentque sine igne foci. 
565 nunc animae tenues et corpora functa sepulcris 
errant, nunc posito pascitur umbra cibo. 
nee tamen haec ultra, quam tot de mense supersint 

Luciferi, quot habent carmina nostra pedes, 
banc, quia iusta ferunt, dixere Feralia lucem ; 
570 ultima placandis manibus ilia dies. 

ecce anus in mediis residens annosa puellis 

sacra facit Tacitae (nee tamen ipsa tacet), 
et digitis tria tura tribus sub limine ponit, 
qua brevis occultum mus sibi fecit iter ; 
675 tunc cantata ligat cum fusco licia plumbo 
et septem nigras versat in ore fabas, 
quodque pice adstrinxit, quod acu traiecit aena, 

obsutum maenae torret in igne caput ; 
vina quoque instillat : vini quodcumque relictum est, 
580 aut ipsa aut comites, plus tamen ipsa, bibit. 
" hostiles linguas inimicaque vinximus ora " 

dicit discedens ebriaque exit anus, 
protinus a nobis, quae sit dea Muta, requires : 
disce, per antiquos quae mihi nota senes. 
585 luppiter immodico luturnae victus amore 
multa tulit tanto non patienda deo : 
ilia modo in silvis inter coryleta latebat, 

nunc in cognatas desiliebat aquas, 
convocat hie nymphas, Latium quaecumque tenebant, 
590 et iacit in medio talia verba choro : 

* Eleven, as Ovid reckoned {Am. i. 1. 27-30). 

'' Or dea Muta (1. 583), whom Ovid identifies with the 
mother of the public Lares (1. 615). She averted evil words. 

FASTI, II. 663-690 

that light up the rueful grave. Screen, too, the 
gods by shutting up the temple doors ; let no incense 
burn upon the altars, no fire upon the hearths. 
Now do the unsubstantial souls and buried dead 
wander about, now doth the ghost batten upon his 
dole. But this only lasts until there remain as many 
days of the month as there are feet in my verses." 
That day they name the Feralia, because they carry 
[ferunt) to the dead their dues ; it is the last day 
for propitiating the ghosts. 

^'^ Lo, an old hag, seated among girls, performs 
rites in honour of Tacita^ ("the Silent Goddess"), 
but herself is not silent. With three fingers she 
puts three lumps of incense under the threshold, 
where the Uttle mouse has made for herself a secret 
path. Then she binds enchanted threads together 
with dark lead, and mumbles seven black beans in 
her mouth ; and she roasts in the fire the head of a 
small fish which she has sewed up, made fast with 
pitch, and pierced through and through with a bronze 
needle. She also drops wine on it, and the wine 
that is left over she or her companions drink, but she 
gets the larger share. Then as she goes off she says, 
" We have bound fast hostile tongues and unfriendly 
mouths." So exit the old woman drunk. 

^®^ At once you will ask of me, " Who is the goddess 
Muta (* the Mute ') ? " Hear what I learned from 
old men gone in years. Conquered by exceeding 
love of Juturna, Jupiter submitted to many things 
which so great a god ought not to bear. For now 
she would hide in the woods among the hazel- 
thickets, now she would leap down into her sister 
waters. The god called together all the nymphs 
who dwell in Latium, and thus in the midst of the 



** invidet ipsa sibi vitatque, quod expedit illi, 

vestra soror summo concubuisse deo. 
consulite ambobus ; nam quae mea magna voluptas, 

utilitas vestrae magna sororis erit. 
595 vos illi in prima fugienti obsistite ripa, 

ne sua fluminea corpora mergat aqua." 
dixerat : adnuerant nymphae Tiberinides omnes, 

quaeque colunt thalamos, Ilia diva, tuos. 
forte fuit nais, Lara nomine, prima sed illi 
600 dicta bis antiquum syllaba nomen erat, 
ex vitio positum. saepe illi dixerat Almo 

** nata, tene linguam," nee tamen ilia tenet, 
quae simul ac tetigit luturnae stagna sororis, 

" efFuge " ait " ripas " ; dicta refertque lovis. 
605 ilia etiam lunonem adiit, miserataque nuptas 

** naida luturnam vir tuus " inquit " amat." 
luppiter intumuit, quaque est non usa modeste, 

eripit huic linguam Mercuriumque vocat : 
" due banc ad manes ; locus ille silentibus aptus. 
610 nympha, sed infernae nympha paludis erit.** 
iussa lovis fiunt. accepit lucus euntes : 

dicitur ilia duci tunc placuisse deo. 
vim parat hie, voltu pro verbis ilia precatur, 

et frustra muto nititur ore loqui. 
615 fitque gravis geminosque parit, qui compita servant 

et vigilant nostra semper in urbe. Lares. 

* Mother of Romulus. 

* Lala, as if from XaXeti/, " to prattle." 

' God of the river, a tributary of the Tiber, and father of 

^ The Lares Compitales or Praestites were the pubhc 
guardians of the city. They were generally enshrined in 

FASTI, II. 591-616 

troop he spake aloud : ** Your sister is her own 
enemy, and shuns that union with the supreme god 
which is all for her good. Pray look to her interests 
and to mine, for what is a great pleasure to me will 
be a great boon to your sister. When she flees, stop 
her on the edge of the bank, lest she plunge into the 
water of the river." He spake. Assent was given 
by all the nymphs of Tiber and by those who haunt. 
Ilia divine,** thy wedding bowers. It chanced there 
was a Naiad nymph, Lara by name ; but her old 
name was the first syllable repeated twice, and that 
was given her to mark her failing.^ Many a time 
Almo <' had said to her, " My daughter, hold thy 
tongue," but hold it she did not. No sooner did she 
reach the pools of her sister Juturna than, ** Fly the 
banks," said she, and reported the words of Jupiter. 
She even visited Juno and, after expressing her pity 
for married dames, " Your husband," quoth she, 
"is in love with the Naiad Juturna." Jupiter 
fumed and wrenched from her the tongue she had 
used so indiscreetly. He also called for Mercury. 
" Take her to deadland," said he, " that's the place 
for mutes. A nymph she is, but a nymph of the 
infernal marsh she'll be." The orders of Jupiter 
were obeyed. On their way they came to a grove ; 
then it was, they say, that she won the heart of her 
divine conductor. He would have used force ; for 
want of words she pleaded with a look, and all in 
vain she strove to speak with her dumb lips. She 
went with child, and bore twins, who guard the 
cross-roads and ever keep watch in our city : they 
are the Lares. ^ 

pairs. They were specially worshipped at cross-roads, or 
compita. There was a yearly festival, the Compitalia. 



22. EC 

Proxima cognati dixere Caristia cari, 

et venit ad socios turba propinqua deos. 
scilicet a tumulis et, qui periere, propinquis 
620 protinus ad vivos ora referre iuvat 

postque tot amissos, quicquid de sanguine restat, 

aspicere et generis dinumerare gradus. 
innocui veniant : procul hinc, procul impius esto 

frater et in partus mater acerba suos, 
626 cui pater est vivax, qui matris digerit annos, 

quae premit invisam socrus iniqua nurum. 
Tantalidae fratres absint et lasonis uxor 

et quae ruricolis semina tosta dedit, 
et soror et Procne Tereusque duabus iniquus 
630 et quicumque suas per scelus auget opes. 
dis generis date tura boni (Concordia fertur 

ilia praecipue mitis adesse die) 
et libate dapes, ut, grati pignus honoris, 

nutriat incinctos missa patella Lares. 
636 iamque ubi suadebit placidos nox humida somnos, 

larga precaturi sumite vina manu, 
et "bene vos, bene te, patriae pater, optime Caesar! " 

dicite sufFuso per sacra verba mero. 

" Atreus and Thyestes. 

* Medea. « Ino ; see ill. 853. 

'^ Procne and Philomela were daughters of King Pandion. 
Procne married Tereus, and had a son Itys. Tereus seduced 
Philomela, and cut out her tongue. Procne killed Itys, and 
served him up for his father to eat. In the end, Procne 


FASTI, II. 617-638 

VIII. Kal. 22nd 

^^■^ The next day received its name of Caristia 
from dear (cari) kinsfolk. A crowd of near relations 
comes to meet the family gods. Sweet it is, no doubt, 
to recall our thoughts to the living soon as they 
have dwelt upon the grave and on the dear ones 
dead and gone ; sweet, too, after so many lost, to 
look upon those of our blood who are left, and to 
count kin with them. Come none but the innocent ! 
Far, far from here be the unnatural brother, and the 
mother who is harsh to her own offspring, he whose 
father hves too long, he who reckons up his mother's 
years, and the unkind mother-in-law who hates and 
maltreats her daughter-in-law. Here is no place for 
the brothers, scions of Tantalus," for Jason's wife,* 
for her who gave to husbandmen the toasted seeds," 
for Procne and her sister ,<* for Tereus, cruel to them 
both, and for him, whoe'er he be, who amasses 
wealth by crime. Give incense to the family gods, 
ye virtuous ones (on that day above all others Concord 
is said to lend her gentle presence) ; and offer food, 
that the Lares, in their girt-up robes, may feed at 
the platter presented to them as a pledge of the 
homage that they love. And now, when dank night 
invites to slumber calm, fill high the wine-cup for 
the prayer and say, ** Hail to you ! hail to thee. 
Father of thy Country, Caesar the Good ! " and at 
these sacred words pour out the wine. 

became a nightingale, Philomela a swallow, and Tereus a 
hoopoe. In Latin authors, Philomela is the nightingale, 
Procne the swallow. 



23. F TER • N» 

Nox ubi transient, solito celebretur honore 
640 separat indicio qui deus arva suo. 

Termine, sive lapis, sive es defossus in agro 

stipes, ab antiquis tu quoque numen habes. 
te duo diversa domini de parte coronant 
binaque serta tibi binaque liba ferunt. 
645 ara fit : hue ignem curto fert rustica testu 
sump turn de tepidis ipsa colona focis. 
ligna senex minuit concisaque construit arte 

et solida ramos figere pugnat humo : 
turn sicco primas inritat cortice flammas, 
650 stat puer et manibus lata canistra tenet, 
inde ubi ter fruges medios immisit in ignis, 

porrigit incisos filia parva favos. 
vina tenent alii ; libantur singula flammis ; 
spectant, et Unguis Candida turba favet. 
666 spargitur et caeso communis Terminus agno 
nee queritur, lactans cum sibi porca datur. 
conveniunt celebrantque dapes vicinia simplex 

et cantant laudes, Termine sancte, tuas : 
tu populos urbesque et regna ingentia finis : 
660 omnis erit sine te litigiosus ager. 

nulla tibi ambitio est, nullo corrumperis auro, 

legitima servas credita rura fide, 
si tu signasses olim Thyreatida terram, 
corpora non leto missa trecenta forent, 
665 nee foret Othryades congestis lectus in armis. 
o quantum patriae sanguinis ille dedit ! 
quid, nova cum fierent Capitolia ? nempe deorum 

" Between Sparta and Argos : three hundred champions 
on each side fought for it, and Othryades was the only 
survivor of the Spartans. 

FASTI, II. 639-667 

VII. Kal. 23rd 
639 When the night has passed, see to it that the god 
who marks the boundaries of the tilled lands receives 
his wonted honour. O Terminus, whether thou art 
a stone or a stump buried in the field, thou too hast 
been deified from days of yore. Thou art crowned 
by two owners on opposite sides ; they bring thee two 
garlands and two cakes. An altar is built. Hither 
the husbandman's rustic wife brings with her own 
hands on a potsherd the fire which she has taken from 
the warm hearth. The old man chops wood, and 
deftly piles up the billets, and strives to fix the 
branches in the solid earth : then he nurses the 
kindling flames with dry bark, the boy stands by 
and holds the broad basket in his hands. When 
from the basket he has thrice thrown corn into the 
midst of the fire, the little daughter presents the 
cut honeycombs. Others hold vessels of wine. A 
portion of each is cast into the flames. The company 
dressed in white look on and hold their peace. 
Terminus himself, at the meeting of the bounds, is 
sprinkled with the blood of a slaughtered lamb, and 
grumbles not when a sucking pig is given him. The 
simple neighbours meet and hold a feast, and sing 
thy praises, holy Terminus : thou dost set bounds 
to peoples and cities and vast kingdoms ; without 
thee every field would be a root of wrangling. 
Thou courtest no favour, thou art bribed by no gold : 
the lands entrusted to thee thou dost guard in loyal 
good faith. If thou of old hadst marked the bounds 
of the Thyrean land," three hundred men had not 
been done to death, nor had the name of Othryades 
been read on the piled arms. O how he made his 
fatherland to bleed ! What happened when the new 



cuncta lovi cessit turba locumque dedit : 
Terminus, ut veteres memorant, inventus in aede 
670 restitit et magno cum love templa tenet. 

nunc quoque, se supra ne quid nisi sidera cernat, 

exiguum templi tecta foramen habent. 
Termine, post illud levitas tibi libera non est : 

qua positus fueris in statione, mane, 
675 nee tu vicino quicquam concede roganti, 

ne videare hominem praeposuisse lovi ; 
et seu vomeribus seu tu pulsabere rastris, 

clamato " tuus est hie ager, ille suus ! " 
est via, quae populum Laurentes ducit in agros, 
680 quondam Dardanio regna petita duci : 
ilia lanigeri pecoris tibi, Termine, fibris 

sacra videt fieri sextus ab urbe lapis, 
gentibus est aliis tellus data limite certo : 

Romanae spatium est urbis et orbis idem. 

24. G REGIF • N 

686 Nunc mihi dicenda est regis fuga : traxit ab ilia 
sextus ab extremo nomina mense dies, 
ultima Tarquinius Romanae gentis habebat 
regna, vir iniustus, fortis ad arma tamen. 
ceperat hie alias, alias everterat urbes 
690 et Gabios turpi fecerat arte suos. 

namque trium minimus, proles manifesta Superbi, 
in medios hostes nocte silent e venit. 

" This was taken as a sign that wherever a boundary- 
stone was once planted, it was to be sacred and immovable. 

"Apparently ritual demanded that the stone (or altar) 
which represented Terminus should stand under the open sky. 

* The Laurentine way ran towards the sea. The Dar- 
danian chief, Aeneas, landed in the Laurentine territory. 

FASTI, II. 668-692 

Capitol was being built ? Why, the whole company 
of gods withdrew before Jupiter and made room for 
him ; but Terminus, as the ancients relate, remained 
where he was found in the shrine, and shares the 
temple with great Jupiter.^ Even to this day there 
is a small hole in the roof of the temple, that he may 
see naught above him but the stars.''' From that 
time. Terminus, thou hast not been free to flit : 
abide in that station in which thou hast been placed. 
Yield not an inch to a neighbour, though he ask thee, 
lest thou shouldst seem to value man above Jupiter. 
And whether they beat thee with ploughshares or 
with rakes, cry out, " This is thy land, and that 
is his." There is a way that leads folk to the 
Laurentine fields,*' the kingdom once sought by the 
Dardanian chief: on that way the sixth milestone 
from the city witnesses the sacrifice of a woolly 
sheep's guts to thee. Terminus. The land of other 
nations has a fixed boundary : the circuit of Rome 
is the circuit of the world. 

VI. Kal. 24th 
685 Now have I to tell of the Flight of the King ^ : 
from it the sixth day from the end of the month has 
taken its name. The last to reign over the Roman 
people was Tarquin, a man unjust, yet puissant in 
arms. He had taken some cities and overturned 
others, and had made Gabii his own by foul 
play.* For of the king's three sons the youngest, 
true scion of his proud sire, came in the silent 
night into the midst of the foes. They drew 

•* Called Regifugium. See Appendix, p. 394. 
* Sextus Tarquin took Gabii by a trick. The story is also 
in Livy i. 53. 



nudarant gladios : " occidite " dixit " inermem ! 
hoc cupiant fratres Tarquiniusque pater, 
695 qui mea crudeli laceravit verbere terga." 
dicere ut hoc posset, verbera passus erat. 
luna fuit : spectant iuvenem gladiosque recondunt 

tergaque deducta veste notata vident. 
flent quoque et, ut secum tueatur bella, precantur : 
700 callidus ignaris adnuit ille viris. 

iamque potens misso genitorem appellat amico, 

perdendi Gabios quod sibi monstret iter, 
hortus odoratis suberat cultissimus herbis 
sectus humum rivo lene sonantis aquae : 
706 ilhc Tarquinius mandata latentia nati 
accipit et virga hlia summa me tit. 
nuntius ut rediit decussaque Klia dixit, 

filius " agnosco iussa parentis " ait. 
nee mora, principibus caesis ex urbe Gabina 
710 traduntur ducibus moenia nuda suis. 
ecce, nefas visu, mediis altaribus anguis 

exit et extinctis ignibus exta rapit. 
consuUtur Phoebus : sors est ita reddita : ** matri 
qui dederit princeps oscula, victor erit." 
716 oscula quisque suae matri properata tulerunt, 
non intellecto credula turba deo. 
Brutus erat stulti sapiens imitator, ut esset 

tutus ab insidiis, dire Superbe, tuis ; 
ille iacens pronus matri dedit oscula Terrae, 
720 creditus ofFenso procubuisse pede. 
cingitur interea Romanis Ardea signis 

■ Another anecdote, brought in abruptly, to introduce 
Brutus, author of the Regifugium. See Livy, i. 5Q. 4. 

FASTI, II. 693-721 

their swords. " Slay an unarmed man ! " said he. 
" 'Tis what my brothers would desire, aye and 
Tarquin, my sire, who gashed my back with cruel 
scourge." In order that he might urge this plea, he 
had submitted to a scourging. The moon shone. 
They beheld the youth and sheathed their swords, 
for they saw the scars on his back, where he drew 
down his robe. They even wept and begged that 
he would side with them in war. The cunning knave 
assented to their unwary suit. No sooner was he 
installed in power than he sent a friend to ask 
his father to show him the way of destroying Gabii. 
Below the palace lay a garden trim of odoriferous 
plants, whereof the ground was cleft by a brook of 
purling water : there Tarquin received the secret 
message of his son, and with his staff he mowed the 
tallest lilies. When the messenger returned and 
told of the cropped lilies, " I take," quoth the son, 
" my father's bidding." Without delay, he put 
to the sword the chief men of the city of Gabii 
and surrendered the walls, now bereft of their native 

''^^ Behold, O horrid sight ! from between the 
altars a snake came forth and snatched the sacrificial 
meat from the dead fires. Phoebus was consulted." 
An oracle was delivered in these terms : ** He who 
shall first have kissed his mother will be victorious." 
Each one of the credulous company, not understand- 
ing the god, hasted to kiss his mother. The prudent 
Brutus feigned to be a fool, in order that from thy 
snares, Tarquin the Proud, dread king, he might be 
safe ; lying prone he kissed his mother Earth, but 
they thought he had stumbled and fallen. Mean- 
time the Roman legions had compassed Ardea, and 



et patitur longas obsidione moras, 
dum vacat et metuunt hostes committere pugnam, 
luditur in castris, otia miles agit. 
725 Tarquinius iuvenis socios dapibusque meroque 
accipit ; ex illis rege creatus ait : 
" dum nos sollicitos pigro tenet Ardea bello 

nee sinit ad patrios arma referre deos, 
ecquid in officio torus est socialis ? et ecquid 
730 coniugibus nostris mutua cura sumus ? " 

quisque suam laudat : studiis certamina crescunt, 

et fervet multo linguaque cor que mero. 
surgit, cui dederat clarum Collatia nomen : 
" non opus est verbis, credite rebus ! " ait. 
735 ** nox superest : toUamur equis urbemque petamus ! " 
dicta placent, frenis impediuntur equi, 
pertulerant dominos. regalia protinus illi 
tecta petunt : custos in fore nullus erat. 
ecce nurus regis fusis per colla coronis 
740 Inveniunt posito pervigilare mero. 
inde cito passu petitur Lucretia : nebat, 
ante torum calathi lanaque mollis erat. 
lumen ad exiguum famulae data pensa trahebant, 
inter quas tenui sic ait ilia sono : 
745 ** mittenda est domino (nunc, nunc properate, 
puellae !) 
quam primum nostra facta lacerna manu. 
quid tamen auditis ? nam plura audire potestis : 

quantum de bello dicitur esse super ? 
postmodo victa cades : melioribus, Ardea, restas, 
760 improba, quae nostros cogis abesse viros. 
sint tantum reduces ! sed enim temerarius ille 

« A third anecdote : the siege of Ardea, and the rape of 
Lucretia by Sextus Tarquin ; Livy i. 57. 4. 

FASTI, II. 722-751 

the city suffered a long and lingering siege. While 
there was naught to do, and the foe feared to join 
battle, they made merry in the camp ; the soldiers 
took their ease. Young Tarquin ° entertained his com- 
rades with feast and wine : among them the king's 
son spake : " While Ardea keeps us here on tenter- 
hooks with sluggish war, and suffers us not to carry 
back our arms to the gods of our fathers, what 
of the loyalty of the marriage-bed ? and are we as 
dear to our wives as they to us ? *' Each praised his 
wife : in their eagerness dispute ran high, and every 
tongue and heart grew hot with the deep draughts of 
wine. Then up and spake the man who from CoUatia 
took his famous name * : " No need of words ! Trust 
deeds ! There's night enough. To horse ! and ride 
we to the city." The saying pleased them ; the 
steeds are bridled and bear their masters to the 
journey's end. The royal palace first they seek : 
no sentinel was at the door. Lo, they find the king's 
daughters-in-law, their necks draped with garlands, 
keeping their vigils over the wine. Thence they 
galloped to Lucretia : she was spinning : before her 
bed were baskets of soft wool. By a dim Hght the 
handmaids were spinning their allotted stints of 
yam. Amongst them the lady spoke in accents soft : 
" Haste ye now, haste, my girls ! The cloak our 
hands have wrought must to your master be in- 
stantly dispatched. But what news have ye ? For 
more news comes your way. How much do they say 
of the war is yet to come ? Hereafter thou shalt 
be vanquished and fall : Ardea, thou dost resist thy 
betters, thou jade, that keepest perforce our husbands 
far away ! If only they came back ! But mine is 
* Tarquinius Collatinus. 



est meus et stricto qualibet ense ruit. 
mens abit, et morior, quotiens pugnantis imago 
me subit, et gelidum pectora frigus habet." 
755 desinit in lacrimas intentaque fila remittit, 
in gremio voltum deposuitque suum. 
hoc ipsum decuit : lacrimae decuere pudieae, 

et facies animo dignaque parque fuit. 
** pone metum, veni ! " coniunx ait. ilia revixit 
760 deque viri collo dulce pependit onus, 
interea iuvenis furiales regius ignis 

concipit et caeco rapt us amore furit. 
forma placet niveusque color flavique capilli, 
quique aderat nulla factus ab arte decor ; 
765 verba placent et vox, et quod corrumpere non est, 
quoque minor spes est, hoc magis ille cupit. 
iam dederat cantus lucis praenuntius ales, 

cum referunt iuvenes in sua castra pedem. 
carpitur adtonitos absentis imagine sensus 
770 ille. recordanti plura magisque placent : 
" sic sedit, sic culta fuit, sic stamina nevit, 

neglectae collo sic iacuere comae, 
hos habuit voltus, haec illi verba fuerunt, 
hie color, haec facies, hie decor oris erat.** 
775 ut solet a magno fluctus languescere flatu, 
sed tamen a vento, qui fuit, unda tumet, 
sic, quamvis aberat placitae praesentia formae, 

quem dederat praesens forma, manebat amor, 
ardet et iniusti stimulis agitatus amoris 
780 comparat indigno vimque dolumque toro. 

" exitus in dubio est : audebimus ultima ! " dixit, 

** \'iderit ! audentes forsque deusque iuvat. 
cepimus audendo Gabios quoque." talia fatus 


FASTI, II. 752-783 

rash, and with drawn sword he rushes anywhere. I 
faint, I die, oft as the image of my soldier spouse steals 
on my mind and strikes a chill into my breast." She 
ended weeping, dropped the stretched yarn, and 
buried her face in her lap. The gesture was becom- 
ing ; becoming, too, her modest tears ; her face was 
worthy of its peer, her soul. " Fear not, I've come," 
her husband said. She revived and on her spouse's 
neck she hung, a burden sweet. 

'^^ Meantime the royal youth caught fire and fury, 
and transported by blind love he raved. Her figure 
pleased him, and that snowy hue, that yellow hair, 
and artless grace ; pleasing, too, her words and voice 
and virtue incorruptible ; and the less hope he had, 
the hotter his desire. Now had the bird, the herald 
of the dawn, uttered his chant, when the young 
men retraced their steps to camp. Meantime the 
image of his absent love preyed on his senses crazed. 
In memory's light more fair and fair she grew. 

'Twas thus she sat, 'twas thus she dressed, 'twas 
thus she spun the yarn, 'twas thus her tresses careless 
lay upon her neck ; that was her look, these were 
her words, that was her colour, that her form, and 
that her lovely face." As after a great gale the 
surge subsides, and yet the billow heaves, lashed by 
the wind now fallen, so, though absent now that 
winsome form and far away, the love which by its 
presence it had struck into his heart remained. 
He burned, and, goaded by the pricks of an 
unrighteous love, he plotted violence and guile 
against an innocent bed. " The issue is in doubt. 
We'll dare the utmost," said he. " Let her look to 
it ! God and fortune help the daring. By daring 
we captured Gabii too." 



ense latus cinxit tergaque pressit equi. 
785 accipit aerata iuvenem Collatia porta 
condere iam voltus sole parante suos. 
hostis ut hospes init penetralia Collatini : 

comiter excipitur ; sanguine iunctus erat. 
quantum animis erroris inest ! parat inscia rerum 
790 infelix epulas hostibus ilia suis. 

functus erat dapibus : poscunt sua tempora somnum ; 

nox erat et tota lumina nulla domo : 
surgit et aurata vagina liberat ensem 
et venit in thalamos, nupta pudica, tuos. 
795 utque torum pressit, ** ferrum, Lucretia, mecum est. 
natus " ait ** regis Tarquiniusque loquor ! " 
ilia nihil : neque enim vocem viresque loquendi 

aut aliquid toto pectore mentis habet, 
sed tremit, ut quondam stabulis deprensa relictis 
800 parva sub infesto cum iacet agna lupo. 

quid faciat ? pugnet ? vincetur femina pugnans. 

clamet ? at in dextra, qui vetet, ensis erat. 
effugiat ? positis urgentur pectora palmis, 
tunc primum externa pectora tacta manu. 
805 instat amans hostis precibus pretioque minisque : 
nee prece nee pretio nee movet ille minis. 
" nil agis : eripiam " dixit " per crimina vitam : 

falsus adulterii testis adulter ero : 
interimam famulum, cum quo deprensa fereris." 
810 succubuit famae victa puella metu. 

quid, victor, gaudes ? haec te victoria perdet. 
heu quanto regnis nox stetit una tuis ! 


FASTI, II. 784-812 

'®* So saying he girt his sword at his side and 
bestrode his horse's back. The bronze-bound gate 
of Collatia opened for him just as the sun was 
making ready to hide his face. In the guise of 
a guest the foe found his way into the home of 
CoUatinus. He was welcomed kindly, for he came 
of kindred blood. How was her heart deceived ! 
All unaware she, hapless dame, prepared a meal for 
her own foes. His repast over, the hour of slumber 
came. 'Twas night, and not a taper shone in the 
whole house. He rose, and from the gilded scabbard 
he drew his sword, and came into thy chamber, virtuous 
spouse. And when he touched the bed, " The steel 
is in my hand, Lucretia," said he, '* I that speak am 
the king's son and Tarquin." She answered never a 
word. Voice and power of speech and thought itself 
fled from her breast. But she trembled, as trembles 
a httle lamb that, caught straying from the fold, 
lies low under a ravening wolf. What could she do ? 
Should she struggle ? In a struggle a woman will 
always be worsted. Should she cry out ? But in 
his clutch was a sword to silence her. Should she 
fly ? His hands pressed heavy on her breast, the 
breast that till then had never known the touch of 
stranger hand. Her lover foe is urgent with prayers, 
with bribes, with threats ; but still he cannot move 
her by prayers, by bribes, by threats. ** Resistance 
is vain," said he, " I'll rob thee of honour and of 
life. I, the adulterer, will bear false witness to 
thine adultery. I'll kill a slave, and rumour will have 
it that thou wert caught with him." Overcome by 
fear of infamy, the dame gave way. Why, victor, 
dost thou joy ? This victory will ruin thee. Alack, 
how dear a single night did cost thy kingdom ! 



iamque erat orta dies : passis sedet ilia capillis, 
ut solet ad nati mater itura rogum, 
815 grandaevumque patrem fido cum coniuge castris 
evocat, et posita venit uterque mora, 
utque vident habitum, quae luctus causa, requirunt, 

cui paret exequias, quove sit icta malo ? 
ilia diu reticet pudibundaque celat amictu 
820 ora : fluunt lacrimae more perennis aquae. 

hinc pater, hinc coniunx lacrimas solantur et orant, 

indicet, et caeco flentque paventque metu. 
ter conata loqui ter destitit, ausaque quarto 
non oculos ideo sustulit ilia suos. 
826 " hoc quoque Tarquinio debebimus ? eloquar," inquit, 
** eloquar infelix dedecus ipsa meum ? " 
quaeque potest, narrat. restabant ultima ; flevit, 

et matronales erubuere genae. 
dant veniam facto genitor coniunxque coacto : 
830 " quam " dixit " veniam vos datis, ipsa nego." 
nee mora, celato fixit sua pectora ferro 

et cadit in patrios sanguinulenta pedes, 
tunc quoque iam moriens ne non procumbat honeste, 
respicit ; haec etiam cura cadentis erat. 
835 ecce super corpus communia damna gementes 
obliti decoris virque paterque iacent. 
Brutus adest tandemque animo sua nomina fallit 

fixaque semianimi corpore tela rapit 
stillantemque tenens generoso sanguine cultrum 
840 edidit impavidos ore minante sonos : 

" per tibi ego hunc iuro fortem castumque cruorem 
perque tuos manes, qui mihi numen erunt, 


FASTI, II. 813-842 

And now the day had dawned. She sat with 
hair dishevelled, like a mother who must attend the 
funeral pyre of her son. Her aged sire and faithful 
spouse she summoned from the camp, and both 
came without delay. When they saw her plight, 
they asked why she mourned, whose obsequies she 
was preparing, or what ill had befallen her. She 
was long silent, and for shame hid her face in her 
robe : her tears flowed like a running stream. On 
this side and on that her father and her spouse did 
soothe her grief and pray her to tell, and in blind 
fear they wept and quaked. Thrice she essayed to 
speak, and thrice gave o'er, and when the fourth 
time she summoned up courage she did not for that 
lift up her eyes. " Must I owe this too to Tarquin ? 
Must I utter," quoth she, " must I utter, woe's me, 
with my own lips my own disgrace ? " And what 
she can she tells. The end she left unsaid, but wept 
and a blush o'erspread her matron cheeks. Her 
husband and her sire pardoned the deed enforced. 
She said, " The pardon that you give, I do refuse 
myself." Without delay, she stabbed her breast 
with the steel she had hidden, and weltering in 
her blood fell at her father's feet. Even then in 
dying she took care to sink down decently : that 
was her thought even as she fell. Lo, heedless of 
appearances, the husband and father fling them- 
selves on her body, moaning their common loss. 
Brutus came, and then at last belied his name ; for 
from the half-dead body he snatched the weapon 
stuck in it, and holding the knife, that dripped with 
noble blood, he fearless spake these words of menace : 
" By this brave blood and chaste, and by thy ghost, 
who shall be god to me, I swear to be avenged on 



Tarquinium profuga poenas cum stirpe daturum. 

iara satis est virtus dissimulata diu." 
845 ilia iacens ad verba oculos sine lumine movit 

visaque concussa dicta probare coma, 
fertur in exequias animi matrona virilis 

et secum lacrimas invidiamque trahit. 
volnus inane patet. Brutus clamore Quirites 
850 concitat et regis facta nefanda refert. 

Tarquinius cum prole fugit, capit annua consul 

iura ; dies regnis ilia suprema fuit. 

25. HC 26. A EN 

Fallimur, an veris praenuntia venit hirundo 
nee metuit, ne qua versa recurrat hiems ? 
855 saepe tamen, Procne, nimium properasse quereris, 
virque tuo Tereus frigore laetus erit. 

27. B EQ • N> 28. CC 

lamque duae restant noctes de mense secundo, 
Marsque citos iunctis curribus urget equos : 

ex vero positum permansit Equirria nomen, 
860 quae deus in Campo prospicit ipse suo. 

iure venis, Gradive : locum tua tempora poscunt, 
signatusque tuo nomine mensis adest. 

venimus in portum libro cum mense peracto : 
naviget hinc alia iam mihi linter aqua. 


FASTI, II. 843-864 

Tarquin and on his banished brood. Too long have 
I dissembled my manly worth." At these words, 
even as she lay, she moved her lightless eyes and 
seemed by the stirring of her hair to ratify the speech. 
They bore her to burial, that matron of manly 
courage ; and tears and indignation followed in her 
train. The gaping wound was exposed for all to see. 
With a cry Brutus assembled the Quirites and 
rehearsed the king's foul deeds. Tarquin and his 
brood were banished. A consul undertook the 
government for a year. That day was the last of 
kingly rule. 

V. Kal. 25th IV. Kal. 26th 

®^^ Do I err ? or has the swallow come, the har- 
binger of spring, and does she not fear lest winter 
should turn and come again ? Yet often, Procne, 
wilt thou complain that thou hast made too much 
haste, and thy husband Tereus will be glad at the 
cold thou feelest. 

III. Kal. 27th 

®^® And now two nights of the second month are 
left, and Mars urges on the swift steeds yoked to 
his chariot. The day has kept the appropriate name 
of Equirria (" horse-races "), derived from the races 
which the god himself beholds in his own plain. 
Thou Marching God {Gradivus), in thine own right 
thou comest. Thy season demands a place in my 
song, and the month marked by the name is at 
hand. We have come to port, for the book ends 
with the month. From this point may my bark now 
sail in other waters. 



Bellice, depositis clipeo paulisper et hasta, 

Mars, ades et nitidas casside solve comas, 
forsitan ipse roges, quid sit cum Marte poetae : 

a te, qui canitur, nomina mensis habet. 
5 ipse vides manibus peragi fera bella Minervae : 

num minus ingenuis artibus ilia vacat ? 
Palladis exemplo ponendae tempora sume 

cuspidis : invenies et quod inermis agas. 
tunc quoque inermis eras, cum te Romana sacerdos 
10 cepit, ut huic urbi semina magna dares. 
Silvia Vestalis (quid enim vetat inde moveri ?) 

sacra lavaturas mane petebat aquas, 
ventum erat ad molli declivem tramite ripam : 

ponitur e summa fictilis urna coma. 
15 fessa resedit humo ventosque accepit aperto 

pectore, turbatas restituitque comas, 
dum sedet, umbrosae salices volucresque canorae 

fecerunt somnos et leve murmur aquae. 

blanda quies furtim victis obrepsit ocellis, 

20 et cadit a men to languida facta manus. 

Mars videt banc visamque cupit potiturque cupita 

et sua divina furta fefellit ope. 

« See Appendix, p. 397. * Silvia. See also ii. 383. 



Come, warlike Mars " ; lay down thy shield and spear 
for a brief space, and from thy helmet loose thy 
glistering locks. Haply thou mayest ask. What has 
a poet to do with Mars ? From thee the month 
which now I sing doth take its name. Thyself dost 
see that fierce wars are waged by Minerva's hands. 
Is she for that the less at leisure for the hberal arts ? 
After the pattern of Pallas take a time to put aside 
the lance. Thou shalt find something to do unarmed. 
Then, too, wast thou unarmed when the Roman 
priestess^ captivated thee, that thou mightest bestow 
upon this city a great seed. 

^^ Silvia the Vestal (for why not start from her ?) 
went in the morning to fetch water to wash the holy 
things. When she had come to where the path 
ran gently down the sloping bank, she set down her 
earthenware pitcher from her head. Weary, she 
sat her on the ground and opened her bosom to 
catch the breezes, and composed her ruffled hair. 
While she sat, the shady willows and the tuneful 
birds and the soft murmur of the water induced to 
sleep. Sweet slumber overpowered and crept 
stealthily over her eyes, and her languid hand 
dropped from her chin. Mars saw her ; the sight 
inspired him with desire, and his desire was followed 
by possession, but by his power divine he hid his 



somnus abit, iacet ipsa gravis : iam scilicet intra 
viscera Romanae conditor urbis erat. 
26 languida consurgit nee scit, cur languida surgat, 
et peragit talis arbore nixa sonos : 
** utile sit faustumque, precor, quod imagine somni 

vidimus, an somno clarius illud erat ? 
ignibus Iliacis aderam, cum lapsa capillis 
30 decidit ante sacros lanea vitta focos. 
inde duae pariter, visu mirabile, palmae 

surgunt : ex illis altera maior erat, 
et gravibus ramis totum protexerat orbem 
contigeratque sua sidera summa coma. 
35 ecce mens ferrum patruus molitur in illas : 
terreor admonitu, corque timore micat. 
Martia picus avis gemino pro stipite pugnant 
et lupa : tuta per hos utraque palma fuit." 
dixerat et plenam non firmis viribus urnam 
40 sustulit ; implerat, dum sua visa refert. 
interea crescente Remo, crescente Quirino, 

caelesti tumidus pondere venter erat. 

quo minus emeritis exiret cursibus annus, 

restabant nitido iam duo signa deo : 

45 Silvia fit mater. Vestae simulacra feruntur 

virgineas oculis opposuisse manus ; 

ara deae certe tremuit pariente ministra, 

et subiit cineres territa flamma suos. 
hoc ubi cognovit contemptor Amulius aequi 
50 (nam raptas fratri victor habebat opes), 

amne iubet mergi geminos. scelus unda refugit ; 

^ Amulius, king of Alba. 

FASTI, III. 23-61 

stolen joys. Sleep left her ; she lay big, for already 
within her womb there was Rome's founder. Languid 
she rose, nor knew why she rose languid, and leaning 
on a tree she spake these words : " Useful and 
fortunate, I pray, may that turn out which I saw in 
a vision of sleep. Or was the vision too clear for 
sleep ? Methought I was by the fire of Ilium, when 
the woollen fillet slipped from my hair and fell before 
the sacred hearth. From the fillet there sprang — : 
a wondrous sight — two palm-trees side by side. 
Of them one was the taller and by its heavy boughs 
spread a canopy over the whole world, and with 
its foliage touched the topmost stars. Lo, mine 
uncle ° wielded an axe against the trees ; the warning 
terrified me and my heart did throb with fear. A 
woodpecker — the bird of Mars — and a she-wolf 
fought in defence of the twin trunks, and by their 
help both of the palms were saved." She finished 
speaking, and by a feeble effort Hfted the full pitcher ; 
she had filled it while she was telling her vision. 
Meantime her belly swelled with a heavenly burden, 
for Remus was growing, and growing, too, was 

^3 When now two heavenly signs remained for the 
bright god to traverse, before the year could com- 
plete its course and run out, Silvia became a mother. 
The images of Vesta are said to have covered 
their eyes with their virgin hands ; certainly the 
altar of the goddess trembled, when her priestess 
was brought to bed, and the terrified flame sank 
under its own ashes. When AmuUus learned of 
this, scorner of justice that he was (for he had 
vanquished his brother and robbed him of power), 
he ordered the twins to be sunk in the river. 



in sicca pueri destituuntur humo. 
lacte quis infantes nescit crevisse ferino, 

et picum expositis saepe tulisse cibos ? 
56 non ego te, tantae nutrix Larentia gentis, 

nee taceam vestras, Faustule pauper, opes, 
vester honos veniet, cum Larentalia dicam : 

acceptus geniis ilia December habet. 
Martia ter senos proles adoleverat annos, 
60 et suberat flavae iam nova barba comae : 
omnibus agricolis armentorumque magistris 

Iliadae fratres iura petita dabant. 
saepe domum veniunt praedonum sanguine laeti 

et redigunt actos in sua rura boves. 
65 ut genus audierunt, animos pater editus auget, 

et pudet in paucis nomen habere casis, 
Romuleoque cadit traiectus Amulius ense, 

regnaque longaevo restituuntur avo. 
moenia conduntur, quae quamvis parva fuerunt, 
70 non tamen expediit transsiluisse Remo. 

iam, modo quae fuerant silvae pecorumque recessus, 

urbs erat, aeternae cum pater urbis ait : 
** arbiter armorum, de cuius sanguine natus 

credor (et, ut credar, pignora multa dabo), 
76 a te principium Romano dicimus anno ; 

primus de patrio nomine mensis erit." 
vox rata fit, patrioque vocat de nomine mensem. 

dicitur haec pietas grata fuisse deo. 
et tamen ante omnes Martem coluere priores : 

" Romulus and Remus, sons of Ilia (Silvia), or descend- 
ants of Ilus (founder of Troy). 

'' Mars was worshipped by the Latin and other Italian 
peoples before the foundation of Rome. He was peculiarly 
the god of Rome, as Athena was of Athens, Dictynna or 
Britomartis of Crete, Hephaestus of Lemnos, Hera of Sparta, 
and Pan of Arcadia. 

FASTI, III. 52-79 

The water shrank from such a crime, and the boys 
were left on dry land. Who knows not that the 
infants throve on the milk of a wild beast, and that 
a woodpecker often brought food to the abandoned 
babes ? Nor would I pass thee by in silence, Larentia, 
nurse of so great a nation, nor the help that thou 
didst give, poor Faustulus. Your honour will find 
its place when I come to tell of the Larentalia ; 
that festival falls in December, the month dear to 
the mirthful spirits. Thrice six years old was the 
progeny of Mars, and already under their yellow 
hair sprouted a fresh young beard: to all the hus- 
bandmen and masters of herds the brothers, sons of 
Ilia," gave judgement by request. Often they came 
home glad at blood of robbers spilt, and to their 
own domain drove back the raided kine. When they 
heard the secret of their birth, their spirits rose with 
the revelation of their sire, and they thought shame 
to have a name in a few huts. Amulius fell, pierced 
by the sword of Romulus, and the kingdom was 
restored to their aged grandfather. Walls were 
built, which, small though they were, it had been 
better for Remus not to have overleaped. And 
now what of late had been woods and pastoral 
solitudes was a city, when thus the father of the 
eternal city spake : " Umpire of war, from whose 
blood I am believed to have sprung (and to confirm 
that belief I will give many proofs), we name the 
beginning of the Roman year after thee ; the first 
month shall be called by my father's name." The 
promise was kept ; he did call the month by his 
father's name : this pious deed is said to have been 
well pleasing to the god. And yet the earlier ages 
had worslnipped Mars above all the gods ; ^ therein 



80 hoc dederat studiis bellica turba suis. 
Pallada Cecropidae, Minoia Creta Dianam, 

Volcanum tellus Hypsipylea colit, 
lunonem Sparte Pelope'iadesque Mycenae, 
pinigerum Fauni Maenalis ora caput : 
85 Mars Latio venerandus erat, quia praesidet armis : 
arma ferae genti remque decusque dabant. 
quod si forte vacas, peregrinos inspice fastos : 

mensis in his etiam nomine Martis erit. 
tertius Albanis, quintus fuit ille Fahscis, 
90 sextus apud populos, Hernica terra, tuos. 
inter Aricinos Albanaque tempora constat 

factaque Telegoni moenia celsa manu. 
quintum Laurentes, bis quintum Aequiculus acer, 
a tribus hunc primum turba Curensis habet ; 
95 et tibi cum proavis, miles Peligne, Sabinis 

convenit : huic genti quartus utrique deus. 
Romulus hos omnes ut vinceret ordine saltem, 

sanguinis auctori tempora prima dedit. 
nee totidem veteres, quot nunc, habuere Kalendas 
100 ille minor geminis mensibus annus erat. 
nondum tradiderat victas victoribus artes 

Graecia, facundum sed male forte genus, 
qui bene pugnabat, Romanam noverat artem : 
mittere qui poterat pila, disertus erat. 
106 quis tunc aut Hyadas aut Pleiadas Atlanteas 
senserat, aut geminos esse sub axe polos ? 

<» Lemnos, after its queen Hypsipyle. 
* Arcadia. *" Tusculum. 

** These are local Italian calendars. 

FASTI, III. 80-106 

a warlike folk followed their bent. Pallas is wor- 
shipped by the sons of Cecrops, Diana by Minoan 
Crete, Vulcan by the Hypsipylean land,'* Juno by 
Sparta and Pelopid Mycenae, while the Maenalian 
country^ worships Faunus, whose head is crowned 
with pine. Mars was the god to be revered by 
Latium, for that he is the patron of the sword ; 
'twas the sword that won for a fierce race empire 
and glory. 

®' If you are at leisure, look into the foreign 
calendars, and you shall find in them also a month 
named after Mars. It was the third month in the 
Alban calendar, the fifth in the Faliscan, the sixth 
among thy peoples, land of the Hernicans. The 
Arician calendar is in agreement with the Alban 
and with that of the city ^ whose lofty walls were 
built by the hand of Telegonus. It is the fifth 
month in the calendar of the Laurent es, the tenth in 
the calendar of the hardy Aequians, the fourth in 
the calendar of the folk of Cures, and the soldierly 
Pehgnians agree with their Sabine forefathers ; both 
peoples reckon Mars the god of the fourth month.** 
In order that he might take precedence of all these, 
Romulus assigned the beginning of the year to the 
author of his being. 

^^ Nor had the ancients as many Calends as 
we have now : their year was short by two 
months. Conquered Greece had not yet trans- 
mitted her arts to the victors ; her people were 
eloquent but hardly brave. The doughty warrior 
understood the art of Rome, and he who could 
throw javelins was eloquent. Who then had noticed 
the Hyades or the Pleiades, daughters of Atlas, or 
that there were two poles in the firmament ? and 



esse duas Arctos, quarum Cynosura petatur 

Sidoniis, Helicen Graia carina notet ? 
signaque quae longo frater percenseat anno, 
110 ire per haec uno mense sororis equos ? 
libera currebant et inobservata per annum 

sidera ; constabat sed tamen esse deos. 
non illi caelo labentia signa tenebant, 

sed sua, quae magnum perdere crimen erat. 
115 ilia quidem foeno ; sed erat reverentia foeno, 

quantam nunc aquilas cernis habere tuas. 
pertica suspenses portabat longa maniplos, 

unde maniplaris nomina miles habet. 
ergo animi indociles et adhuc ratione carentes 
120 mensibus egerunt lustra minora decem. 

annus erat, decimum cum luna receperat orbem : 

hie numerus magno tunc in honore fuit ; 
seu quia tot digiti, per quos numerare solemus, 

seu quia bis quinto femina mense parit, 
125 seu quod adusque decem numero crescente venitur, 

principium spatiis sumitur inde no vis. 
inde patres centum denos secrevit in orbes 

Romulus, hastatos instituitque decem ; 
et totidem princeps, totidem pilanus habebat 
130 corpora, legitimo quique merebat equo. 
quin etiam partes totidem Titiensibus ille, 

quosque vocant Ramnes, Luceribusque dedit. 
adsuetos igitur numeros servavit in anno. 

hoc luget spatio femina maesta virum. 

* Little Bear, Kvubs ovod, the dog's tail. 

* Great Bear, eXiKri, the twister. 

* Apollo and Diana, the sun and moon, and the signs of 
the Zodiac. 


FASTI, III. 107-134 

that there are two Bears, of which the Sidonians 
steer by Cynosura," while the Grecian mariner keeps 
his eye on Helice ^ ? and that the signs which the 
brother travels through in a long year the horses of 
the sister traverse in a single month " ? The stars 
ran their courses free and unmarked throughout 
the year ; yet everybody agreed that they were 
gods. Heaven's gliding ensigns were beyond their 
reach, not so their own, to lose which was a great 
crime. Their ensigns were of hay, but as deep 
reverence was paid to hay as now you see paid to 
the eagles. A long pole carried the hanging bundles 
(maniplos) ; from them the private (maniplaris) soldier 
takes his name. Hence through ignorance and lack 
of science they reckoned lustres, each of which was 
too short by ten months. A year was counted when 
the moon had returned to the full for the tenth time ; 
that number was then in great honour, whether 
because that is the number of the fingers by which we 
are wont to count, or because a woman brings forth in 
twice five months, or because the numerals increase 
up to ten, and from that we start a fresh round. 
Hence Romulus divided the hundred senators into 
ten groups, and instituted ten companies of spear- 
men (hastati) ; and just so many companies there 
were of first -line men (principes), and also of 
javelin-men {pilant) ; and so too with the men who 
served on horses furnished by the state. Nay, 
Romulus assigned just the same number of divisions 
to the tribes, the Titienses, the Ramnes, as they are 
called, and the Luceres. Therefore in his arrange- 
ment of the year he kept the familiar number. 
That is the period for which a sad wife mourns 
for her husband. 

F 129 


136 neu dubites, primae fuerint quin ante Kalendae 

Martis, ad haec animum signa referre potes. 
laurea, flaminibus quae toto perstitit anno, 

tollitur, et frondes sunt in honor e novae, 
ianua tunc regis posita viret arbore Phoebi : 
140 ante tuas fit idem, curia prisca, fores. 
Vesta quoque ut folio niteat velata recenti, 

cedit ab Iliacis laurea cana focis. 
adde, quod arcana fieri novus ignis in aede 

dicitur, et vires flamma refecta capit. 
145 nee mihi parva fides, annos hinc isse priores, 

Anna quod hoc co^ta est mense Perenna coll. 
hinc etiam veteres initi memorantur honores 

ad spatium belli, perfide Poene, tui. ^!uuJv?w 

denique quintus ab hoc fuerat Quintilis, et inde 3 

160 incipit, a numero nomina quisquis habet. 
primus oliviferis Romam deductus ab arvis 

PompiUus menses sensit abesse duos, 
sive hoc a Samio doctus, qui posse renasci 

nos putat, Egeria sive monente sua. 
165 sed tamen errabant etiam nunc tempora, donee 

Caesaris in multis haec quoque cura fuit. i / 1'^ 
non haec ille deus tantaeque propaginis auctor 

credidit officiis esse minora suis, 
promissumque sibi voluit praenoscere caelum 

« See ii. 527 note. * Vestal. 

« See below, 1. 523. 

^ If Hannibal is meant here, Ovid refers to the Second Punic 
War, which began in 218 B.C., but the practice really varied 
until it was finally fixed in 153 b.c. for January 1. 

' Pythagoras. ' In 46 b.c. 


FASTI, III. 135-169 

135 If yQu would convince yourself that the Calends 
of March were really the beginning of the year, 
you may refer to the following proofs : the laurel 
branch of the flamens, after remaining in its place 
the whole year, is removed (on that day), and 
fresh leaves are put in the place of honour ; 
then the king's door is green with the tree of 
Phoebus, which is set at it ; and at thy portal, 
Old Chapel of the Wards, the same thing is done ; " 
the withered laurel is withdrawn from the Ihan^ 
hearth, that Vesta also may make a brave show, 
dressed in fresh leaves. Besides 'tis said that 
a new fire is lighted in her secret shrine, and the 
rekindled flame gains strength. And to my thinking 
no small proof that the years of old began with 
March is furnished by the observation that Anna 
Perenna*' begins to be worshipped in this month. 
With March, too, the magistrates are recorded to 
have entered on office, down to the time when, 
faithless, Carthaginian, thou didst wage thy war.*^ 
Lastly, the month of Quintilis is the fifth (quintus) 
month, reckoned from March, and with it begin the 
months which take their names from numbers. 
(Numa) PompiHus, who was escorted to Rome from 
the lands where olives grow, was the first to perceive 
that two months were lacking to the year, whether 
he learned that from the Samian sage* who thought 
that we could be born again, or whether it was his 
Egeria who taught him. Nevertheless the calendar 
was still erratic down to the time when Caesar took 
it, Hke so much else, in charge.-^ That god, the 
founder of a mighty line, did not deem the matter 
beneath his attention. Fain was he to foreknow that 
heaven which was his promised home ; he would not 



160 nee deus ignotas hospes inire domos. 
ille moras soils, quibus in sua signa rediret, 

traditur exactis disposuisse notis. 
is decies senos tercentum et quinque diebus 
iunxit et e pleno tempora quinta die. 
165 hie anni modus est : in lustrum accedere debet, 
quae consummatur partibus, una dies. 

1. D • K • MAR • NP 

" Si licet occultos monitus audire deorum 

vatibus, ut certe fama licere putat, 
cum sis officiis, Gradive, virilibus aptus, 
170 die mihi, matronae cur tua festa colant.** 
sic ego. sic posita dixit mihi casside Mavors, 

sed tamen in dextra missilis hasta fuit : 
" nunc primum studiis pacis, deus utilis armis, 

advocor et gressus in nova castra fero, 
175 nee piget incepti ; iuvat hac quoque parte morari, 

hoc solam ne se posse Minerva putet. 
disce, Latinorum vates operose dierum, 

quod petis, et memori pectore dicta nota. 
parva fuit, si prima velis elementa referre, 
180 Roma, sed in parva spes tamen huius erat. 
moenia iam stabant, populis angusta futuris, 

credita sed turbae tunc nimis ampla suae, 
quae fuerit nostri, si quaeris, regia nati, 

aspice de canna straminibusque domum. 
185 in stipula placidi capiebat munera somni, 

et tamen ex illo venit in astra toro. 

* Really a fourth. Ovid seems to have thought that the 
intercalary day was added in each period of five years. 

* The Casa Romuli on the Palatine; see i. 199. 

FASTI, III. 160-186 

enter as a stranger god mansions unkno^vn. He is 
said to have drawn up an exact table of the periods 
within which the sun returns to his proper signs. 
To three hundred and five days he added ten times 
six days and a fifth " part of a whole day. That is 
the measure of the year. The single day compounded 
of the (five) parts is to be added to the lustre. 

Kal. Mart. 1st 

167 a jf bards may list to secret promptings of the 
gods, as surely, rumour thinks they may, tell me, 
thou Marching God (Gradivus), why matrons keep 
thy feast, whereas thou art apter to receive service 
from men." Thus I inquired, and thus did Mars 
answer me, laying aside his helmet, though in his 
right hand he kept his throwing spear : " Now for 
the first time in the year am I, a god of war, invoked 
to promote the pursuits of peace, and I march into 
new camps, nor does it irk me so to do ; upon 
this function also do I love to dwell, lest Minerva 
should fancy that such power is hers alone. Thy 
answer take, laborious singer of the Latin days, and 
write my words on memory's tablets. If you would 
trace it back to its beginning, Rome was but little, 
nevertheless in that little town was hope of this 
great city. The walls were already standing, 
boundaries too cramped for future peoples, but 
then deemed too large for their inhabitants. If you 
ask what my son's palace was, behold yon house of 
reeds and straw. ^ There on the litter did he take 
the boon of peaceful sleep, and yet from that same 
bed he passed among the stars. Already the 



iamque loco maius nomen Romanus habebat, 

nee eoniunx illi nee soeer uUus erat. 
spernebant generos inopes vicinia dives, 
190 et male credebar sanguinis auctor ego. 
in stabulis habitasse et oves pavisse nocebat 

iugeraque inculti pauca tenere soli, 
cum pare quaeque suo coeunt volucresque feraeque, 

atque aliquam, de qua procreet, anguis habet ; 
195 extremis dantur connubia gentibus : at quae 

Romano vellet nubere, nulla fuit. 
indolui ' patriamque dedi tibi, Romule, mentem : 

toUe preces,' dixi * quod petis arma dabunt.* 
festa parat Conso. Consus tibi cetera dicet 
200 illo facta die, dum sua sacra canes. 

intumuere Cures et quos dolor attigit idem : 

tum primum generis intulit arma socer. 
iamque fere raptae matrum quoque nomen habebant, 

tractaque erant longa bella propinqua mora : 
205 conveniunt nuptae dictam lunonis in aedem, 

quas inter mea sic est nurus ausa loqui : 
* o pariter raptae (quoniam hoc commune tenemus) 

non ultra lente possumus esse piae. 
stant acies, sed utra di sint pro parte rogandi, 
210 eligite : hinc eoniunx, hinc pater arma tenet, 
quaerendum est, viduae fieri malitis an orbae : 

consilium vobis forte piumque dabo.' 
consilium dederat : parent crinesque resolvunt 

•* There were two festivals of Consus (Consualia), on 
August 21 and December 15. When he comes to these the 
poet will tell of the Rape of the Sabines. In the last battle, 
the wives threw themselves between the combatants, and 
persuaded them to make peace. Livy i. 13. 

* A covert allusion to the Civil Wars : Pompey's wife 
Julia was Caesar's daughter. 

" Romulus, for Mars is speaking. 

FASTI, III. 187-213 

Roman had a name that reached beyond his city, 
but neither wife nor wife's father had he. Wealthy 
neighbours scorned to take poor men for their 
sons-in-law ; hardly did they beheve that I myself 
was the author of the breed. It told against the 
Romans that they dwelt in cattle-stalls, and fed 
sheep, and owned a few acres of waste land. Birds 
and beasts mate each with its kind, and a snake has 
some female of which to breed. The right of inter- 
marriage is granted to peoples far away ; yet was 
there no people that would wed with Romans. I 
chafed and said, ' Thy father's temper, Romulus, I 
have bestowed on thee. A truce to prayers ! What 
thou seekest, arms will give.' Romulus prepared a 
feast for Consus." The rest that happened on that 
day Consus will tell thee, when thou shalt come to 
sing of his rites. Cures and all who suffered the 
same wrong were furious : then for the first time 
did a father wage war upon liis daughters* husbands.^ 
And now the ravished brides could claim the style 
of mothers also, and yet the war between the 
kindred folks kept hngering on, when the wives 
assembled by appointment in the temple of Juno. 
Among them my son's*' wife thus made bold to 
speak ; * O wives ravished alike — for that is a 
trait we have in common — no longer may we dawdle 
in our duties to our kin. The battle is set in array, 
but choose for which side ye will pray the gods to 
intervene : on one side stand your husbands in arms 
and on the other side your sires : the question is 
whether ye prefer to be widows or orphans. I will 
give you a piece of advice both bold and dutiful.' 
She gave the advice : they obeyed, and unbound 



maestaque funerea corpora veste tegunt. 
216 iam steterant acies ferro mortique paratae, 

iam lituus pugnae signa daturus erat : 
cum raptae veniunt inter patresque virosque, 

inque sinu natos, pignora cara, tenent. 
ut medium campi passis tetigere capillis, 
220 in terram posito procubuere genu, 

et, quasi sentirent, blando clamore nepotes 

tendebant ad avos bracchia parva suos : 
qui poterat clamabat avum tum denique visum, 

et qui vix poterat posse coactus erat. 
225 tela viris animique cadunt, gladiisque remotis 

dant soceri generis accipiuntque manus, 
laudatasque tenent natas, scutoque nepotem 

fert avus : hie scuti dulcior usus erat. 
inde diem, quae prima, meas celebrare Kalendas 
230 Oebaliae matres non leve munus habent, 
aut quia committi strictis mucronibus ausae 

finierant lacrimis Martia bella suis ; 
vel quod erat de me feliciter Ilia mater, 

rite colunt matres sacra diemque meum. 
236 quid, quod hiems adoperta gelu tunc denique cedit, 

et pereunt lapsae sole tepente nives, 
arboribus redeunt detonsae frigore frondes, 

uvidaque in tenero palmite gemma tumet, 
quaeque diu latuit, nunc se qua tollat in auras, 
240 fertilis occultas invenit herba vias ? 

nunc fecundus ager, pecoris nunc hora creandi, 

nunc avis in ramo tecta laremque parat : \ 
tempora iure colunt Latiae fecunda parentes, 

« Sabine. See i. 260 note. 

FASTI, III. 214-243 

their hair, and clad their bodies in the sad weeds of 
mourners. Aheady the armies were drawn up in 
array, alert for carnage ; already the bugle was about 
to give the signal for battle, when the ravished wives 
interposed between their fathers and husbands, 
bearing at their bosoms the dear pledges of love, 
their babes. When with their streaming hair they 
reached the middle of the plain, they knelt down on 
the ground, and the grandchildren stretched out 
their Httle arms to their grandfathers with winsome 
cries, as if they understood. Such as could cried 
* Grandfather ! ' to him whom then they saw for 
the first time ; such as could hardly do it were forced 
to try. The weapons and the passions of the warriors 
fall, and laying their swords aside fathers-in-law and 
sons-in-law grasp each other's hands. They praise 
and embrace their daughters, and the grandsire 
carries his grandchild on his shield ; that was a 
sweeter use to which to put the shield. Hence the 
duty, no Hght one, of celebrating the first day, my 
Calends, is incumbent on Oebalian" mothers, either 
because, boldly thrusting themselves on the bare 
blades, they by their tears did end these martial 
wars ; or else mothers duly observe the rites on 
my day, because Ilia was happily made a mother 
by me. Moreover, frosty winter then at last retires, 
and the snows perish, melted by the warm sun ; 
the leaves, shorn by the cold, return to the trees, and 
moist within the tender shoot the bud doth swell; ^ 
now too the rank grass, long hidden, discovers secret 
paths whereby to hft its head in air. Now is the 
field fruitful, now is the hour for breeding cattle, 
now doth the bird upon the bough construct a nest 
and home ; 'tis right that Latin mothers should 



quarum militiam votaque partus habet. 
245 adde quod, excubias ubi rex Romanus agebat, 

qui nunc Esquilias nomina coUis habet, 
illic a nuribus lunoni templa Latinis 

hac sunt, si memini, publica facta die. 
quid moror et variis onero tua pectora causis ? 
260 eminet ante oculos, quod petis, ecce tuos. 

mater amat nuptas : matrum me turba frequentat : 

haec nos praecipue tam pia causa decet." 
ferte deae flores : gaudet florentibus herbis 

haec dea : de tenero cingite flore caput : 
265 dicite " tu nobis lucem, Lucina, dedisti " : 

dicite " tu voto parturientis ades." 
si qua tamen gravida est, resoluto crine precetur, 

ut solvat partus molliter ilia suos. 

Quis mihi nunc dicet, quare caelestia Martis 
260 arma ferant Salii Mamuriumque canant ? 

nympha, mone, nemori stagnoque operata Dianae ; 

nympha, Numae coniunx, ad tua facta veni. 
vallis Aricinae silva praecinctus opaca 

est lacus, antiqua religione sacer. 
265 hie latet Hippolytus loris direptus equorum, 

unde nemus nullis illud aditur equis. 
licia dependent longas velantia saepes, 

et posita est meritae multa tabella deae. 

" He derives the name from excuhiae. It may come from 
aesculuSf " beech." Romulus had a post here set to watch 
Titus Tatius on the neighbouring hill. 

* The Matronalia, in honour of Juno Lucina. 

" Dancing priests. They carried a spear and one of the 
ancilia or sacred shields. See 377 note, below, and 
Appendix, p. 399. 

** Lacus Nemorensis, now Nemi. See Appendix, p. 403. 

• Hippolytus, after being torn to pieces by his horses near 

FASTI, III. 244-268 

observe the fruitful season, for in their travail they 
both fight and pray. Add to this that where 
the Roman king kept watch, on the hill which 
now bears the name of Esquihne," a temple was 
founded, if I remember aright, on this very day by 
the Latin matrons in honour of Juno. But why 
should I spin out the time and burden your memory 
with various reasons ? The answer that you seek 
stands out plainly before your eyes. My mother 
loves brides ; a crowd of mothers throngs my 
temple ; so pious a reason is above all becoming to 
her and me." ^ Bring ye flowers to the goddess ; 
tliis goddess dehghts in flowering plants ; with fresh 
flowers wreathe your heads. Say ye, " Thou, Lucina, 
hast bestowed on us the light (lucem) of life " ; say 
ye, " Thou dost hear the prayer of women in travail." 
But let her who is with child unbind her hair before 
she prays, in order that the goddess may gently 
unbind her teeming womb. 

259 Who will now tell me why the Salii " bear the 
heavenly weapons of Mars and sing of Mamurius ? 
Inform me, thou nymph who on Diana's grove and 
lake dost wait ; thou nymph, wife of Numa, come 
tell of thine own deeds. In the Arician vale there 
is a lake begirt by shady woods and hallowed by 
religion from of old.** Here Hippolytus* lies hid, 
who by the reins of his steeds was rent in pieces : 
hence no horses enter that grove. The long fence 
is draped with hanging threads, and many a tablet 
there attests the merit of the goddess. Often doth 

Troezen, was restored to life by Aesculapius and transported 
by Diana to the woods of Aricia, where he took the name of 



saepe potens voti, frontem redimita coronis, 
270 femina lucentes portat ab urbe faces. 

regna tenent fortes manibus pedibusque fugaces, 

et perit exemplo postmodo quisque suo. 
defluit incerto lapidosus murmure rivus : 

saepe, sed exiguis haustibus, inde bibi. 
275 Egeria est, quae praebet aquas, dea grata Camenis 

ilia Numae coniunx consiliumque fuit. 
principio nimium promptos ad bella Quirites 

molliri placuit iure deumque metu ; 
inde datae leges, ne firmior omnia posset, 
280 coeptaque sunt pure tradita sacra coli. 

exuitur feritas, armisque potentius aequum est, 

et cum cive pudet conseruisse manus ; 
atque aliquis, modo trux, visa iam vertitur ara 

vinaque dat tepidis farraque salsa focis. 
285 ecce deum genitor rutilas per nubila flammas 

spargit et efFusis aethera siccat aquis ; 
non alias missi cecidere frequentius ignes : 

rex pavet et volgi pectora terror habet. 
cui dea " ne nimium terrere ! piabile fulmen 
290 est," ait " et saevi flectitur ira lovis. 

sed poterunt ritum Picus Faunusque piandi 

tradere, Romani numen utrumque soli, 
nee sine vi tradent : adhibe tu vincula captis." 

atque ita qua possint edidit arte capi. 

<* A runaway slave reigns there as Rex Nemorensis, until a 
stronger runaway slave dispossesses him. This is the theme 
of the Golden Bough. See Appendix, p. 403. 

^ Egeria was one of the Camenae, water-nymphs whose 
spring flowed in a sacred grove outside the Porta Capena ; 
but these came to be identified with the Muses. 



FASTI, HI. 269-294 

a woman, whose prayer has been answered, carry 
from the city burning torches, while garlands wreathe 
her brows. The strong of hand and fleet of foot do 
there reign kings, '^ and each is slain thereafter even 
as himself had slain. A pebbly brook flows down 
with fitful murmur ; oft have I drunk of it, but in 
little sips. Egeria it is who doth supply the water, 
goddess dear to the Camenae ^ ; she was wife and 
councillor to Numa. At first the Quirites were too 
prone to fly to arms ; Numa resolved to soften their 
fierce temper by force of law and fear of gods. 
Hence laM's were made, that the stronger might not 
in all things have his way, and rites, handed down 
from the fathers, began to be piously observed. 
Men put off savagery, justice was more puissant than 
arms, citizen thought shame to fight with citizen, and 
he who but now had shown himself truculent would 
at the sight of an altar be transformed and offer wine 
and salted spelt on the warm hearths. 

285 Lo, through the clouds the father of the gods 
scatters red lightnings, then clears the sky after the 
torrent rain : never before or since did hurtling 
fires fall thicker. The king quaked, and terror filled 
the hearts of common folk. To the king the goddess 
spake : " Fear not over much. It is possible to 
expiate the thunderbolt, and the wrath of angry 
Jove can be averted. But Picus and Faunus, each 
of them a deity native to Roman soil, will be able 
to teach the ritual of expiation .<' They will leach it 
only upon compulsion. Catch them and clap them 
in bonds." And she revealed the ruse by which 
they could be caught. Under the Aventine there 

" Faunus, or Faunus Fatuus, son of Picus, the woodpecker. 
The Greeks told a like story of Silenus. 



296 lucus Aventino suberat niger ilicis umbra, 

quo posses viso dicere " numen inest." 
in medio gramen, muscoque adoperta virenti 

manabat saxo vena perennis aquae : 

inde fere soli Faunus Pieusque bibebant. 

300 hue venit et fonti rex Numa mactat ovem, 

plenaque odorati disponit pocula Bacchi, 

cumque suis antro conditus ipse latet. 
ad solitos veniunt silvestria numina fontes 

et relevant multo pectora sicca mero. 
305 vina quies sequitur ; gelido Numa prodit ab antro 

vinclaque sopitas addit in arta manus. 
somnus ut abscessit, pugnando vincula temptant 

rumpere : pugnantes fortius ilia tenent. 
tunc Numa : " di nemorum, factis ignoscite nostris, 
310 si scelus ingenio scitis abesse meo ; 

quoque modo possit fulmen, monstrate, piari." 

sic Numa ; sic quatiens cornua Faunus ait : 
" magna petis nee quae monitu tibi discere nostro 

fas sit : habent finis numina nostra suos. 
315 di sumus agrestes et qui dominemur in altis 

montibus : arbitrium est in sua tela lovi. 
hunc tu non poteris per te deducere caelo, 

at poteris nostra forsitan usus ope." 
dixerat haec Faunus ; par est sententia Pici : 
320 " deme " tamen " nobis vincula," Picus ait : 
" luppiter hue veniet, valida perductus ab arte. 

nubila promissi Styx mihi testis erit." 
emissi laqueis quid agant, quae carmina dicanfey-^ 

quaque trahant superis sedibus arte lovem, 


FASTI, III. 295-324 

lay a grove black with the shade of holm-oaks ; at 
sight of it you could say, " There is a spirit here." 
A sward was in the midst, and, veiled by green moss, 
there trickled from a rock a rill of never-failing 
water. At it Faunus and Picus were wont to drink 
alone. Hither King Numa came, and sacrificed a 
sheep to the spring, and set out bowls full of fragrant 
wine. Then with his folk he hid him close within 
a cave. To their accustomed springs the woodland 
spirits came, and slaked their thirst with copious 
draughts of wine. Sleep followed the debauch ; 
from the chill cave Numa came forth and thrust the 
sleepers' hands into tight shackles. When slumber 
left them, they tried and strained to burst the 
shackles, but the more they strained the stronger 
held the shackles. Then Numa spake : ** Gods of 
the groves, forgive my deed, if that ye know my 
mind harbours no ill intent, and show me in what way 
a thunderbolt can be expiated." Thus Numa spake, 
and thus, shaking his horns, Faunus replied : '* Thou 
askest great things, such as it is not lawful for thee 
to learn by our disclosure : divinities like ours have 
their appointed bounds. Rustic deities are we, who 
have dominion in the mountains high : Jove has 
the mastery over his own weapons. Him thou 
couldst never of thyself draw down from heaven, 
but haply thou mayest yet be able, if only thou wilt 
make use of our help." So Faunus said. Picus was 
of the Hke opinion : " But take our shackles off," 
quoth he ; " Jupiter will come hither, drawn by 
powerful art. Witness my promise, cloudy Styx." 
What they did when they were let out of the trap, 
what spells they spoke, and by what art they dragged 
Jupiter from his home above, 'twere sin for man to 



326 scire nefas homini : nobis concessa canentur 

quaeque pio dici vatis ab ore licet, 
eliciunt caelo te, luppiter, unde minores 

nunc quoque te celebrant Eliciumque vocant. 
constat Aventinae tremuisse cacumina silvae, 
330 terraque subsedit pondere pressa lovis. 
corda micant regis, totoque e corpore sanguis 

fugit, et hirsutae deriguere comae, 
ut rediit animus, " da certa piamina " dixit 

" fulminis, altorum rexque paterque deum, 
335 si tua contigimus manibus donaria puris, 

hoc quoque, quod petitur, si pia lingua rogat.*' 
adnuit oranti, sed verum ambage remota 

abdidit et dubio terruit ore virum. 
** caede caput " dixit : cui rex " parebimus," inquit 
340 " caedenda est hortis eruta caepa meis." 

addidit hie " hominis " : " sumes " ait ille " capillos." 

postulat hie animam, cui Numa " piscis " ait. 
risit et " his " inquit " facito mea tela procures, 

o vir conloquio non abigende deum. 
345 sed tibi, protulerit cum totum crastinus orbem 

Cynthius, imperii pignora certa dabo." 
dixit et ingenti tonitru super aethera motum 

fertur, adorantem destituitque Numam. 
ille redit laetus memoratque Quiritibus acta x 
350 tarda venit dictis difficilisque fides. 

" at certe credemur," ait " si verba sequetur 

exitus : en audi crastina, quisquis ades. 
protulerit terris cum totum Cynthius orbem, 

luppiter imperii pignora certa dabit." 

" The onion, human hair, and fish, are prescribed as 
expiation for a thunderstroke. No one knows why, but 
Ovid suggests that they are a substitute for human sacrifice. 

FASTI, III. 325-354 

know. My song shall deal with lawful things, such 
as the hps of pious bard may speak. They drew 
{eliciunt) thee from the sky, O Jupiter, whence later 
generations to this day celebrate thee by the name 
of Elicius. Sure it is the tops of the Aventine trees 
did quiver, and the earth sank down under the 
weight of Jupiter. The king's heart throbbed, the 
blood shrank from his whole body, and his bristling 
hair stood stiff. When he came to himself, " King and 
father of the high gods," he said, " vouchsafe expia- 
tions sure for thunderbolts, if with pure hands we have 
touched thine offerings, and if for that which now we 
ask a pious tongue doth pray." The god granted his 
prayer, but hid the truth in sayings dark and tortuous, 
and alarmed the man by an ambiguous utterance. 
" Cut off the head," said he." The King answered 
him, " We will obey. We'll cut an onion, dug up in 
my garden." The god added, " A man's." " Thou 
shalt get," said the other, '* his hair." The god 
demanded a life, and Numa answered him, " A fish's 
life." The god laughed and said, " See to it that by 
these things thou dost expiate my bolts, O man whom 
none may keep from converse with the gods ! But 
when to-morrow's sun shall have put forth his full 
orb, I will give thee sure "pledges of empire." He 
spake, and in a loud peal of thunder was wafted above 
the riven sky, leaving Numa worshipping. The king 
returned joyful and told the Quirites of what had 
passed. They were slow and loth to believe his 
saying. ** But surely," said he, " we shall be believed 
if the event follow my words. Behold, all ye here 
present, hearken to what to-morrow shall bring forth. 
When the sun shall have lifted his full orb above the 
earth, Jupiter will give sure pledges of empire." 



366 discedunt dubii, promissaque tarda videntur, 
dependetque fides a veniente die. 
mollis erat tellus rorata mane pruina : 
ante sui populus limina regis adest. 
prodit et in solio medius consedit acerno. 
360 innumeri circa stantque silentque viri. 

ortus erat summo tantummodo margine Phoebus : 

sollicitae mentes speque metuque pavent. 
constitit atque caput niveo velatus amictu 
lam bene dis notas sustulit ille manus, 
365 atque ita ** tempus adest promissi muneris," inquit 
** pollicitam dictis, luppiter, adde fidem.'* 
dum loquitur, totum iam sol emoverat orbem, 

et gravis aetherio venit ab axe fragor. ^ 
ter tonuit sine nube deus, tria fulmina misit, 
370 credite dicenti : mira, sed acta, loquor. 
a media caelum regione dehiscere coepit ; 

summisere oculos cum duce turba sue. 
ecce levi scutum versatum leniter aura 
decidit. a populo clamor ad astra venit. 
376 tollit humo munus caesa prius ille iuvenca, 
quae dederat nulli coUa premenda iugo, 
idque ancile vocat, quod ab omni parte recisum est, 

quemque notes oculis, angulus omnis abest. 
tum, memor imperii sortem consistere in illo, 
380 consilium multae calliditatis init. 
plura iubet fieri simili caelata figura, 
error ut ante oculos insidiantis eat. 

" As though from ancisus (in Varro ambecisus). 

FASTI, III. 356-382 

lliey separated full of doubt, and thought it long to 
await the promised sign ; their belief hung on the 
coming day. Soft was the earth with hoar frost 
spread like dew at morn, when the people gathered 
at the threshold of their king. Forth he came 
and sat him down in their midst upon a throne 
of maple wood ; unnumbered men stood round him 

^®^ Scarcely had Phoebus shown a rim above the 
horizon : their anxious minds with hope and fear did 
quake. The king took his stand, and, his head veiled 
in a snow-white hood, lifted up his hands, hands which 
the gods already knew so well. And thus he spoke : 
" The time has come to receive the promised boon ; 
fulfil thy promise, Jupiter." Even while he spoke, 
the sun had already lifted his full orb above the 
horizon, and a loud crash rang out from heaven's 
vault. Thrice did the god thunder from a cloudless 
sky, thrice did he hurl his bolts. Take my word 
for it : what I say is wonderful but true. At the 
zenith the sky began to yawn ; the multitude and 
their leader lifted up their eyes. Lo, swaying gently 
in the Hght breeze, a shield fell down. The people 
sent up a shout that reached the stars. The king 
Hfted from the ground the gift, but not till he had 
sacrificed a heifer, which had never submitted her 
neck to the burden of the yoke, and he called the 
shield ancile,^ because it was cut away (recisum) on all 
sides, and there was no angle that you could mark. 
Then, remembering that the fate of empire was 
bound up with it, he formed a very shrewd design. 
He ordered that many shields should be made, 
wrought after the same pattern, in order to de- 
ceive a traitor's eyes. The work was finished by 



Mamurius (morum fabraene exactior artis, 

difficile est ulli dicere) clausit opus. 
385 cui Numa munificus " facti pete praemia," dixit ; 

" si mea nota fides, inrita nulla petes." 
iam dederat Saliis a saltu nomina dicta 

armaque et ad certos verba canenda modos. 
turn sic Mamurius : " merces mihi gloria detur, 
390 nominaque extremo carmine nostra sonent." 
inde sacerdotes operi promissa vetusto 

praemia persolvunt Mamuriumque vocant. 
nubere siqua voles, quamvis properabitis ambo, 

differ ; habent parvae commoda magna morae. 
395 arma movent pugnas, pugna est aliena maritis ; 

condita cum fuerint, aptius omen erit. 
his etiam coniunx apicati sancta Dialis 

lucibus inpexas debet habere comas. 

2. EF 3. FC 4. GC 

Tertia nox de mense suos ubi moverit ignes, 
400 conditus e geminis Piscibus alter erit. 

nam duo sunt : austris hie est, aquilonibus ille 
proximus ; a vento nomen uterque tenet. 

5. HC 

Cum croceis rorare genis Tithonia coniunx 
coeperit et quintae tempora lucis aget. 

" Probably an Oscan name of Mars. 

* He wore a cap with an apex^ a point or peak. 

* One was called Nonos, one Bbpeios, 

<* Aurora. 


FASTI, III. 383-404 

Mamurius ; whether he was more perfect in char- 
acter or in smithcraft, it would be hard for any 
man to say. Bountiful Numa said to him, " Ask 
a reward for your service. If I have a reputation 
for honesty, you shall not ask in vain." He had 
already named the SaUi from their dancing (saltus), 
and had given them arms and a song to be sung to 
a certain tune. Then Mamurius made answer thus : 
" Give me glory for my reward, and let my name be 
chanted at the end of the song." Hence the priests 
pay the reward that was promised for the work of 
old, and they invoke Mamurius .** 

^^^ If, damsel, thou wouldst wed, put off the 
wedding, however great the haste ye both may be 
in; short delay hath great advantage. Weapons 
excite to battle, and battle ill assorts with married 
folk; when the weapons shall have been stored 
away, the omens will be more favourable. On these 
days, too, the holy wife of the Flamen Dialis in his 
peaked cap ^ must keep her hair uncombed. 

V. NoN. 3rd 

399 When the third night of the month has shifted 
her starry fires, one of the two Fishes will have 
disappeared. For there are two : one of them is 
next neighbour to the South Winds, the other to 
the North Winds ; each of them takes its name from 
the wind." 

III. NoN. 5th 

403 When from her saffron cheeks Tithonus' spouse <* 
shall have begun to shed the dew at the time of the 
fifth morn, the constellation, whether it be the Bear- 



405 sive est Arctophylax, sive est piger ille Bootes, 
mergetur visus efFugietque tuos. 
at non efFugiet Vindemitor : hoc quoque causam 

unde trahat sidus, parva docere mora est. 
Ampelon intonsum satyro nymphaque creatum 
410 fertur in Ismariis Bacchus amasse iugis : 

tradidit huic vitem pendentem e frondibus ulmi, 

quae nunc de pueri nomine nomen habet. 
dum legit in ramo pictas temerarius uvas, 
decidit : amissum Liber in astra tulit. 


416 Sextus ubi oceano clivosum scandit Olympum 
Phoebus et alatis aethera carpit equis, 
quisquis ades castaeque colis penetralia Vestae, 

gratare, Iliacis turaque pone focis. 
Caesaris innumeris (quern maluit ille mereri ?) 
420 accessit tituhs pontificalis honor. 

ignibus aeternis aeterni numina praesunt 
Caesaris : imperii pignora iuncta vides. 
di veteris Troiae, dignissima praeda ferenti, 
qua gravis Aeneas tutus ab hoste fuit, 
425 ortus ab Aenea tangit cognata sacerdos 

numina : cognatum, Vesta, tuere caput ! 
quos sancta fovet ille manu, bene vivitis ignes : 
vivite inextincti, flammaque duxque, precor. 

" The Greek fi^TrcXos, " vine." 

* Augustus accepted the title Pontifex Maximus on 
March 6, 12 b.c. As such, he should preside over the Vestal 
Virgins. He claimed descent from Aeneas, through his 


FASTI, III. 405-428 

ward or the sluggard Bootes, will have sunk and will 
escape thy sight. But not so will the Grape-gatherer 
escape thee. The origin of that constellation also can 
be briefly told. 'Tis said that the unshorn Ampelus," 
son of a nymph and satyr, was loved by Bacchus on 
the Ismarian hills. Upon him the god bestowed a 
vine that trailed from an elm's leafy boughs, and 
still the vine takes from the boy its name. While he 
rashly culled the gaudy grapes upon a branch, he 
tumbled down ; Liber bore the lost youth to the 

Pr. Non. 6th 

^^ When the sixth sun climbs up Olympus* steep 
from ocean, and through the ether takes his way 
on his winged steeds, all ye, whoe'er ye are, who 
worship at the shrine of the chaste Vesta, wish the 
goddess joy and offer incense on the Ilian hearth. 
To Caesar's countless titles (which would he rather 
have earned ?) was added the honour of the pontifi- 
cate.^ Over the eternal fire the divinity of Caesar, 
no less eternal, doth preside : the pledges of empire 
thou seest side by side. Ye gods of ancient Troy, 
ye worthiest prize to him who bore ye, ye whose 
weight did save Aeneas from the foe, a priest of the 
Une of Aeneas handles your kindred divinities ; Vesta, 
do thou guard his kindred head ! ^ Nursed by his 
sacred hand, ye fires live well. O live undying, 
flame and leader both, I pray. 

adoption by Julius Caesar, and so from Venus, Jupiter, and 
Saturn, brother of Vesta. • C/. iv. 949. 



7. B NON • F 

Una nota est Marti Nonis, sacrata quod ilKs 
430 templa putant lucos Vediovis ante duos. 
Romulus ut saxo lucum circumdedit alto, 

" quilibet hue " dixit ** confuge, tutus eris." 
O quam de tenui Romanus origine crevit ! 
turba vetus quam non invidiosa fuit ! 
435 ne tamen ignaro novitas tibi nominis obstet, 
disce, quis iste deus, curque vocetur ita. 
luppiter est iuvenis : iuvenalis aspice voltus ; 
aspice deinde manum, fulmina nulla tenet, 
fulmina post ausos caelum adfectare Gigantes 
440 sumpta lovi ; primo tempore inermis erat. 
ignibus Ossa novis et Pelion altius Ossa 
arsit et in solida fixus Olympus humo. 
Stat quoque capra simul : nymphae pavisse feruntur 
Cretides ; infanti lac dedit ilia lovi. 
446 nunc vocor ad nomen. vegrandia farra colonae 
quae male creverunt, vescaque parva vocant. 
vis ea si verbi est, cur non ego Vediovis aedem 

aedem non_magni suspicer esse lovis ? 
iamque, ubi caeruleum variabunt sidera caelum, 
450 suspice : Gorgonei colla videbis equi. 

creditur hie caesa gravidae cervice Medusae 
sanguine respersis prosiluisse iubis. 

* F, for Fastus. That is, there is no meeting of the 
Comitia or the Senate. 

'' The space between the two peaks of the Capitol, on each 
of which were trees originally. Here Romulus enclosed his 
lucusy the asylum for fugitives. 

" The meaning of ve- in Vedjovis is uncertain. In other 
words it does imply " without " in some form. 

^ Pegasus, which sprang from the severed neck of the 
Gorgon Medusa. 


FASTI, III. 429-452 

NoN. 7th 

*2' The Nones of March have only one mark'* in 
the calendar, because they think that on that day the 
temple of Vedjovis was consecrated in front of the 
two groves.^ When Romulus surrounded the grove 
with a high stone wall, " Take refuge here," said 
he, " whoe'er thou art ; thou shalt be safe." O 
from how small a beginning the Roman took his 
rise ! How little to be envied was that multitude 
of old ! But that the strangeness of the name may 
not prove a stumbHng-block to you in your ignorance, 
learn who that god is, and why he is so called. He 
is the Young Jupiter : look on his youthful face ; 
look then on his hand, it holds no thunderbolts. 
Jupiter assumed the thunderbolts after the giants 
dared attempt to win the sky ; at first he was 
unarmed. Ossa blazed with the new fires (of his 
thunderbolts) ; Pelion, too, higher than Ossa, and 
Olympus, fixed in the soHd ground. A she-goat also 
stands (beside the image of Vedjovis) ; the Cretan 
nymphs are said to have fed the god ; it was the she- 
goat that gave her milk to the infant Jove. Now I 
am called on to explain the name. Farmers' wives 
call stunted spelt vegrandia, and what is little they 
call vesca. If that is the meaning of the word, may 
I not suspect that the shrine of Vedjovis is the shrine 
of the httle Jupiter ? ° 

^^ And now when the stars shall spangle the blue 
sky, look up : you will see the neck of the Gorgonian 
steed.** He is said to have leaped forth from the 
severed neck of the teeming Medusa, his mane 
bespattered with blood. As he glided above the 



huic supra nubes et subter sidera lapso 
caelum pro terra, pro pede penna fuit, 
455 iamque indignanti nova frena receperat ore, 
cum levis Aonias ungula fodit aquas. 

nunc fruitur caelo, quod pennis ante petebat, 
et nitidus stellis quinque decemque micat. 

Protinus aspicies venienti nocte Coronam 
460 Gnosida : Theseo crimine facta dea est. 
iam bene periuro mutarat coniuge Bacchum, 

quae dedit ingrato fila legenda viro ; 
sorte tori gaudens ** quid flebam rustica ? " dixit 

" utiliter nobis perfidus ille fuit." 
465 interea Liber depexos crinibus Indos 

vicit et Eoo dives ab orbe redit ; 
inter captivas facie praestante puellas 

grata nimis Baccho filia regis erat. 
flebat amans coniunx spatiataque litore curvo 
470 edidit incultis talia verba comis : 

" en iterum, fluctus, similis audite querellas ! 

en iterum lacrimas accipe, harena, meas ! 
dicebam, memini, * periure et perfide Theseu ! * 

ille abiit ; eadem crimina Bacchus habet. 
475 nunc quoque * nulla viro ' clamabo ' femina credat ! * 

nomine mutato causa relata mea est. 
o utinam mea sors, qua primum coeperat, isset, 

iamque ego praesenti tempore nulla forem ! 

" Hippocrene, the " Horse's Fountain " on Helicon. 

* Ariadne, daughter of Minos, king of Cnossos in Crete, 
had a golden crown set with gems ; which at her death was 
set in the sky, and the gems became stars. 

<= She gave Theseus a clue of thread to guide him out of 
the Labyrinth ; Theseus deserted her, and Bacchus found 
and wedded her. Bacchus is said to have conquered India. 

FASTI, III. 453-478 

clouds and beneath the stars, the sky served him as 
solid ground, and his wing served him for a foot. 
Soon indignantly he champed the unwonted bit, 
when his light hoof struck out the Aonian spring.^ 
Now he enjoys the sky, to which aforetime he soared 
on wings, and he sparkles bright with fifteen stars. 

VIII. Id. 8th 

*5' Straightway at the fall of night shalt thou see the 
Cnossian Crown.* It was through the fault of Theseus 
that Ariadne was made a goddess. Already had 
she happily exchanged a perjured spouse for Bacchus, 
she who gave to a thankless man a clue to gather up.*' 
Joying in her lot of love, " Why like a rustic maiden 
did I weep ? " quoth she ; "his faithlessness has 
been my gain." Meantime Liber had conquered 
the straight -haired Indians and returned, loaded 
with treasure, from the eastern world. Amongst 
the fair captive girls there was one, the daughter 
of a king, who pleased Bacchus all too well. His 
loving spouse wept, and pacing the winding shore 
with dishevelled locks she uttered these words : 
" Lo, yet again, ye billows, list to my like com- 
plaint ! Lo, yet again, ye sands, receive my tears ! 
I used to say, I remember, * Forsworn and faith- 
less Theseus ! ' He deserted me : now Bacchus 
does me the same wrong. Now again I will cry, 
* Let no woman trust a man ! * My case has been 
repeated, only the name is changed. Would that 
my lot had ended where it first began ! So at this 
moment had I been no more. Why, Liber, didst 



quid me desertis morituram, Liber, harenis 
480 servabas ? potui dedoluisse semel. 

Bacche levis leviorque tuis, quae tempora cingunt, 

frondibus, in lacrimas cognite Bacche meas, 
ausus es ante oculos adducta paelice nostros 
tarn bene compositum sollicitare torum ? 
485 heu ubi pacta fides ? ubi, quae iurare solebas ? 
me miseram, quotiens haec ego verba loquar ? 
Thesea culpabas fallacemque ipse vocabas : 

iudicio peccas turpius ipse tuo. 
ne sciat hoc quisquam, tacitisque doloribus urar, 
490 ne totiens falU digna fuisse puter ! 
praecipue cupiam celari Thesea, ne te 
consortem culpae gaudeat esse suae, 
ut puto, praeposita est fuscae mihi Candida paelex : 
eveniat nostris hostibus ille color ! 
495 quid tamen hoc refert ? vitio tibi gratior ipso est. 
quid facis ? amplexus inquinat ilia tuos. 
Bacche, fidem praesta nee praefer amoribus uUam 

coniugis. adsuevi semper amare virum. 
ceperunt matrem formosi cornua tauri, 
600 me tua : me laudant, ille pudendus amor. 

ne noceat, quod amo ; neque enim tibi, Bacche, 
quod flammas nobis fassus es ipse tuas. 
nee, quod nos uris, mirum facis : ortus in igne 
diceris et patria raptus ab igne manu. 
505 ilia ego sum, cui tu solitus promittere caelum, 
ei mihi, pro caelo qualia dona fero ! " 
dixerat : audibat iamdudum verba querentis 
Liber, ut a tergo forte secutus erat. 

<* Pasiphae, who was enamoured of a buU, and brought 
forth the Minotaur. 

" See L 715 note. 

FASTI, III. 479-508 

thou save me to die on desert sands ? I might have 
ended my griefs once and for all. Bacchus, thou light 
o' love ! lighter than the leaves that wreathe thy 
brows ! Bacchus, whom I have known only that I 
should weep ! Hast thou dared to trouble our so 
harmonious loves by bringing a leman before mine 
eyes ? Ah, where is plighted troth ? Where are the 
oaths that thou wast wont to swear ? Woe's me, 
how often must I speak these self -same words ! 
Thou wast wont to blame Theseus ; thou wast wont 
thyself to dub him deceiver ; judged by thyself, thine 
is the fouler sin. Let no man know of this, and let 
me burn with pangs unuttered, lest they should think 
that I deserve to be deceived so oft. Above all I 
would desire the thing were kept from Theseus, that 
he may not joy to know thee a partner in his guilt. 
But I suppose a leman fair has been preferred to 
dusky me ; — may that hue fall to my foes ! But 
what does that matter ? She is dearer to thee for 
the very blemish. What art thou about ? She 
defiles thee by her embrace. Bacchus, keep faith,, 
nor prefer any woman to a wife's love. I have 
learned to love my love for ever. The horns of a 
handsome bull won my mother's heart," thine won 
mine. They laud me for my passion : hers was a 
shameful love. Let me not suffer for my love ; thou 
thyself, Bacchus, didst not suffer for avowing thy 
flame to me. No wonder that thou dost make me 
burn ; they say thou wert born in the fire and wert 
snatched from the fire by thy father's hand.^ I am 
she to whom thou wert wont to promise heaven. Ah 
me ! what guerdon do I reap instead of heaven ! " She 
finished speaking. Long time had Liber heard her 
plaint, for as it chanced he followed close behind. 



occupat amplexu lacrimasque per oscula siccat 
510 et " pariter caeli summa petamus ! " ait : 

** tu mihi iuncta toro mihi iuncta vocabula sumes, 

nam tibi mutatae Libera nomen erit ; 
sintque tuae tecum faciam monumenta coronae, 
Volcanus Veneri quam dedit, ilia tibi." 
615 dicta facit gemmasque novem transformat in ignes : 
aurea per Stellas nunc micat ilia novem. 

8. CF 9. DC 10. EC 11. FC 
12. GC 13. H EN 14. A EQ • M> 

Sex ubi sustulerit, totidem demerserit orbes, 
purpureum rapido qui vehit axe diem, 

altera gramineo spectabis Equirria Campo, 
620 quem Tiberis curvis in latus urget aquis. 

qui tamen electa si forte tenebitur unda, 
Caelius accipiet pulverulentus equos. 

15. B EID • M> 

Idibus est Annae festum geniale Perennae 

non procul a ripis, advena Thybri, tuis. 
625 plebs venit ac virides passim disiecta per herbas 

potat, et accumbit cum pare quisque sua. 
sub love pars durat, pauci tentoria ponunt, 

sunt quibus e ramis frondea facta casa est, 
pars, ubi pro rigidis calamos statuere columnis, 
530 desuper extentas imposuere togas. 

sole tamen vinoque calent annosque precantur, 

quot sumant cyathos, ad numerumque bibunt. 

*» See above, 1. 146, and Appendix, p. 405. 

FASTI, III. 509 632 

He put his arms about her, with kisses dried her 
tears, and " Let us fare together," quoth he, "to 
heaven's height. As thou hast shared my bed, so 
shalt thou share my name, for in thy changed state 
thy name shall be Libera ; and I will see to it that 
with thee there shall be a memorial of thy crown, 
that crown which Vulcan gave to Venus, and she to 
thee." He did as he had said and changed the 
nine jewels of her crown into fires. Now the golden 
crown doth sparkle vidth nine stars. 

Pr. Id. 14th 

*^' When he who bears the purple day on his swift 
car shall six times have hfted up his disc and as 
often sunk it low, thou shalt a second time behold 
horse races (Equirria) on that grassy plain whose side 
is hugged by Tiber's winding waters. But if per- 
chance the wave has overflowed and floods the plain, 
the dusty Caelian hill shall receive the horses. 

Idus. 15th 

*23 On the Ides is held the jovial feast of Anna 
Perenna" not far from thy banks, O Tiber, who comest 
from afar. The common folk come, and scattered 
here and there over the green grass they drink, every 
lad reclining beside his lass. Some camp under the 
open sky ; a few pitch tents ; some make a leafy hut 
of boughs. Others set up reeds in place of rigid 
pillars, and stretching out their robes place them 
upon the reeds. But they grow warm with sun and 
wine, and they pray for as many years as they take 
cups, and they count the cups they drink. There 



invenies illic, qui Nestoris ebibat annos, 
quae sit per calices facta Sibylla suos. 
635 illic et cantant, quicquid didicere theatris, 
et iactant faciles ad sua verba manus 
et ducunt posito duras cratere choreas, 

cultaque difFusis saltat arnica comis. 
cum redeunt, titubant et sunt spectacula volgi, 
540 et fortunatos obvia turba vocat. 

occurrit nuper (visa est mihi digna relatu) 

pompa : senem potum pota trahebat anus, 
quae tamen haec dea sit, quoniam rumoribus errat. 
fabula proposito nulla tegenda meo. 
545 arserat Aeneae Dido miserabilis igne, 
arserat exstructis in sua fata rogis ; 
compositusque cinis, tumuli que in marmore carmen 

hoc breve, quod moriens ipsa reliquit, erat : 
PRAEBUiT Aeneas et causam mortis et ensem. 
550 IPSA SUA Dido concidit usa manu. 

protinus invadunt Numidae sine vindice regnum, 

et potitur capta Maurus larba domo, 
seque memor spretum, ** Thalamis tamen " inquit 
" Elissae 
en ego, quem totiens reppulit ilia, fruor." 
555 difFugiunt Tyrii, quo quemque agit error, ut olim 
amisso dubiae rege vagantur apes, 
tertia nudandas acceperat area messes, 

inque cavos ierant tertia musta lacus : 
pellitur Anna domo lacrimansque sororia linquit 

<» larbas was a suitor for Dido (Virgil, Aen. iv. 36, 196) : 
Elissa was Dido's name. 

'' The Carthaginians came from Tyre. 
" Dido's sister. 


FASTI, III. 633-559 

shall you find a man who drains as many goblets as 
Nestor numbered years, and a woman who would 
live to the Sibyl's age if cups could work the charm. 
There they sing the ditties they picked up in the 
theatres, beating time to the words with nimble 
hands ; they set the bowl down, and trip in dances 
lubberly, while the spruce sweetheart skips about 
with streaming hair. On the way home they reel, 
a spectacle for vulgar eyes, and the crowd that meets 
them calls them " blest." I met the procession 
lately ; I thought it notable ; a drunk old woman 
lugged a drunk old man. 

^^^ But since, erroneous rumours are rife as to who 
this goddess is, I am resolved to throw no cloak about 
her tale. Poor Dido had burned "vvith the fire of 
love for Aeneas ; she had burned, too, on a pyre 
built for her doom. Her ashes were collected, and 
on the marble of her tomb was this short stanza, 
which she herself dying had left : 

Aeneas caused her death and lent the blade : 
Dido by her own hand in dust was laid. 

^51 Straightway the Numidians invaded the de- 
fenceless realm, and larba the Moor " captured and 
took possession of the palace ; and remembering how 
she had spurned his suit, " Lo, now," quoth he, " I 
enjoy Elissa's bridal bower, I whom she so oft 
repelled." The Tyrians ^ fled hither and thither, as 
each one chanced to stray, even as bees oft wander 
doubtingly when they have lost their king. For the 
third time the reaped corn had been carried to the 
threshing-floor to be stripped of the husk, and for the 
third time the new wine had poured into the hollow 
vats, when Anna'' was driven from home, and weeping 
G 161 


560 moenia : germanae iusta dat ante suae. 

mixta bibunt molles lacrimis unguenta favillae, 

vertice libatas accipiuntque comas ; 
terque " vale ! " dixit, cineres ter ad ora relates 
pressit, et est illis visa subesse soror. 
565 nancta ratem comitesque fugae pede labitur aequo 
moenia respiciens, dulce sororis opus, 
fertilis est Melite sterili vieina Cosyrae 

insula, quam Libyci verberat unda freti. 
banc petit hospitio regis conflsa vetusto : 
570 hospes opum dives rex ibi Battus erat. 
qui postquam didicit casus utriusque sororis, 

" haec " inquit " tellus quantulacumque tua est." 
et tamen hospitii servasset ad ultima munus, 
sed timuit magnas Pygmalionis opes. 
575 signa recensuerat bis sol sua, tertius ibat 
annus, et exilio terra paranda nova est. 
frater adest belloque petit, rex arma perosus 

" nos sumus inbelles, tu fuge sospes ! " ait. 
iussa fugit ventoque ratem committit et undis : 
580 asperior quovis aequore frater erat. 

est prope piscosos lapidosi Crathidis amnes 

parvus ager : Cameren incola turba vocat. 
illuc cursus erat, nee longius afuit inde, 

quam quantum novies mittere funda potest : 
685 vela cadunt primo et dubia librantur ab aura. 
** findite remigio " navita dixit *' aquas ! " 

" Malta. 

* Now Pantellaria, about 60 miles from Malta. 

* Brother of Dido and Anna, and their enemy. 

** Unknown. 

FASTI, III. 560-586 

left her sister's walls ; but first she paid the honours 
due to her dead sister. The soft ashes drank unguents 
mixed with tears, and they received an offering of 
hair clipped from her head. And thrice she said, 
" Farewell ! " thrice she took the ashes up and pressed 
them to her lips, and under them she thought she 
saw her sister. Having found a ship and comrades 
to share her flight, she glided before the wind, 
looking back at the city walls, her sister's darhng 

^^"^ There is a fertile island Melite," lashed by the 
waves of the Libyan sea and neighbour to the barren 
Cosyra.^ Anna steered for it, trusting to the king's 
hospitality, which she had known of old ; for Battus 
there was king, a wealthy host. When he learned 
the misfortunes of the two sisters, " This land," 
said he, " small though it be, is thine," and he 
would have observed the duties of hospitality to the 
end, but that he feared Pygmalion's ^ mighty power. 
Twice had the sun traversed the signs of the zodiac, 
and a third year was passing, when Anna was com- 
pelled to seek a new land of exile. Her brother 
came and demanded her surrender with threat of 
war. The king loathed arms and said to Anna, 
*' We are unwarlike. Do thou seek safety in flight." 
At his bidding she fled and committed her bark to 
the wind and the waves. Her brother was more 
cruel than any sea. Near the fishy streams of stony 
Crathis there is a champain small ; the natives call it 
Camere.*^ Thither she bent her course, and was no 
farther off than nine shots of a sling, when the sails 
at first dropped and flapped in the puffs of wind. 
** Cleave the water with the oars," the seaman said. 



dumque parant torto subducere carbasa lino, 

percutitur rapido puppis adunca noto 
inque patens aequor frustra pugnante magistro 
590 fertur, et ex oculis visa refugit humus, 
adsiliunt fluctus, imoque a gurgite pontus 

vertitur, et canas alveus haurit aquas, 
vincitur ars vento, nee iam moderator habenis 
utitur ; a votis is quoque poscit opem. 
595 iactatur tumidas exul Phoenissa per undas 
humidaque opposita lumina veste tegit : 
tunc primum Dido felix est dicta sorori 

et quaecumque aliquam corpore pressit humum • 
figitur ad Laurens ingenti flamine litus 
600 puppis et expositis omnibus hausta perit. 
iam pius Aeneas regno nataque Latini 

auctus erat, populos miscueratque duos, 
litore dotali solo comitatus Achate 
secretum nudo dum pede carpit iter, 
605 aspicit errantem nee credere sustinet Annam 
esse : " quid in Latios ilia veniret agros ? " 
dum secum Aeneas, " Anna est ! " exclamat Achates : 

ad nomen voltus sustulit ilia suos. 
heu ! fugiat ? quid agat ? quos terrae quaerat 
hiatus ? 
610 ante oculos miserae fata sororis erant. 

sensit et adloquitur trepidam Cythereius heros 

(flet tamen admonitu motus, Elissa, tui) : 
** Anna, per hanc iuro, quam quondam audire solebas 
teJlurem fato prosperiore dari, 
615 perque deos comites, hac nuper sede locatos. 

<» Aeneas was son of Venus, called Cytherea from her sacred 
island Cythera. 


FASTI, III. 687-616 

And while they made ready to furl the sails with the 
ropes, the swift south wind struck the curved poop 
and swept the ship, despite the captain's efforts, 
into the open sea ; the land receded from their 
sight. The surge assails them, and from its lowest 
depths the ocean is upheaved : the hull gulps down 
the foaming waters. Seamanship is powerless against 
the wind, and the steersman no longer handles the 
helm ; he, too, resorts to prayers for help. The 
Phoenician exile is tossed on the swelling waves 
and hides her wet eyes in her robe : then for the 
first time did she call her sister Dido happy, and 
happy any woman who anywhere did tread dry land. 
A mighty blast drove the ship on the Laurentine 
shore ; she went down and perished, but all on board 
got safe to land. 

^^1 By this time Aeneas had gained the kingdom 
and the daughter of Latinus and had blended the 
two peoples. While, accompanied by Achates alone, 
he paced barefoot a lonely path on the shore with 
which his wife had dowered him, he spied Anna 
wandering, nor could bring himself to think that 
it was she. Why should she come into the Latin 
land ? thought he to himself. Meantime, " *Tis 
Anna ! " cried Achates. At the sound of the 
name she looked up. Alas ! should she flee ? what 
should she do ? where should she look for the earth 
to yawn for her ? Her hapless sister's fate rose up 
before her eyes. The Cytherean<* hero perceived her 
distress and accosted her ; yet did he weep, touched 
by memory of thee, Elissa. " Anna, by this land 
which in days gone by thou usedst to hear a 
happier fate had granted me ; and by the gods who 
followed me and here of late have found a home, 



saepe meas illos increpuisse moras, 
nee timui de morte tamen, metus abfuit iste. 

ei mihi ! credibili fortior ilia fuit. 
ne refer : aspexi non illo corpore digna 
620 volnera Tartareas ausus adire domos. 
at tUj seu ratio te nostris appulit oris 

sive deus, regni commoda carpe mei. 
multa tibi memores, nil non debemus Elissae : 

nomine grata tuo, grata sororis, eris." 
625 talia dicenti (neque enim spes altera restat) 

credidit, errores exposuitque suos. 
utque domum intravit Tyrios induta paratus, 

incipit Aeneas (cetera turba silet) : 
" banc tibi cur tradam, pia causa, Lavinia coniunx, 
630 est mihi : consumpsi naufragus huius opes, 
orta Tyro est, regnum Libyca possedit in ora ; 

quam precor ut carae more sororis ames.'* 
omnia promittit falsumque Lavinia volnus 

mente premit tacita dissimulatque fremens ; 
636 donaque cum videat praeter sua lumina ferri 

multa palam, mitti clam quoque multa putat. 
non habet exactum, quid agat ; furialiter odit 

et parat insidias et cupit ulta mori. 
nox erat : ante torum visa est adstare sororis 
640 squalenti Dido sanguinulenta coma 

et ** fuge, ne dubita, maestum fuge ** dicere 
" tectum ! " 

sub verbum querulas impulit aura fores, 
exilit et velox humili super arva fenestra 

se iacit : audacem fecerat ipse timer. 



FASTI, III. 616-644 

I swear that they did often chide my loiterings. 
Nor yet did I dread her death ; far from me was 
that fear. Woe's me ! her courage sm-passed beUef. 
Tell not the tale. I saw the unseemly wounds upon 
her body what time I dared to visit the house of 
Tartarus. But thou, whether thine own resolve or 
some god has brought thee to our shores, do thou 
enjoy my kingdom's comforts. Much our gratitude 
doth owe to thee, and something, too, to Elissa. 
Welcome shalt thou be for thine own sake and 
welcome for thy sister's." She beheved his words, 
for no other hope was left her, and she told her 
wanderings. And when she entered the palace, 
clad in Tyrian finery, Aeneas opened his lips, while 
the rest of the assembly kept silence : " My wife 
Lavinia, I have a dutiful reason for entrusting this 
lady to thy care ; when I was shipwrecked I con- 
sumed her substance. She is of Tyrian descent ; 
she owns a kingdom on the Libyan coast ; I pray 
thee, love her as a dear sister." Lavinia promised 
everything, but in the silence of her heart she 
hid her fancied wrong and dissembled her rage ; 
and when she saw many presents carried openly 
before her eyes, she thought that many were also 
sent secretly. She had not decided what to do. 
She hated like a fury, and hatched a plot, and 
longed to die avenged. 'Twas night ; before her 
sister's bed it seemed that Dido stood, her unkempt 
hair dabbled in blood. " Fly, fly this dismal 
house," she seemed to say, ** O falter not ! " At 
the word a blast did slam the creaking door. 
Up she leaped, and quick she threw herself out 
of the low window upon the ground : her very 
fear had made her bold. And where her terror 



645 quaque metu rapitur, tunica velata recincta 
currit, ut auditis territa damma lupis. 
corniger hanc tumidis rapuisse Numicius undis 

creditur et stagnis occuluisse suis. 
Sidonis interea magno clamore per agros 
660 quaeritur : apparent signa notaeque pedum : 
ventum erat ad ripas : inerant vestigia ripis. 

sustinuit tacitas conscius amnis aquas, 
ipsa loqui visa est " placidi sum nympha Numici : 
amne perenne latens Anna Perenna vocor." 
655 protinus erratis laeti vescuntur in agris 

et celebrant largo seque diemque mero. 

sunt quibus haec Luna est, quia mensibus impleat 
annum ; 
pars Themin, Inachiam pars putat esse bovem. 
invenies, qui te nymphen Atlantida dicant 
660 teque lovi primes, Anna, dedisse cibos. 

haec quoque, quam referam, nostras pervenit ad 
fama nee a veri dissidet ilia fide, 
plebs vetus et nullis etiam nunc tuta tribunis 
fugit et in Sacri vertice montis erat ; 
665 iam quoque, quem secum tulerant, defecerat illos 
victus et humanis usibus apta Ceres, 
orta suburbanis quaedam fuit Anna Bovillis, 

pauper, sed multae sedulitatis anus, 
ilia levi mitra canos incincta capillos 
670 fingebat tremula rustica liba manu, 

" A river in Latium ; rivers are called horned, being 
personified as bulls. 

'' He probably means Isis, who was identified with lo. 

* This refers to the Secession of the Plebs in 494 b.c. 

FASTI, III. 645-670 

carried her, she ran, clad in her ungirt tunic, 
as runs a frightened doe that hears the wolves. 
'Tis thought the horned Numicius ° swept her away 
in his swollen stream and hid her in his pools. 
Meantime with clamour loud they sought the lost 
Sidonian lady through the fields : traces and foot- 
prints met their eyes : on coming to the banks 
they found her tracks upon the banks. The con- 
scious river checked and hushed his stream. Her- 
self appeared to speak : "I am a nymph of the 
calm Numicius. In a perennial river I hide, and 
Anna Perenna is my name." Straightway they 
feast joyfully in the fields over which they had 
roamed, and toast themselves and the day in deep 
draughts of wine. 

^^■^ Some think that this goddess is the moon, because 
the moon fills up the measure of the year (annus) by 
her months ; others deem that she is Themis ; others 
suppose that she is the Inachian cow.^ You shall find 
some to say that thou, Anna, art a nymph, daughter of 
Atlas, and that thou didst give Jupiter his first food. 
Yet another report, which I will relate, has come to 
my ears, and it is not far from what we may take as 
true. The common folk of old, not yet protected by 
tribunes, had fled, and abode upon the top of the 
Sacred Mount ^ ; now, too, the provisions which they 
had brought with them and the bread fit for human 
use had failed them. There was a certain Anna, 
born at suburban Bovillae, a poor old woman, but 
very industrious.** She, with her grey hair bound up 
in a hght cap, used to mould country cakes with 
tremulous hand, and it was her wont at morn to 

** This story seems told to account for the worship of Anna 
Perenna at Bovillae. 



atque ita per populum fumantia mane solebat 
divider e : haec populo copia grata fuit. 

pace domi facta signum posuere Perennae, 
quod sibi defectis ilia ferebat opem. 

676 nunc mihi cur cantent superest obscena puellae 
dicere ; nam coeunt certaque probra canunt. 
nuper erat dea facta : venit Gradivus ad Annam 

et cum seducta talia verba facit : 
** mense meo coleris, iunxi mea tempora tecum : 
680 pendet ab officio spes mihi magna tuo. 
armifer armiferae correptus amore Minervae 

uror et hoc longo tempore volnus alo. 
effice, di studio similes coeamus in unum : 
conveniunt partes hae tibi, comis anus." 
686 dixerat. ilia deum promisso ludit inani 

et stultam dubia spem trahit usque mora, 
saepius instanti " mandata peregimus," inquit 
** evicta est, precibus vix dedit ilia manus." 
credit amans thalamosque parat. deducitur illuc 
690 Anna tegens voltus, ut nova nupta, suos. 
oscula sumpturus subito Mars aspicit Annam : 

nunc pudor elusum, nunc subit ira deum. 
ridet amatorem carae nova diva Minervae, 
nee res hac Veneri gratior ulla fuit. 
696 inde ioci veteres obscenaque dicta canuntur, 
et iuvat hanc magno verba dedisse deo. 

praeteriturus eram gladios in principe fixos, 
cum sic a castis Vesta locuta focis : 

" Minerva in this story has probably taken the place of 
Nerio, an old goddess, the wife of Mars. See Appendix, 
p. 407. 

^ The murder of Julius Caesar, 44 B.C., on the Ides of 


FASTI, HI. 671-698 

distribute them piping hot among the people : the 
supply was welcome to the people. When peace 
was made at home, they set up a statue to Perenna, 
because she had supplied them in their time of need. 
^'^ Now it remains for me to tell why girls chant 
ribald songs ; for they assemble and sing certain scur- 
rilous verses. When Anna had been but lately made 
a goddess, the Marching God {Gradimis) came to her, 
and taking her aside spoke as follows : ** Thou art 
worshipped in my month, I have joined my season 
to thine ; I have great hope in the service that 
thou canst render me. An armed god myself, I 
have fallen in love with the armed goddess Minerva ^ ; 
I burn and for a long time have nursed this wound. 
She and I are deities alike in our pursuits ; contrive 
to unite us. That office well befits thee, kind old 
dame." So he spoke. She duped the god by a 
false promise, and kept him dangling on in foolish 
hope by dubious delays. When he often pressed 
her, ** I have done thy bidding," said she, " she is 
conquered and has yielded at last to thine entreaties." 
The lover believed her and made ready the bridal 
chamber. Thither they escorted Anna, Hke a bride, 
with a veil upon her face. When he would have 
kissed her, Mars suddenly perceived Anna ; now 
shame, now anger moved the god befooled. The 
new goddess laughed at dear Minerva's lover. Never 
did anything please Venus more than that- So old 
jokes are cracked and ribald songs are sung, and 
people love to remember how Anna choused the 
great god. 

^^' I was about to pass by in silence the swords that 
stabbed the prince,^ when Vesta spoke thus from 



" ne dubita meminisse : meus fuit ille sacerdos, 
700 sacrilegae telis me petiere manus. 

ipsa virum rapui simulacraque nuda reliqui : 

quae cecidit ferro, Caesaris umbra fuit." 
ille quidem caelo positus lovis atria vidit 
et tenet in magno templa dicata foro. 
705 at quicumque nefas ausi, prohibente deorum 
numine, poUuerant pontificale caput, 
morte iacent merita. testes estote Philippi, 

et quorum sparsis ossibus albet humus, 
hoc opus, haec pietas, haec prima elementa fuerunt 
710 Caesaris, ulcisci iusta per arma patrem. 

16. C F 

Postera cum teneras aurora refecerit herbas, 
Scorpios a prima parte videndus erit. 

17. D LIB • ISP 

Tertia post Idus lux est celeberrima Baccho : 
Bacche, fave vati, dum tua festa cano. 
716 nee referam Semeleh, ad quam nisi fulmina secum 
luppiter adferret, parvus inermis eras ; 
nee, puer ut posses maturo tempore nasci, 

expletum patrio corpore matris opus. 
Sithonas et Scythicos longum narrare triumphos 
720 et domitas gentes, turifer Inde, tuas. 

* Pontifex Maximus, 

^ * Semele, mother of Bacchus, requested Jupiter to show 
himself in full majesty. His lightning blasted her, and 
Jupiter caught up her unborn child, and sewed him into his 
own thigh, until the proper time for birth. 

FASTI, III. 699-720 

her chaste hearth : " Doubt not to recall them : he 
was my priest," it was at me these sacrilegious 
hands struck with the steel. I myself carried the 
man away, and left naught but his wraith behind ; 
what fell by the sword was Caesar's shade." Trans- 
ported to the sky he saw the halls of Jupiter, and in 
the great Forum he owns a temple dedicated to 
him. But all the daring sinners who, in defiance of 
the gods' will, profaned the pontiff's head, lie low in 
death, the death they merited. Witness Philippi 
and they whose scattered bones whiten the ground. 
This, this was Caesar's work, his duty, his first task 
by righteous arms to avenge his father. 

XVII. Kal. Apr. 16th 

'^^ When the next dawn shall have refreshed the 
tender grass, the Scorpion will be visible in his first 

XVI. Kal. 17th 

'^8 The third day after the Ides is a very popular 
celebration of Bacchus. O Bacchus, be gracious to 
thy bard while he sings of thy festival. But I shall 
not tell of Semele ^ ; if Jupiter had not brought his 
thunderbolts with him to her, thou hadst been a 
puny unarmed wight. Nor shall I tell how, in 
order that thou mightest be born as a boy in due 
time, the function of a mother was completed in thy 
father's body. It were long to relate the triumphs 
won by the god over the Sithonians and the Scythians, 
and how he subdued the peoples of India, that 
incense-bearing land. I will say naught of him who 



tu quoque Tbebanae mala praeda tacebere matris, 

inque tuum furiis acte, Lycurge, genu, 
ecce libet subitos pisces Tyrrhenaque monstra 

dicere, sed non est carminis huius opus ; 
725 carminis huius opus causas exponere, quare 

vilis anus populos ad sua liba vocet. 
ante tuos ortus arae sine honore fuerunt, 

Liber, et in gelidis herba reperta focis. 
te memorant Gange totoque Oriente subacto 
730 primitias magno seposuisse lovi. 

cinnama tu primus captivaque tura dedisti 

deque triumphato viscera tosta bove. 
nomine ab auctoris ducunt libamina nomen 

libaque, quod Sanctis pars datur inde focis. 
735 liba deo fiunt, sucis quia dulcibus idem 

gaudet, et a Baccho mella reperta ferunt. 
ibat harenoso satyris comitatus ab Hebro 

(non habet ingratos fabula nostra iocos), 
iamque erat ad Rhodopen Pangaeaque florida 
ventum : 
740 aeriferae comitum concrepuere manus. 
ecce novae coeunt volucres tinnitibus actae, 

quosque movent sonitus aera, sequuntur apes, 
colligit errantes et in arbore claudit inani 

Liber et inventi praemia mellis habet. 
745 ut satyri levisque senex tetigere saporem, 

quaerebant flavos per nemus omne favos. 
audit in exesa stridorem examinis ulmo, 

aspicit et ceras dissimulatque senex ; 

<* When Bacchus brought his rites to Thebes, the king, 
Pentheus, disbelieved in him ; and he was torn to pieces by 
his mother Agave and the bacchant women. Lycurgus, 
king of the Edonians, expelled Bacchus ; he was driven mad, 
and killed his own son with an axe, in mistake for a vine : 
then lopped off his own extremities. 

FASTI, III. 721-748 

fell a mournful prey to his own Theban mother," nor 
of Lycurgus, whom frenzy drove to hack at his own 
knee. Lo now, fain would I speak of the Tyrrhenian 
monsters, men suddenly transformed into fish,^ but 
that is not the business of this song ; the business 
of this song is to set forth the reasons why a vulgar 
old woman hawks cakes to the people. Before thy 
birth, Liber, the altars were without offerings, and 
grass grew on the cold hearths. They tell how, after 
subjugating the Ganges and the whole East, thou 
didst set apart first-fruits for great Jupiter. Thou 
wert the first to offer cinnamon and incense from the 
conquered lands, and the roast flesh of oxen led in 
triumph. Libations (libamina) derive their name from 
their author, and so do cakes (liba), because part of 
them is offered on the hallowed hearths. Cakes are 
made for the god, because he delights in sweet juices, 
and they say that honey was discovered by Bacchus. 
Attended by the satyrs he was going from sandy 
Hebrus (my tale includes a pleasant jest), and had 
come to Rhodope and flowery Pangaeus, when the 
cymbals in the hands of his companions clashed. 
Lo, drawn by the tinkle, winged things, as yet un- 
known, assemble, and the bees follow the sounding 
brass. Liber collected the stragglers and shut them 
up in a hollow tree ; and he was rewarded by the dis- 
covery of honey. Once the satyrs and the bald-pated 
ancient ° had tasted it, they sought for the yellow 
combs in every grove. In a hollow elm the old fellow 
heard the humming of a swarm ; he spied the combs 

* Bacchus was captured at sea by pirates ; but he drove 
them niad, they leaped overboard, and became dolphins. 

* Silenus, the merry companion of the satyrs. 



utque piger pandi tergo residebat aselli, 
760 applicat hunc ulmo corticibusque cavis. 
constitit ipse super ramoso stipite nixus 

atque avide trunco condita mella petit, 
milia crabronum coeunt et vertice nudo 
spicula defigunt oraque sima notant. 
765 ille cadit praeceps et calce feritur aselli 
inclamatque suos auxiliumque rogat. 
concurrunt satyri turgentiaque ora parentis 

rident : percusso claudicat ille genu, 
ridet et ipse deus limumque inducere monstrat ; 
760 hie paret monitis et Unit ora luto. 

melle pater fruitur, liboque infusa calenti 

jure repertori Candida mella damus. 
femina cur presset, non est rationis opertae : 
femineos thyrso concitat ille choros. 
765 cur anus hoc faciat, quaeris ? vinosior aetas 
haec est et gravidae munera vitis amat. 
cur hedera cincta est ? hedera est gratissima Baccho 

hoc quoque cur ita sit, dicere nulla mora est. 
Nysiadas nymphas puerum quaerente noverca 
770 hanc frondem cunis opposuisse ferunt. 
restat, ut inveniam, quare toga libera detur 

Lucifero pueris, candide Bacche, tuo : 
sive quod ipse puer semper iuvenisque videris, 
et media est aetas inter utrumque tibi : 
775 seu, quia tu pater es, patres sua pignora, nates, 
commendant curae numinibusque tuis : 
sive, quod es Liber, vestis quoque libera per te 

* Liber pater. 

" Juno, who as Jupiter's wife pursued Semele's son with 
a stepmother's hatred. * Toga virilis. 


FASTI, III. 749-777 

diid kept his counsel. And sitting lazily on the back 
of an ass, that bent beneath his weight, he rode 
the beast up to the elm, where the bark was hollow. 
Then he stood on the ass, and leaning upon a branch- 
ing stump he greedily reached at the honey stored 
in the bole. Thousands of hornets gathered, and 
thrust their stings into his bald pate, and left their 
mark on his snub-nosed face. Headlong he fell, 
and the ass kicked him, while he called to his 
comrades and implored their help. The satyrs ran 
to the spot and laughed at their parent's swollen 
face : he limped on his hurt knee. Bacchus him- 
self laughed and taught him to smear mud on his 
wounds ; Silenus took the hint and smudged his 
face with mire. The father god" enjoys honey, 
and it is right that we should give to its discoverer 
clear honey infused in hot cakes. The reason why 
a woman should knead the cakes is plain enough : 
Bacchus rouses bands of women by his thyrsus. 
You ask why it is an old woman who does it. That 
age is more addicted to wine, and loves the bounty 
of the teeming vine. Why is she wreathed with 
ivy ? Ivy is most dear to Bacchus. Why that is 
so can also soon be told. They say that when the 
stepmother ^ was searching for the boy, the nymphs 
of Nysa screened the cradle in ivy leaves. 

'''^ It remains for me to discover why the gown of 
liberty '^ is given to boys, fair Bacchus, on thy day, 
whether it be because thou seemest ever to be a 
boy and a youth, and thy age is midway between 
the two ; or it may be that, because thou art a father, 
fathers commend to thy care and divine keeping the 
pledges that they love, their sons ; or it may be that 
because thou art Liber, the gown of liberty is assumed 



sumitur et vitae liberioris iter : 
an quia, cum colerent prisci studiosius agros, 
780 et faceret patrio rure senator opus, 
et caperet fasces a curvo consul aratro, 

nee crimen duras esset habere manus, 
rusticus ad ludos populus veniebat in urbem 
(sed dis, non studiis ille dabatur honor : 
785 luce sua ludos uvae commentor habebat, 

quos cum taedifera nunc habet ille dea) : 
ergo ut tironem celebrare frequentia posset, 

visa dies dandae non aliena togae ? 
mite caput, pater, hue placataque cornua vertas 
790 et des ingenio vela secunda meo. 

Itur ad Argeos (qui sint, sua pagina dicet) 

hac, si commemini, praeteritaque die. 
Stella Lycaoniam vergit declivis ad Arcton 

Miluus : haec ilia nocte videnda venit. 
795 quid dederit volucri, si vis cognoscere, caelum : 

Saturnus regnis a love pulsus erat ; 
concitat iratus validos Titanas in arma, 

quaeque fuit fatis debita, temptat opem. 
matre satus Terra, monstrum mirabile, taurus 
800 parte sui serpens posteriore fuit : 
hunc triplici muro lucis incluserat atris 

Parcarum monitu Styx violenta trium. 
viscera qui tauri flammis adolenda dedisset, 

sors erat aeternos vincere posse deos. 
805 immolat hunc Briareus facta ex adamante securi, 

" Bacchus. 

*' Ceres (Demeter). The games are the Cerealia, April 19. 

' See V. 621, and App. p. 425. 

^ The star is unknown ; but the coming of the bird was 
a sign of spring. The Bear was supposed to be Calhsto, 
daughter of Lycaon. 

FASTI, III. 778-806 

and a freer (liberior) life is entered upon under thine 
auspices. Or was it because, in the days when the 
ancients tilled the fields more diligently, and 
a senator laboured on his ancestral land, when a 
consul exchanged the bent plough for the rods and 
axes of office, and it was no crime to have horny hands, 
the country folk used to come to the city for the 
games (but that was an honour paid to the gods, 
not a concession to popular tastes, the discoverer of 
the grape ° held on his own day those games which 
now he shares with the torch-bearing goddess^) ; and 
the day therefore seemed not unsuitable for con- 
ferring the gown, in order that a crowd might gather 
round the novice ? Thou Father God, hither turn thy 
horned head, mild and propitious, and to the favour- 
ing breezes spread the sails of my poetic art ! 

"^^ On this day, if I remember aright, and on the 
preceding day, there is a procession to the Argei. 
What the Argei are, will be told in the proper 
place.*' The star of the Kite** slopes downwards 
towards the Lycaonian Bear: on that night it 
becomes visible. If you would know what raised 
the bird to heaven, Saturn had been dethroned by 
Jupiter. In his wrath he stirred up the strong 
Titans to take arms and sought the help the Fates 
allowed him. There was a bull born of its mother 
Earth, a wondrous monster, the hinder part whereof 
was a serpent : him, at the warning of the three 
Fates, grim Styx had shut up in gloomy woods 
enclosed by a triple wall. There was an oracle 
that he who should burn the inwards of the bull in 
the flames would be able to conquer the eternal 
gods. Briareus sacrificed him with an axe made 



et iam iam flammis exta daturus erat : 
luppiter alitibus rapere imperat ; attulit illi 
miluus et meritis venit in astra suis. 

18. EC 19. FQVIN-N 20. GC 21. HC 22. AN 

Una dies media est, et fiunt sacra Minervae, 
810 nomina quae iunctis quinque diebus habent. 
sanguine prima vacat, nee fas concurrere ferro I 

causa, quod est ilia nata Minerva die. 
altera tresque super strata celebrantur harena I 

ensibus exertis bellica laeta dea est. 
815 Pallada nunc pueri teneraeque orate puellae : 

qui bene placarit Pallada, doctus erit. 
Pallade placata lanam mollire puellae 

discant et plenas exonerare colos. 
ilia etiam stantis radio percurrere telas 
820 erudit et rarum pectine denset opus. 

hanc cole, qui maculas laesis de vestibus aufers, 

banc cole, velleribus quisquis aena paras ; 
nee quisquam invita faciet bene vincula plantae 

Pallade, sit Tycliio doctior ille licet ; 
826 et licet antiquo manibus conlatus Epeo 

sit prior, irata Pallade mancus erit. 
vos quoque, Phoebea morbos qui pellitis arte, 

munera de vestris pauca referte deae : 
nee vos, turba fere censu fraudata,^ magistri, 

^ fraudata Uni^ : fraudate AXm : fraudante DMm'^S'. 

* QuinquatruSf Qvin in the calendar, properly the name 
of one day, the fifth after the Ides ; but it was commonly 
taken to mean a period of five days. 

' For gladiatorial shows. 

* Tychius is said to have invented shoe-making. Homer 
calls him the best of leather-cutters, Jl, vii. 219-223. 


FASTI, III. 806-829 

of adamant, and was just about to put the entrails 
on the fire : Jupiter commanded the birds to snatch 
them away ; the kite brought them to him and was 
promoted to the stars for his services. 

XIV. Kal. 19th 

^^^ After an interval of one day rites are performed 
in honour of Minerva, which get their name from a 
group of five days." The first day is bloodless, and 
it is unlawful to combat with the sword, because 
Minerva was born on that day. The second day 
and three besides are celebrated by the spreading 
of sand ^ : the warlike goddess delights in drawn 
swords. Ye boys and tender girls, pray now to 
Pallas ; he who shall have won the favour of Pallas 
vnll be learned. When once they have won the 
favour of Pallas, let girls learn to card the wool 
and to unload the full distaffs. She also teaches 
how to traverse the upright warp with the shuttle, 
and she drives home the loose threads with the 
comb. Worship her, thou who dost remove stains 
from damaged garments ; worship her, thou who 
dost make ready the brazen caldrons for the fleeces. 
If Pallas frown, no man shall make shoes well, 
though he were more skilful than Tychius '^ ; and 
though he were more adroit with his hands than 
Epeus '^ of old, yet shall he be helpless, if Pallas be 
angry with him. Ye too, who banish sicknesses by 
Phoebus' art, bring from your earnings a few gifts 
to the goddess .* And spurn her not, ye schoolmasters, 

^ Who made the Wooden Horse, 
* Minerva Medica. 



830 spernite ; discipulos attrahit ilia novos : 

quique moves caelum, tabulamque coloribus uris, 

qui que facis docta mollia saxa manu. 
mille dea est operum : certe dea carminis ilia est ; 

si mereor, studiis adsit amica meis. 

836 Caelius ex alto qua mons descendit in aequum, 
hie, ubi non plana est, sed prope plana via, 
parva licet videas Captae delubra Minervae, 

quae dea natali coepit habere suo. 
nominis in dubio causa est. capitale vocamus 
840 ingenium sollers : ingeniosa dea est. 

an quia de capitis fertur sine matre paterni 

vertice cum clipeo prosiluisse suo ? 
an quia perdomitis ad nos captiva Faliscis 
venit ? et hoc ipsum littera prisca docet. 
846 an quod habet legem, capitis quae pendere poenas 
ex illo iubeat furta reperta loco } 
a quacumque trahis ratione vocabula, Pallas, 
pro ducibus nostris aegida semper habe. 

23. B TVBIL • N> 

Summa dies e quinque tubas lustrare canoras 
860 admonet et forti sacrificare deae. 

nunc potes ad solem sublato dicere voltu 
** hie here Phrixeae veil era pressit ovis." 

" The Quinquatrus was a holiday : the master on that day 
collected pennies from his boys, which it appears he had 
to hand over to Minerva. Ovid suggests that the boys 
might defraud their schoolmasters (or, reading fraudante, 
exhorts the masters not to cheat the goddess of her little 

* He suggests that capta comes from caputs and adds that 
Minerva is capitalist " tiptop." 

FASTI, III. 830-852 

ye tribe too often cheated of your income," she 
attracts new pupils ; and thou who dost ply the 
graving tool and paint pictures in encaustic colours, 
and thou who dost mould the stone with deft hand 
(spurn not the goddess). She is the goddess of a 
thousand works : certainly she is the goddess of song ; 
may she be friendly to my pursuits, if I deserve it. 

835 Where the Caelian Mount descends from the 
height into the plain, at the point where the street 
is not level but nearly level, you may see the small 
shrine of Minerva Capta, which the goddess owned 
for the first time upon her birthday. The origin of 
the name Capta is doubtful. We call ingenuity 
" capital " ; the goddess herself is ingenious.^ Did 
she get the name of Capta because she is said to 
have leaped forth motherless with her shield from 
the crown of her father's head {caput) ? Or because 
she came to us as a captive at the conquest of Falerii*' ? 
This very fact is attested by an ancient inscription. 
Or was it because she has a law which ordains capital 
punishment for thefts proved to have been committed 
in that place ? From whatsoever source thou dost 
derive the title, O Pallas, do thou hold thine aegis 
ever before our leaders. 

X. Kal. 23rd 

^® The last day of the five reminds us to purify 
the melodious trumpets ^ and to sacrifice to the strong 

®^^ Now you can look up to the sun and say, 
" Yesterday he set foot on the fleece of the Phrixean 

« This is probably the right reason^ 
** Tuhilustrium. * Minerva. 



seminibus testis sceleratae fraude novercae 
sustulerat nullas, ut solet, herba comas. 
855 mittitur ad tripodas, certa qui sorte reportet, 
quam sterili terrae Delphicus edat op em. 
hie quoque eorruptus cum semine nuntiat Helles 

et iuvenis Phrixi funera sorte peti ; 
utque recusantem cives et tempus et Ino 
860 compulerunt regem iussa nefanda pati, 
et soror et Phrixus, velati tempora vittis, 

stant simul ante aras iunctaque fata gemunt. 
aspicit hos, ut forte pependerat aethere, mater 
et ferit attonita pectora nuda manu, 
865 inque draconigenam nimbis comitantibus urbem 
desilit et natos eripit inde suos ; 
utque fugam capiant, aries nitidissimus auro 

traditur : ille vehit per freta longa duos, 
dicitur infirma cornu tenuisse sinistra 
870 femina, cum de se nomina fecit aquae. 

paene simul periit, dum volt succurrere lapsae 

frater, et extentas porrigit usque manus. 
flebat, ut amissa gemini consorte pericli, 
caeruleo iunctam nescius esse deo. 
875 litoribus tactis aries fit sidus, at huius 

pervenit in Colchas aurea lana domos. 

24. C Q • REX • C • F 25. DC 26. EC 

Tres ubi Luciferos veniens praemiserit Eos, 
tempora nocturnis aequa diurna feres. 

" That is, entered the sign of the Ram. Athamas, king of 
Boeotia, had a son Phrixus and a daughter Helle. Their 
mother, Nephele, died, and he married Ino. She plotted 
their death as described here. 

" Ino. « Thebes. * Hellespont. 


FASTI, III. 853-878 

sheep.*'** By the guile of a wicked stepmother^ the 
seeds had been roasted, so that no corn sprouted 
in the wonted way. A messenger was sent to the 
tripods to report, by a sure oracle, what remedy the 
Delphic god would prescribe for the dearth. But he, 
corrupted like the seed, brought word that the 
oracle demanded the death of Helle and the stripling 
Phrixus ; and when the citizens, the season, and 
Ino compelled the reluctant king to submit to the 
wicked command, Phrixus and his sister, their brows 
veiled with fillets, stood together before the altars 
and bewailed the fate they shared. Their mother 
spied them, as by chance she hovered in the air, 
and thunder-struck she beat her naked breast with 
her hand : then, accompanied by clouds, she leaped 
down into the dragon-begotten city*' and snatched 
from it her children, and that they might take to 
flight, a ram all glistering with gold was delivered 
to them. The ram bore the two over wide seas. 
It is said that the sister relaxed the hold of her left 
hand on the ram's horn, when she gave her own 
name to the water.** Her brother almost perished 
with her in attempting to succour her as she fell, 
and in holding out his hands at the utmost stretch. 
He wept at losing her who had shared his double 
peril, wotting not that she was wedded to the 
blue god. On reaching the shore the ram was 
made a constellation, but his golden fleece was 
carried to Colchian homes. 

VII. Kal. 26th 

®'' When thrice the Morning Star shall have 
heralded the coming Dawn, you shall reckon the 
time of day equal to the time of night. 




28. GC 29. HC 30. AC (M>) 

Inde quater pastor saturos ubi clauserit haedos, 
880 canuerint herbae rore recente quater, 

lanus adorandus cumque hoc Concordia mitis 
et Romana Salus araque Pacis erit. 

Luna regit mensis : huius quoque tempora mensis 
finit Aventino Luna colenda iugo. 


FASTI, III. 879-884 

III. Kal. 30th 

879 When four times from that day the shepherd 
shall have folded the cloyed kids, and four times 
the grass shall have whitened under the fresh dew, 
it will be time to adore Janus, and gentle Concord 
with him, and Roman Safety, and the altar of Peace. 

Pr. Kal. 31st 

^^ The moon rules the months : the period of 
this month also ends with the worship of the Moon 
on the Aventine Hill. 



" Alma, fave," dixi ** geminorum mater Amorum ! *' 

ad vatem voltus rettulit ilia suos : 
" quid tibi " ait " mecum ? certe maiora canebas. 

num vetus in molli pectore volnus habes ? " 
5 " scis, dea," respondi " de volnere." risit, et aether 

protinus ex ilia parte serenus erat. 
" saucius an sanus numquid tua signa reliqui ? 

tu mihi propositum, tu mihi semper opus, 
quae decuit, primis sine crimine lusimus annis, 
10 nunc teritur nostris area maior equis : 
tempora cum causis annalibus eruta priscis 

lapsaque sub terras ortaque signa cano. 
ve limus ad quartum, quo tu celeberrima mense : 

et vatem et mensem scis, Venus, esse tuos." 
15 mota Cytheriaca leviter mea tempora myrto 

contigit et " coeptum perfice " dixit " opus." 
sensimus, et causae subito patuere dierum : 

dum licet et spirant flamina, navis eat. 

Si qua tamen pars te de fastis tangere debet, 
20 Caesar, in Aprili, quo tenearis, habes. 

^ Eros and Anteros. 

* Augustus, adopted by Julius Caesar, who traced his 
descent from Venus, through Aeneas. 


'* O GRACIOUS Mother of the Twin Loves,** " said 
I, " grant me thy favour." The goddess looked back 
at the poet. ** What wouldst thou with me ? " she 
said, " surely thou wast wont to sing of loftier 
themes. Hast thou an old wound rankling in thy 
tender breast ? " " Goddess," I answered, " thou 
wottest of my wound." She laughed, and straight- 
way the sky was serene in that quarter. " Hurt 
or whole, did I desert thy standards ? Thou, 
thou hast ever been the task I set myself. In 
my young years I toyed with themes to match, and 
gave offence to none ; now my steeds tread a larger 
field. I sing the seasons, and their causes, and 
the starry signs that set beneath the earth and 
rise again, drawing my lore from annals old. We 
have come to the fourth month in which thou art 
honoured above all others, and thou knowest, Venus, 
that both the poet and the month are thine." The 
goddess was moved, and touching my brows lightly 
with myrtle of Cythera, " Complete," said she, " the 
work thou hast begun." I felt her inspiration, and 
suddenly my eyes were opened to the causes of the 
days : proceed, my bark, while still thou mayest 
and the breezes blow. 

^^ Yet if any part of the calendar should interest 
thee, Caesar,^ thou hast in April matter of concern. 



hie ad te magna descendit imagine mensis 

et fit adoptiva nobilitate tuus. 
hoc pater Iliades, cum longum scriberet annum, 

vidit et auctores rettulit ipse suos : 
25 utque fero Marti primam dedit ordine sortem, 

quod sibi nascenti proxima causa fuit, 
sic Venerem gradibus multis in gente repertam 

alterius voluit mensis habere locum ; 
principiumque sui generis revolutaque quaerens 
30 saecula cognatos venit adusque deos. 
Dardanon Electra nesciret Atlantide natum 

scilicet, Electram concubuisse lovi ? 
huius Erichthonius : Tros est generatus ab illo : 

Assaracon creat hie, Assaracusque Capyn. 
35 proximus Anchises, cum quo commune parentis 

non dedignata est nomen habere Venus, 
hinc satus Aeneas, pietas spectata, per ignes 

sacra patremque humeris, altera sacra, tuht. 
venimus ad felix aliquando nomen luli, 
40 unde domus Teucros lulia tangit avos. 

Postumus hinc, qui quod silvis fuit ortus in altis, 

Silvius in Latia gente vocatus erat. 
isque, Latine, tibi pater est. subit Alba Latinum : 

proximus est tituhs Epytus, Alba, tuis. 
45 ille dedit Capyi recidiva vocabula Troiae 

et tuus est idem, Calpete, f actus avus. 
cumque patris regnum post hunc Tiberinus haberet, 

dicitur in Tuscae gurgite mersus aquae. 

" Romulus, as descended from Aeneas and so from Ilus, 
founder of Ilium. 


FASTI, IV. 21-48 

This month thou hast inherited by a great pedigree, 
and it has been made thine by virtue of thine adoption 
into a noble house. When the Ihan sire " was 
putting the long year on record, he saw the relation- 
ship and commemorated the authors of his race : 
and as he gave the first lot in the order of the 
months to fierce Mars, because he was the immediate 
cause of his own birth, so he willed that the place 
of the second month should belong to Venus, because 
he ascertained his descent from her through many 
generations. In seeking the origin of his race, he 
turned over the roll of the centuries and came at last 
to the gods whose blood he shared. How, prithee, 
should he not know that Dardanus was born of Electra, 
daughter of Atlas, and that Electra had lain with 
Jupiter ? Dardanus had a son Erichthonius, who 
begat Tros ; and Tros begat Assaracus, and Assaracus 
begat Capys. Next came Anchises, with whom 
Venus did not disdain to share the name of parent. 
Of them was born Aeneas, whose piety was proved 
when on his shoulders through the fire he bore the 
holy things and his own sire, a charge as holy. 
Now at last have we come to the lucky name of 
Julus, through whom the Julian house reaches back 
to Teucrian ancestors. He had a son Postumus, 
who, because he was born in the deep woods, was 
called Silvius among the Latin folk. He was thy 
father, Latinus ; Latinus was succeeded by Alba, 
and next to Alba on the list was Epytus. He gave 
to his son Capys a Trojan name, revived for the 
purpose, and he was also the grandfather of Calpetus. 
And when Tiberinus possessed his father's kingdom 
after the death of Calpetus, he was drowned, it is 
said, in a deep pool of the Tuscan river. Yet before 



iam tamen Agrippan natum Remulumque nepotem 
60 viderat : in Remulum fulmina missa ferunt. 
venit Aventinus post hos, locus unde vocatur, 

mons quoque. post ilium tradita regna Procae. 
quern sequitur duri Numitor germanus Amuli. 
Ilia cum Lauso de Numitore sati. 
65 ense cadit patruo Lausus : placet Ilia Marti 
teque parit, gemino iuncte Quirine Remo. 
ille suos semper Venerem Martemque parentes 

dixit et emeruit vocis habere fidem ; 
neve secuturi possent nescire nepotes, 
60 tempora dis generis continuata dedit. 
sed Veneris mensem Graio sermone notatum 

auguror : a spumis est dea dicta maris. 

nee tibi sit mirum Graeco rem nomine dici ; 

Itala nam tellus Graecia maior erat. 

65 venerat Evander plena cum classe suorum : 

venerat Alcides, Grains uterque genus 

(hospes Aventinis armentum pavit in herbis 

claviger, et tanto est Albula pota deo) : 
dux quoque Neritius ; testes Laestrygones extant 
70 et quod adhuc Circes nomina litus habet. 
et iam Telegoni, iam moenia Tiburis udi 

stabant, Argolicae quod posuere manus. 
venerat Atridae fatis agitatus Halesus, 
a quo se dictam terra Falisca putat. 
76 adice Troianae suasorem Antenora pacis 

et generum Oeniden, Apule Daune, tuum, 

" Aphrodite, from dcppos, " foam." 

" Ulysses, after the hill Neriton in Ithaca. Lamus, king 
of the Laestrygones, was thought to have founded Formiae. 
Ulysses visited the Laestrygonians, as described in Horn. 
Od. X. 81. 

" The promontory Circeium. * Tusculum. 


FASTI, IV. 49-76 

that he had seen the birth of a son Agrippa and of 
a grandson Remulus ; but Remulus, they say, was 
struck by levin-bolts. After them came Aventinus, 
from whom the place and also the hill took their 
name. After him the kingdom passed to Proca, who 
was succeeded by Numitor, brother of hard-hearted 
Amulius. Ilia and Lausus were born to Numitor. 
Lausus fell by his uncle's sword : Ilia found favour 
in the eyes of Mars and gave birth to thee, Quirinus, 
and thy twin brother Remus. He always averred 
that his parents were Venus and Mars, and he 
deserved to be believed when he said so ; and that 
his descendants after him might know the truth, 
he assigned successive periods to the gods of his 
race. But I surmise that the month of Venus took 
its name from the Greek language : the goddess 
was called after the foam of the sea." Nor need 
you wonder that a thing was called by a Greek 
name, for the Italian land was Greater Greece. 
Evander had come to Italy with a fleet full of his 
people ; Alcides also had come ; both of them were 
Greeks by race. As a guest, the club-bearing hero 
fed his herd on the Aventine grass, and the groa* 
god drank of the Albula. The Neritian chief also 
came ^ : witness the Laestrygones and the shore 
which still bears the name of Circe.*' Already the 
walls of Telegonus*^ were standing, and the walls 
of moist Tibur, built by Argive hands. Driven 
from home by the tragic doom of Atrides, Halesus 
had come, after whom the Faliscan land deems that 
it takes its name. Add to these Antenor,* who 
advised the Trojans to make peace, and (Diomedes) 
the Oenid, son-in-law to Apulian Daunus. Aeneas 
• Said to have founded Patavium. 

H 193 


serus ab Iliacis et post Antenora flammis 

attulit Aeneas in loca nostra deos. 
huius erat Solymus Phrygia comes unus ab Ida, 
80 a quo Sulmonis moenia nomen habent, 
Sulmonis gelidi, patriae, Germanice, nostrae. 

me miserum, Scythico quam procul ilia solo est ! 
ergo ego tam longe — sed subprime, Musa, querellas ! 
non tibi sunt maesta sacra canenda lyra. 
85 quo non livor adit ? sunt qui tibi mensis honorem 
eripuisse velint invideantque, Venus, 
nam quia ver aperit tunc omnia, densaque cedit 

frigoris asperitas, fetaque terra patet, 
Aprilem memorant ab aperto tempore dictum, 
90 quem Venus iniecta vindicat alma manu. 
ilia quidem totum dignissima temperat orbem ; 

ilia tenet nullo regna minora deo, 
iuraque dat caelo, terrae, natalibus undis, 
perque suos initus continet omne genus. 
95 ilia deos omnes (longum est numerare) creavit : 
ilia satis causas arboribusque dedit : 
ilia rudes animos hominum contraxit in unum 

et docuit iungi cum pare quemque sua. 
quid genus omne creat volucrum, nisi blanda 
voluptas ? 
100 nee coeant pecudes, si levis absit amor, 
cum mare trux aries cornu decertat ; at idem 

frontem dilectae laedere parcit ovis. 
deposita sequitur taurus feritate iuvencam, 
quem toti saltus, quem nemus omne tremit. 
105 vis eadem, lato quodcumque sub aequore vivit, 
servat et innumeris piscibus implet aquas. 

• See Introduction, p. viii. 

FASTI, IV. 77-106 

from the flames of Ilium brought his gods into our 
land, arriving late and after Antenor. He had a 
comrade Solymus, who came from Phrygian Ida ; 
from him the walls of Sulmo take their name — cool 
Sulmo, my native town, Germanicus. Woe's me, 
how far is Sulmo from the Scythian land ! There- 
fore shall I so far away — but check, my Muse, thy 
plaints ; 'tis not for thee to warble sacred themes 
on mournful strings ." 

^^ Where doth not sallow envy find a way ? Some 
there are who grudge thee the honour of the month, 
and would snatch it from thee, Venus. For they 
say that April was named from the open {apertum) 
season, because spring then opens (aperit) all things, 
and the sharp frost-bound cold departs, and earth 
unlocks her teeming soil, though kindly Venus>^ 
claims the month and lays her hand on it. /She 
indeed sways, and well deserves to sway, the world 
entire ; she owns a kingdom second to that of 
no god ; she gives laws to heaven and earth and 
to her native sea, and by her inspiration she keeps 
every species in being. She created all the gods — 
'twere long to number them ; she bestowed on 
seeds and trees their origins. She drew rude- 
minded men together and taught them to pair each 
with his mate. What but bland pleasure brings 
into being the whole brood of birds ? Cattle, too, 
would not come together, were loose love wanting. 
The savage ram butts at the wether, but would not 
hurt the forehead of the ewe he loves. The bull, 
whom all the woodland pastures, all the groves do 
dread, puts off his fierceness and follows the heifer. 
The same force preserves all living things under 
the broad bosom of the deep, and fills the waters 



prima feros habitus homini detraxit : ab ilia 

venerunt cultus mundaque cura sui. 
primus amans carmen vigilatum nocte negata 
110 dicitur ad clausas concinuisse fores, 
eloquiumque fuit duram exorare puellam, 
proque sua causa quisque disertus erat. 
mille per banc artes motae ; studioque placendi 
quae latuere prius, multa reperta ferunt. 
116 banc quisquam titulo mensis spoliare secundi 
audeat ? a nobis sit furor iste procul. 
quid, quod ubique potens templisque frequentibus 
urbe tamen nostra ius dea maius habet ? 
pro Troia, Romane, tua Venus arma ferebat, 
120 cum gemuit teneram cuspide laesa manum : 
caelestesque duas Troiano iudice vicit 

(a ! nolim victas hoc meminisse deas !), 
Assaracique nurus dicta est, ut scilicet olim 
magnus luleos Caesar haberet avos. 
126 nee Veneri tempus quam ver erat aptius ullum l 
vere nitent terrae, vere remissus ager, 
nunc herbae rupta tellure cacumina tollunt, 
nunc tumido gemmas cortice palmes agit. 
et formosa Venus formoso tempore digna est, 
130 utque solet, Marti continuata suo est : 

vere monet curvas materna per aequora puppes 
ire nee hibernas iam timuisse minas. 

* Wounded by Diomede, Iliads v. 335. 

* Paris, the Trojan, adjudged to her the apple, the prize of 
beauty ; and her rivals, Juno (Hera) and Athena, bore a 
grudge for their defeat. 

" Anchises, grandson of Assaracus. The Julian line 
claimed descent from lulus, son of Aeneas. 


FASTI, IV. 107-132 

with unnumbered fish. That force first stripped 
man of his savage garb ; from it he learned decent 
attire and personal cleanliness A lover was the 
first, they say, to serenade by night the mistress 
who denied him entrance, while he sang at her 
barred door, and to win the heart of a coy maid 
was eloquence indeed ; every man then pleaded his 
own cause. This goddess has been the mother of 
a thousand arts ; the wish to please has given birth 
to many inventions that were unknown before^ 
And shall any man dare rob this goddess of the 
honour of giving her name to the second month ? 
Far from me be such a frenzy. Besides, while 
everywhere the goddess is powerful and her temples 
are thronged with worshippers, she possesses yet 
more authority in our city. Venus, O Roman, bore 
arms for thy Troy, what time she groaned at the 
spear wound in her dainty hand ® ; and by a Trojan's 
verdict she defeated two heavenly goddesses.^ Ah 
would that they had not remembered their defeat ! 
And she was called the bride of Assaracus' son," 
in order, to be sure, that in time to come great 
Caesar might count the Julian line among his 
sires. And no season was more fitting for Venus 
than spring. In spring the landscape glistens ; soft 
is the soil in spring ; now the corn pushes its 
blades through the cleft ground ; now the vine- 
shoot protrudes its buds in the swelling bark. 
Lovely Venus deserves the lovely season and is 
attached, as usual, to her dear Mars : in spring 
she bids the curved ships fare across her natal seas 
and fear no more the threats of winter. 



1. CK-A[PRIL-M» 
Rite deam colitis Latiae matresque nurusque 
et vos, quis vittae longaque vestis abest. 
135 aurea marmoreo redimicula demite coUo, 
demite divitias : tota lavanda dea est. 
aurea siccato redimicula reddite collo : 

nunc alii flores, nunc nova danda rosa est. 
vos quoque sub viridi myrto iubet ipsa lavari : 
140 causaque, cur iubeat (discite !), certa subest 
litore siccabat rorantes nuda capillos : 

viderunt satyri, turba proterva, deam. 
sensit et opposita texit sua corpora myrto : 
tuta fuit facto vosque referre iubet. 
145 discite nunc, quare Fortunae tura Virili 
detis eo, calida qui locus umet aqua, 
accipit ille locus posito velamine cunctas 

et vitium nudi corporis omne videt ; 
ut tegat hoc celetque viros, Fortuna Virilis 
160 praestat et hoc parvo ture rogata facit. 
nee pigeat tritum niveo cum lacte papaver 
sumere et expressis mella liquata favis ; 
cum primum cupido Venus est deducta marito, 
hoc bibit : ex illo tempore nupta fuit. 
166 supplicibus verbis illam placate : sub ilia 
et forma et mores et bona fama manet. 
Roma pudicitia proavorum tempore lapsa est : 

Cymaeam, veteres, consuluistis anum. 
templa iubet fieri Veneri, quibus ordine factis 
160 inde Venus verso nomina corde tenet. 

* Courtesans, who were forbidden to wear the garb of 

" Venus, to whom the month of April belonged. Her 
statue was washed. On April 1, women of the Tower sort 
bathed in the men's public baths, and worshipped Fortuna 
Virilis. « The Sibyl. 


FASTI, IV. 133-160 

Kal. Apr. 1st 

^33 Duly do ye worship the goddess, ye Latin 
mothers and brides, and ye, too, who wear not the 
fillets and long robe." Take off the golden necklaces 
from the marble neck of the goddess ^ ; take off 
her gauds ; the goddess must be washed from top 
to toe. Then dry her neck and restore to it her 
golden necklaces ; now give her other flowers, now 
give her the fresh-blown rose. Ye, too, she herself 
bids bathe under the green myrtle, and there is 
a certain reason for her command ; learn what it 
is. Naked, she was drying on the shore her 
oozy locks, when the satyrs, a wanton crew, espied 
the goddess. She perceived it, and screened her 
body by myrtle interposed : that done, she was 
safe, and she bids you do the same. Learn now 
why ye give incense to Virile Fortune in the place 
which reeks of warm water. All women strip when 
they enter that place, and every blemish on the 
naked body is plain to see; Virile Fortune under- 
takes to conceal the blemish and to hide it from 
the men, and this she does for the consideration of 
a little incense. Nor grudge to take poppy pounded 
with snowy milk and liquid honey squeezed from 
the comb ; when Venus was first escorted to her 
eager spouse, she drank that draught : from that 
time she was a bride. Propitiate her with supplica- 
tions ; beauty and virtue and good fame are in her 
keeping. In the time of our forefathers Rome had 
fallen from a state of chastity, and the ancients con- 
sulted the old woman of Cumae.*' She ordered a 
temple to be built to Venus, and when that was duly 
done, Venus took the name of Changer of the Heart 



semper ad Aeneadas placido, pulcherrima, voltu 
respice totque tuas, diva, tuere nurus. 

dum loquor, elatae metuendus acumine caudae 
Scorpios in viridis praecipitatur aquas. 

2. D [F] 

165 Nox ubi transient, caelumque rubescere primo 
coeperit, et tactae rore querentur aves, 
semiustamque faeem vigilata nocte viator 
ponet, et ad solitum rusticus ibit opus, 
Pleiades incipient humeros relevare paternos, 
170 quae septem did, sex tamen esse solent : 
seu quod in amplexum sex hinc venere deorum. 

(nam Steropen Marti concubuisse ferunt, 
Neptuno Alcyonen et te, formosa Celaeno, 
Maian et Electram Taygetemque lovi), 
175 septima mortali Merope tibi, Sisyphe, nupsit ; 
paenitet, et facti sola pudore latet ; 
sive quod Electra Troiae spectare ruinas 
non tulit, ante oculos opposuitque manum. 

3. EC 4. FC LVDI • MATR • MAG 

Ter sine perpetuo caelum versetur in axe, 
180 ter iungat Titan terque resolvat equos, 
protinus inflexo Berecyntia tibia cornu 
flabit. et Idaeae festa parentis erunt. 

" Real setting April 26. Apparent setting May 13. 
* Atlas. ' Phrygian (from Mount Berecyntus). 


FASTI, IV. 161-182 

(Verticordia) from the event. Fairest of goddesses, 
ever behold the sons of Aeneas with look benign, and 
guard thine offspring's numerous wives. 

163 While I speak, the Scorpion, the tip of whose 
swinged tail strikes fear, plunges into the green 

IV. NoN. 2nd 

165 When the night has passed, and the sky has 
just begun to blush, and dew-besprinkled birds are 
twittering plaintively, and the wayfarer, who all 
night long has waked, lays down his half-burnt torch, 
and the swain goes forth to his accustomed toil, the 
Pleiades will commence to lighten the burden that 
rests on their father's * shoulders ; seven are they 
usually called, but six they usually are ; whether 
it be that six of the sisters were embraced by gods 
(for they say that Sterope lay with Mars, Alcyone 
and fair Celaeno with Neptune, and Maia, Electra, 
and Taygete with Jupiter) ; the seventh, Merope, 
was married to a mortal man, to Sisyphus, and she 
repents of it, and from shame at the deed she alone 
of the sisters hides herself ; or whether it be that 
Electra could not brook to behold the fall of Troy, 
and so covered her eyes with her hand. 

Pr. Non. 4th 

^'^^ Let the sky revolve thrice on its never-resting 
axis ; let Titan thrice yoke and thrice unyoke his 
steeds, straightway the Berecyntian '^ flute will blow 
a blast on its bent horn, and the festival of the 



ibunt semimares et inania tympana tundent, 
aeraque tinnitus acre repulsa dabunt : 
185 ipsa sedens molli comitum cer\ace feretur 
urbis per medias exululata vias. 
scaena sonat, ludique vocant. spectate, Quirites, 

et fora Marte suo litigiosa vacent. 
quaerere multa libet, sed me sonus aeris acuti 
190 terret et horrendo lotos adunca sono. 

" da, dea, quem sciter." doctas Cybele'ia neptes 

vidit et has curae iussit adesse meae. 
** pandite, mandati memores, Heliconis alumnae, 
gaudeat assiduo cur dea Magna sono." 
195 sic ego. sic Erato (mensis Cythereius illi 
cessit, quod teneri nomen amoris habet) : 
** reddita Saturno sors haec erat, * op time regum, 

a nato sceptris excutiere tuis.' 
ille suam metuens, ut quaeque erat edita, prolem 
200 devorat, immersam visceribusque tenet. 

saepe Rhea questa est, totiens fecunda nee umquam 

mater, et indoluit fertilitate sua. 
luppiter ortus erat (pro magno teste vetustas 
creditur ; acceptam parce movere fidem) : 
205 veste latens saxum caelesti gutture sedit : 
sic genitor fatis decipiendus erat. 
ardua iamdudum resonat tinnitibus Ide, 

tutus ut infanti vagiat ore puer. 
pars clipeos rudibus, galeas pars tundit inanes : 
210 hoc Curetes habent, hoc Corybantes opus. 

" Cybele, the Asiatic goddess. The feast was called the 
Meg-alensian (Megale, great goddess). Her attendants, the 
Galli, were eunuchs. 

^ The Muses, whose father Jupiter was son of Cybele. 

« Eros, Love. ^ Cybele. « Of Saturn (Cronos). 


FASTI, IV. 183-210 

Idaean Mother will have come." Eunuchs will march 
and thump their hollow drums, and cymbals clashed 
on cymbals will give out their tinkling notes : seated 
on the unmanly necks of her attendants, the goddess 
herself will be borne with howls through the streets in 
the city's midst. The stage is clattering, the games 
are calling. To your places, Quirites ! and in the 
empty law-courts let the war of suitors cease ! I 
would put many questions, but I am daunted by 
the shrill cymbal's clash and the bent flute's thrilling 
drone. " Grant me, goddess, someone whom I may 
question." The Cybelean goddess spied her learned 
granddaughters^ and bade them attend to my inquiry. 
" Mindful of her command, ye nurslings of Helicon, 
disclose the reason why the Great Goddess delights 
in a perpetual din." So did I speak, and Erato'' 
did thus reply (it fell to her to speak of Venus' 
month, because her own name is derived from 
tender love) : ** Saturn was given this oracle : ' Thou 
best of kings, thou shalt be ousted of thy sceptre 
by thy son.' In fear, the god devoured his offspring 
as fast as they were born, and he kept them sunk in 
his bowels. Many a time did Rhea** grumble, to 
be so often big with child, yet never be a mother ; 
she repined at her own fruitfulness. Then Jove 
was born. The testimony of antiquity passes for 
good ; pray do not shake the general faith. A 
stone concealed in a garment went down the 
heavenly throat * ; so had fate decreed that the sire 
should be beguiled. Now rang steep Ida loud and 
long with clangorous music, that the boy might 
pule in safety with his infant mouth. Some beat 
their shields, others their empty helmets with staves ; 
that was the task of the Curetes and that, too, of the 



res latuit, priscique manent imitamina facti ; 
aera deae comites raucaque terga movent, 
cymbala pro galeis, pro scutis tympana pulsant ; 
tibia dat Phrygios, ut dedit ante, modos." 
215 desierat. coepi : ** cur huic genus acre leonum 
praebent insolitas ad iuga curva iubas ? " 
desieram. coepit : ** feritas mollita per illam 

creditur ; id curru testificata suo est." 
" at cur turrifera caput est onerata corona ? 
220 an primis turres urbibus ilia dedit ? " 

annuit. " unde venit " dixi " sua membra secandi 

impetus ? " ut tacui, Pieris orsa loqui : 
** Phryx puer in silvis, facie spectabilis, Attis 
turrigeram casto vinxit amore deam. 
226 hunc sibi servari voluit, sua templa tueri, 
et dixit * semper fac puer esse velis.' 
ille fidem iussis dedit et * si mentiar,' inquit 

* ultima, qua fallam, sit Venus ilia mihi.* 
fallit et in nympha Sagaritide desinit esse 
230 quod fuit : hinc poenas exigit ira deae. 
Naida volneribus succidit in arbore factis, 

ilia perit : fatum Naidos arbor erat. 
hie furit et credens thalami procumbere tectum 
effugit et cursu Dindyma summa petit 
235 et modo * tolle faces ! ' * remove ' modo * verbera ! 
clamat ; 

" No doubt named from the river Sangarius or Sagaris, in 
Phrygia. She appears to have been nymph of a neighbour- 
ing tree. The jealous goddess punished Attis by driving him 


FASTI, IV. 211-235 

Corybantes. The secret was kept, and the ancient 
deed is still acted in mimicry ; the attendants of the 
goddess thump the brass and the rumbling leather ; 
cymbals they strike instead of helmets, and drums 
instead of shields ; the flute plays, as of yore, the 
Phrygian airs." 

21^ The goddess ended. I began : " Why for her 
sake doth the fierce breed of lions yield their un- 
wonted manes to the curved yoke?" I ended. She 
began : " 'Tis thought, the wildness of the brute 
was tamed by her : that she testifies by her (lion- 
drawn) car." *' But why is her head weighted 
with a turreted crown ? Is it because she gave towers 
to the first cities ? " The goddess nodded assent. 
" Whence came," said I, " the impulse to cut their 
members ? " When I was silent, the Pierian goddess 
began to speak : " In the woods a Phrygian boy of 
handsome face, Attis by name, had attached the 
tower-bearing goddess to himself by a chaste passion. 
She wished that he should be kept for herself and 
should guard her temple, and she said, " Resolve 
to be a boy for ever." He promised obedience, 
and, " If I lie," quoth he, " may the love for which 
I break faith be my last love of all." He broke 
faith ; for, meeting the nymph Sagaritis," he ceased 
to be what he had been before. For that the angry 
goddess wreaked vengeance. By wounds inflicted 
on the tree she cut down the Naiad, who perished 
thus ; for the fate of the Naiad was bound up 
with the tree. Attis went mad, and, imagining 
that the roof of the chamber was falling in, he fled 
and ran for the top of Mount Dindymus. And he 
kept crying, at one moment, ' Take away the 
torches ! ' at another, * Remove the whips ! * And 



saepe Palaestinas iurat adesse deas. 
ille etiam saxo corpus laniavit acuto, 

longaque in immundo pulvere tracta coma est, 
voxque fuit * merui ! meritas do sanguine poenas. 
240 a ! pereant partes, quae nocuere mihi ! 

a ! pereant ' dicebat adhuc, onus inguinis aufert, 

nullaque sunt subito signa relicta viri. 
venit in exemplum furor hie, mollesque ministri 

caedunt iactatis vilia membra comis." 
245 talibus Aoniae facunda voce Camenae 

reddita quaesiti causa furoris erat. 
** hoc quoque, dux operis, moneas, precor, unde petita 

venerit. an nostra semper in urbe fuit ? " 
" Dindymon et Cybelen et amoenam fontibus Iden 
250 semper et IHacas Mater amavit opes : 
cum Troiam Aeneas Italos portaret in agros, 

est dea sacriferas paene secuta rates, 
sed nondum fatis Latio sua numina posci 

senserat, adsuetis substiteratque locis. 
255 post, ut Roma potens opibus iam saecula quinque 

vidit et edomito sustulit orbe caput, 
carminis Euboici fatalia verba sacerdos 

inspicit ; inspectum tale fuisse ferunt : 
* mater abest : matrem iubeo, Romane, requiras. 
260 cum veniet, casta est accipienda manu.' 
obscurae sortis patres ambagibus errant, 

quaeve parens absit, quove petenda loco. 

" The Furies : why so called is unknown. 
" In 204 B.C., year of Rome 549, the Sibylline books were 

FASTI, IV. 236-262 

oft he swore that the Palaestinian goddesses" were 
on him. He mangled, too, his body with a sharp 
stone, and trailed his long hair in the filthy dust ; 
and his cry was, ' I have deserved it ! With my 
blood I pay the penalty that is my due. Ah, perish 
the parts that were my ruin ! Ah, let them perish,' 
still he said. He retrenched the burden of his groin, 
and of a sudden was bereft of every sign of 
manhood. His madness set an example, and still 
his unmanly ministers cut their vile members while 
they toss their hair." In such words the Aonian 
Muse eloquently answered my question as to the 
cause of the madness of the votaries. 

2^' " Instruct me, too, I pray, my guide, whence was 
she fetched, whence came ? Was she always in our 
city ? " " The Mother Goddess ever loved Dindymus, 
and Cybele, and Ida, with its delightful springs, 
and the realm of Ilium. When Aeneas carried 
Troy to the Itahan fields, the goddess almost 
followed the ships that bore the sacred things ; but 
she felt that fate did not yet call for the intervention 
of her divinity in Latium, and she remained behind 
in her accustomed place. Afterwards, when mighty 
Rome had already seen five centuries,^ and had hfted 
up her head above the conquered world, the priest 
consulted the fateful words of the Euboean song. 
They say that what he found ran thus : * The 
Mother is absent ; thou Roman, I bid thee seek 
the Mother. When she shall come, she must be 
received by chaste hands.' The ambiguity of 
the dark oracle puzzled the senators to know who 
the Parent was, and where she was to be sought. 

consulted. The Sibyl lived at Cumae, a colony of Euboea. 
See Livy xxix. 10, 11, 14. 



consulitur Paean, ' divum ' que * arcessite Matrem,* 
inquit ' in Idaeo est invenienda iugo.' 
265 mittuntur proceres. Phrygiae tunc sceptra tenebat 
Attalus : Ausoniis rem negat ille viris. 
mira canam. longo tremuit cum murmure tellus, 

et sic est adytis diva locuta suis : 
* ipsa peti volui, nee sit mora, mitte volentem. 
270 dignus Roma locus, quo deus omnis eat.' 
ille soni terrore pavens * proficiscere,' dixit 

* nostra eris : in Phrygios Roma refertur avos/ 
protinus innumerae caedunt pineta secures 

ilia, quibus fugiens Phryx pius usus erat : 
276 mille manus coeunt, et picta coloribus ustis 

caelestum Matrem concava puppis habet. 
ilia sui per aquas fertur tutissima nati 

longaque Phrixeae stagna sororis adit 
Rhoeteumque rapax Sigeaque litora transit 
280 et Tenedum et veteres Eetionis opes. 

Cyclades excipiunt, Lesbo post terga relicta, 

quaeque Carysteis frangitur unda vadis. 
transit et Icarium, lapsas ubi perdidit alas 

Icarus et vastae nomina fecit aquae. 
285 tum laeva Creten, dextra Pelopeidas undas 

deserit et Veneris sacra Cythera petit, 
hinc mare Trinacrium, candens ubi tinguere ferrum 

Brontes et Steropes Acmonidesque solent, 

° Delphic Apollo. The envoys sent from Rome, M. 
Valerius Laevinus, M. Caecilius Metellus, Ser. Sulpicius 
Gallus, consulted the oracle at Delphi on their way and 
received a favourable answer. 

* This is not borne out by Livy. 
" Aeneas. 

*• Helles-pontus. See above, iii. 851 note. 

* Eetion was father of Andromache, and king of Thebe 
in the Troad. 


FASTI, IV. 263-288 

Paean " was consulted and said, * Fetch the Mother 
of the Gods ; she is to be found on Mount Ida.' 
Nobles were sent. The sceptre of Phrygia was then 
held by Attalus ; he refused the favour to the 
Ausonian lords. ^ Wonders to tell, the earth trembled 
and rumbled long, and in her shrine thus did the 
goddess speak : ' 'Twas my own will that they 
should send for me. Tarry not : let me go, it 
is my wish. Rome is a place meet to be the 
resort of every god.' Quaking with terror at the 
words Attalus said. Go forth. Thou wilt still be 
ours. Rome traces its origin to Phrygian ancestors.' 
Straightway unnumbered axes fell those pinewoods 
which had supplied the pious Phrygian ^ with timber 
in his flight : a thousand hands assemble, and the 
Mother of the Gods is lodged in a hollow ship 
painted in encaustic colours. She is borne in perfect 
safety across the waters of her son and comes to 
the long strait named after the sister of Phrixus ^ ; 
she passes Rhoeteum, where the tide runs fast, 
and the Sigean shores, and Tenedos, and Eetion's 
ancient realm.* Leaving Lesbos behind, she came 
next to the Cyclades and to the wave that breaks on 
the Carystian shoals.^ She passed the Icarian Sea 
also, where Icarus lost his wings that slipped, and 
where he gave his name to a great water. Then 
she left Crete on the larboard and the Pelopian 
billows on the starboard, and steered for Cythera, 
the sacred isle of Venus. Thence she passed to the 
Trinacrian^ Sea, where Brontes and Steropes and 
Acmonides'^ are wont to dip the white-hot iron. 

^ South of Euboea. ' Sicilian. 

* Usually called Pyracmon. These are the three Cyclopes 
who forged Jupiter's thunderbolts under Mount Etna. 



aequoraque Afra legit Sardoaque regna sinistris 
290 respicit a remis Ausoniamque tenet. 

Ostia contigerat, qua se Tiberinus in altum 

dividit et campo liberiore natat : 
omnis eques mixtaque gravis cum plebe senatus 
obvius ad Tusci fluminis ora venit. 
295 procedunt pariter matres nataeque nurusque 
quaeque colunt sanctos virginitate focos. 
sedula fune viri contento brachia lassant : 
vix subit adversas hospita navis aquas, 
sicca diu fuerat tellus, sitis usserat herbas : 
300 sedit limoso pressa carina vado. 

quisquis adest operi, plus quam pro parte laborat, 

adiuvat et fortis voce sonante manus. 
ilia velut medio stabilis sedet insula ponto : 
attoniti monstro stantque paventque viri. 
305 Claudia Quinta genus Clauso referebat ab alto, 
nee facies impar nobilitate fuit : 
casta quidem, sed non et credita : rumor iniquus 

laeserat, et falsi criminis acta rea est ; 
cultus et ornatis varie prodisse capillis 
310 obfuit, ad rigidos promptaque lingua senes. 
conscia mens recti famae mendacia risit, 
sed nos in vitium credula turba sumus. 
haec ubi castarum processit ab agmine matrum 
et manibus puram fluminis hausit aquam, 
315 ter caput inrorat, ter tollit in aethera palmas 
(quicumque aspiciunt, mente carere putant) 
summissoque genu voltus in imagine divae 

" A Sabine leader, said to have assisted Aeneas : Virgil, 
Aen. vii. 706. Ancestor of the Claudian house. 

FASTI, IV. 289-317 

She skirted the African main, and beheld astern to 
larboard the Sardinian realms, and made Ausonia. 

2^^ " She had arrived at Ostia, where the Tiber 
divides to join the sea and flows with ampler sweep. 
All the knights and the grave senators, mixed up 
with the common folk, came to meet her at the 
mouth of the Tuscan river. With them walked 
mothers and daughters and brides, and the virgins 
who tended the sacred hearths. The men wearied 
their arms by tugging lustily at the rope ; hardly 
did the foreign ship make head against the stream. 
A drought had long prevailed ; the grass was 
parched and burnt ; the loaded bark sank in the 
muddy shallows. Every man who lent a hand 
toiled beyond his strength and cheered on the 
workers by his cries. Yet the ship stuck fast, like 
an island firmly fixed in the middle of the sea. 
Astonished at the portent, the men did stand and 
quake. Claudia Quinta traced her descent from 
Clausus" of old, and her beauty matched her nobility. 
Chaste was she, though not reputed so., Rumour 
unkind had wronged her, and a false charge had (T 
been trumped up against her : it told against her 
that she dressed sprucely, that she walked abroad 
with her hair dressed in varied fashion, that she 
had a ready tongue for gruff old men. Conscious of 
innocence, she laughed at fame's untruths ; but 
we of the multitude are prone to think the worst. 
When she had stepped forth from the procession 
of the chaste matrons, and taken up the pure water 
of the river in her hands, she thrice let it drip on 
her head, and thrice lifted her palms to heaven (all 
who looked on her thought that she was out of her 
mind), and bending the knee she fixed her eyes on 



figit et hos edit crine iacente sonos : 
* supplicis, alma, tuae, genetrix fecunda deorum, 
320 accipe sub certa condicione preces. 

casta negor. si tu damnas, meruisse fatebor ; 

morte luam poenas iudice victa dea. 
sed si crimen abest, tu nostrae pignora vitae 
re dabis et castas casta sequere manus/ 
325 dixit et exiguo funem conamine traxit 

(mira, sed et scaena testificata loquar) : 
mota dea est sequiturque ducem laudatque sequendo: 

index laetitiae fertur ad astra sonus. 
fluminis ad flexum veniunt (Tiberina priores 
330 atria dixerunt), unde sinister abit. 

nox aderat : querno religant in stipite funem 

dantque levi somno corpora functa cibo. 
lux aderat : querno solvunt a stipite funem ; 
ante tamen posito tura dedere foco, 
335 ante coronarunt puppem et sine labe iuvencam 
mactarunt operum coniugiique rudem. 
est locus, in Tiberim qua lubricus infiuit Almo 

et nomen magno perdit in amne minor : 
illic purpurea canus cum veste sacerdos 
340 Almonis dominam sacraque lavit aquis. 
exululant comites, furiosaque tibia flatur, 

et feriunt molles taurea terga manus. 

Claudia praecedit laeto celeberrima voltu, 

credita vix tandem teste pudica dea ; 

345 ipsa sedens plaustro porta est invecta Capena : 

sparguntur iunctae flore recenle boves. 

" It was probably acted at the Megalensia, the Great 
Mother's festival. ^ Left for one ascending the Tiber. 


FASTI, IV. 318-346 

the image of the goddess, and with dishevelled hair 
uttered these words : * Thou fruitful Mother of 
the Gods, graciously accept thy suppliant's prayers 
on one condition. They say I am not chaste. If 
thou dost condemn me, I will confess my guilt ; 
convicted by the verdict of a goddess, I will pay 
the penalty with my life. But if I am free of crime, 
give by thine act a proof of my innocency, and, 
chaste as thou art, do thou yield to my chaste 
hands.' She spoke, and drew the rope with a slight 
effort. My story is a strange one, but it is attested 
by the stage." The goddess was moved, and followed 
her leader, and by following bore witness in her 
favour : a sound of joy was wafted to the stars. 
They came to a bend in the river, where the stream 
turns away to the left ^ : men of old named it the 
Halls of Tiber. Night drew on ; they tied the rope 
to an oaken stump, and after a repast disposed them- 
selves to slumber light. At dawn of day they loosed 
the rope from the oaken stump ; but first they set 
down a brazier and put incense on it, and crowned 
the poop, and sacrificed an unblemished heifer that 
had known neither the yoke nor the bull. There 
is a place where the smooth Almo flows into the 
Tiber, and the lesser river loses its name in the 
great one. There a hoary-headed priest in purple 
robe washed the Mistress and her holy things in the 
waters of Almo. The attendants howled, the mad 
flute blew, and hands unmanly beat the leathern 
drums. Attended by a crowd, Claudia walked in 
front with joyful face, her chastity at last vindicated 
by the testimony of the goddess. The goddess 
herself, seated in a wagon, drove in through the 
Capene Gate ; fresh flowers were scattered on the 



Nasica accepit. templi non perstitit auctor : 

Augustus nunc est, ante Metellus erat." 
substitit hie Erato, mora fit ; sic cetera quaero : 
360 ** die," inquam ** parva cur stipe quaerat opes." 
" contulit aes populus, de quo delubra Metellus 

fecit," ait " dandae mos stipis inde manet." 
cur vicibus factis ineant convivia, quaero, 

tunc magis, indictas concelebrentque dapes. 
365 " quod bene mutarit sedem Berecyntia," dixit 

" captant mutatis sedibus omen idem." 
institeram, quare primi Megalesia ludi 

urbe forent nostra, cum dea (sensit enim) 
** ilia deos " inquit ** peperit. cessere parenti, 
360 principiumque dati Mater honoris habet." 
** cur igitur Gallos, qui se excidere, vocamus, 

cum tanto a Phrygia Gallica distet humus ? " 
" inter " ait " viridem Cybelen altasque Celaenas 

amnis it insana, nomine Gallus, aqua. 
365 qui bibit inde, furit : procul hinc discedite, quis est 

cura bonae mentis : qui bibit inde, furit." 
" non pudet herbosum " dixi " posuisse moretum 

in dominae mensis. an sua causa subest ? " 
" lacte mero veteres usi narrantur et herbis, 
370 sponte sua si quas terra ferebat " ait. 
" candidus elisae miscetur caseus herbae, 

cognoscat priscos ut dea prisca cibos." 

* P. Corn. Scipio Nasica, a young man, was commissioned 
to receive the goddess. 

'' The temple was dedicated in 191 b.c. It was burnt 
down in 1 1 1 b.c, when one Metellus restored it (? Q. Caecilius 
Metellus) ; and in a.d. 3, when Augustus restored it {Mon. 
Ancyr. iv. 19, in L.C.L. Velleius Paterculus, p. 376). 

* This feast was a great time for hospitality ; and the 
words used for invitations were inutitare^ mutitatio. 


FASTI, IV. 347-372 

yoked oxen. Nasica received her.'* The name of the 
founder of the temple has not survived ; now it is 
Augustus ; formerly itjwas Metellus." ^ ' 

^^ Here Erato stopped. There was a pause. Then 
I put the rest of my questions thus. " Why," said I, 
" does the goddess collect money in small coins ? " 
" The people contributed their coppers, with which 
Metellus built her fane," said she ; " hence the custom 
of giving a small coin abides." I asked why then more 
than at other times people entertain each other to 
feasts and hold banquets for which they issue invita- 
tions. " Because," said she, " the Berecyntian goddess 
luckily changed her home, people try to get the 
same good luck by going from house to house." ^ 
I was about to ask why the Megalesia are the 
first games of the year in our city, when the goddess 
took my meaning and said, '* She gave birth to the 
gods. They gave place to their parent, and the 
Mother has the honour of precedence." " Why then 
do we give the name of Galli to the men who unman 
themselves, when the Gallic land is so far from 
Phrygia ? " " Between," said she, " green Cybele 
and high Celaenae <^ a river of mad water flows, 'tis 
named the Callus. Who drinks of it goes mad. 
Far hence depart, ye who care to be of sound mind. 
Who drinks of it goes mad." " They think no 
shame," said I, " to set a dish of herbs on the tables 
of the Mistress. Is there a good reason at the 
bottom of it ? " " People of old," she answered, 
" are reported to have subsisted on pure milk and 
such herbs as the earth bore of its free will. White 
cheese is mixed with pounded herbs, that the 
ancient goddess may know the ancient foods." 
" In Phrygia. 



5. G NON LVDi 

Postera cum caelo motis Pallantias astris 

fulserit, et niveos Luna levarit equos, 

376 qui dicet ** quondam sacrata est colle Quirini 

hac Fortuna die Publica," verus erit. 

6. H]SP LVDI 7. AN LVDI 8. BN lvdi 9- CN lvdi 

Tertia lux (memini) ludis erat, ac mihi quidam 

spectanti senior continuusque loco 
** haec " ait ** ilia dies, Libycis qua Caesar in oris 
380 perfida magnanimi contudit arma lubae. 

dux mihi Caesar erat, sub quo meruisse tribunus 

glorior : officio praefuit ille meo. 
banc ego militia sedem, tu pace parasti, 

inter bis quinos usus honor e viros." 
385 plura locuturi subito seducimur imbre : 

pendula caelestis Libra movebat aquas. 

Ante tamen, quam summa dies spectacula sistat, 
ensifer Orion aequore mersus erit. 

10. DN LVD • in • cm 

Proxima victricem cum Romam inspexerit Eos, 
390 et dederit Phoebo stella fugata locum, 

*» Pallantias, Aurora. Ovid regards her as daughter of 
the giant Pallas. 

* Thapsus, 46 B.C. 

" The Decemviri stlitihus iudicandis had special seats in 

^ True setting began April 10 (morning) ; apparent setting 
May 18. 

FASTI, IV. 373-390 

NoN. 5th 

373 When the next Dawn ° shall have shone in the 
sky, and the stars have vanished, and the Moon 
shall have unyoked her snow-white steeds, he who 
shall say, " On this day of old the temple of Public 
Fortune was dedicated on the hill of Quirinus " will 
tell the truth. 

VIII. Id. 6th 

^^ It was, I remember, the third day of the games, 
when a certain elderly man, who sat next to me at 
the show, observed to me, " This was the famous 
day when on the Libyan shores Caesar crushed 
proud Juba's treacherous host.^ Caesar was my 
commander ; under him I am proud to have served 
as colonel ; at his hands did I receive my com- 
mission. This seat I won in war, and thou didst 
win in peace," by reason of thine office in the College 
of the Ten." We were about to say more when 
a sudden shower of rain parted us ; the Balance 
hung in heaven released the heavenly waters. 

V. Id. 9th 

^^"^ But before the last day shall have put an end 
to the shows, sworded Orion will have sunk in the 

IV. Id. 10th 

389 When the next Dawn shall have looked on 
victorious Rome, and the stars shall have been put 
to flight and given place to the sun, the Circus will 



circus erit pompa celeber numeroque deoriim, 
primaque ventosis palma petetur equis. 

11. EN 12. FN LVDI • CERERI 

Hinc Cereris ludi. non est opus indice causae ; 
sponte deae munus promeritumque patet. 
395 panis erat primis virides mortalibus herbae, 
quas tellus nuUo sollicitante dabat ; 
et modo carpebant vivax e cespite gramen, 

nunc epulae tenera fronde cacumen erant. 
postmodo glans nata est : bene erat iam glande 
400 duraque magnificas quercus habebat opes, 
prima Ceres homine ad meliora alimenta vocato 

mutavit glandes utiliore cibo. 
ilia iugo tauros coUum praebere coegit : 
tunc primum soles eruta vidit humus. 
405 aes erat in pretio, chalybeia massa latebat x 
eheu ! perpetuo debuit ilia tegi. 
pace Ceres laeta est ; et vos orate, coloni, 
perpetuam pacem pacificumque ducem. 
farra deae micaeque licet salientis honorem 
410 detis et in veteres turea grana focos, 

et, si tura aberunt, unctas accendite taedas : 

parva bonae Cereri, sint modo casta, placent. 
a bove succincti cultros removete ministri : 
bos aret ; ignavam sacrificate suem. 
415 apta iugo cervix non est ferienda securi : 
vivat et in dura saepe laboret humo. 

FASTI, IV. 391-416 

be thronged with a procession and an array of the 
gods, and the horses, fleet as the wind, will contend 
for the first palm. 

Pr. Id. 12th 

393 Next come the games of Ceres. There is no 
need to declare the reason ; the bounty and the 
services of the goddess are manifest. The bread 
of the first mortals consisted of the green herbs 
which the earth yielded without solicitation ; and 
now they plucked the living grass from the turf, 
and now the tender leaves of tree-tops furnished 
a feast. Afterwards the acorn was produced; it 
was well when they had found the acorn, and the 
sturdy oak afforded a splendid affluence. Ceres was 
the first who invited man to better sustenance 
and exchanged acorns for more useful food. She 
forced bulls to yield their necks to the yoke ; then 
for the first time did the upturned soil behold the 
sun. Copper was now held in esteem ; iron ore 
still lay concealed ; ah, would that it had been 
hidden for ever ! Ceres delights in peace ; and 
you, ye husbandmen, pray for perpetual peace and 
for a pacific prince. You may give the goddess 
spelt, and the compliment of spurting salt, and 
grains of incense on old hearths ; and if there is 
no incense, kindle resinous torches. Good Ceres 
is content with Uttle, if that little be but pure. Ye 
attendants, with tucked up robes, take the knives 
away from the ox ; let the ox plough ; sacrifice 
the lazy sow. The axe should never smite the neck 
that fits the yoke ; let him live and often labour in 
the hard soil. 



Exigit ipse locus, raptus ut virginis edam : 
plura recognosces, pauca docendus eris. 
terra tribus scopulis vastum procurrit in aequor 
420 Trinacris, a positu nomen adept a loci, 

grata domus Cereri. mult as ea possidet urbes, * 

in quibus est culto fertilis Henna solo, 
frigida caelestum matres Arethusa vocarat : 
venerat ad sacras et dea flava dapes. 
425 filia, eonsuetis ut erat comitata puellis, 
errabat nudo per sua prata pede. 
valle sub umbrosa locus est aspergine multa 

uvidus ex alto desilientis aquae, 
tot fuerant illic, quot habet natura, colores, 
430 pictaque dissimili flore nitebat humus. 

quam simul aspexit, " comites, accedite " dixit 

** et mecum plenos flore referte sinus." 
praeda puellares animos prolectat inanis, 
et non sentitur sedulitate labor. 
436 haec implet lento calathos e vimine nexos, 
haec gremium, laxos degravat ilia sinus : 
ilia legit calthas, huic sunt violaria curae, 
ilia papavereas subsecat ungue comas : 
has, hyacinthe, tenes ; illas, amarante, moraris : 
440 pars thy ma, pars rorem, pars meliloton amat. 
plurima lecta rosa est, sunt et sine nomine flores ; 

ipsa crocos tenues liliaque alba legit, 
carpendi studio paulatim longius itur, 
et dominam casu nulla secuta comes. 
446 banc videt et visam patruus velociter aufert 

" Sicily. ^ In Sicily ; often called Enna. 

" Nymph of the fountain Arethusa, in Syracuse. She had 
invited the matrons, so that Persephone, or Proserpine, 
daughter of Ceres, was left unguarded. 

" Pluto, or Dis, brother of Jupiter, 

FASTI, IV. 417-445 

*^' The subject requires that I should narrate the 
rape of the Virgin : in my narrative you will read 
much that you knew before ; a few particulars will 
be new to you. 

*20 The Trinacrian land" got its name from its 
natural position : it runs out into the vast ocean 
in three rocky capes. It is the favourite home of 
Ceres : she owns many cities, among them fertile 
Henna * with its well- tilled soil. Cool Arethusa '^ had 
invited the mothers of the gods, and the yellow- 
haired goddess had also come to the sacred banquet. 
Attended as usual by her wonted damsels, her 
daughter roamed bare-foot through the familiar 
meadows. In a shady vale there is a spot moist 
with the abundant spray of a high waterfall. All 
the hues that nature owns were there displayed, 
and the pied earth was bright with various flowers. 
As soon as she espied it, " Come hither, com- 
rades," she said, " and with me bring home lapfuls 
of flowers." The bauble booty lured their girlish 
minds, and they were too busy to feel fatigue. One 
filled baskets plaited of supple withes, another 
loaded her lap, another the loose folds of her robe ; 
one gathered marigolds, another paid heed to beds 
of violets ; another nipped off heads of poppies 
with her nails ; some are attracted by the hyacinth, 
others lingered over amaranth ; some love thyme, 
others rosemary, others melilot ; full many a rose 
was culled, and flowers without a name. Perse- 
phone herself plucked dainty crocuses and white 
lilies. Intent on gathering, she, little by little, 
strayed far, and it chanced that none of her com- 
panions followed their mistress. Her father's brother'* 
saw her, and no sooner did he see her than he swiftly 



regnaque caeruleis in sua portat equis. 
ilia quidem clamabat " io, carissima mater, 

auferor ! " ipsa suos abscideratque sinus : 
panditur interea Diti via, namque diurnum 
460 lumen inadsueti vix patiuntur equi. 

at chorus aequalis, cumulatis flore canistris, 

" Persephone," clamant " ad tua dona veni ! " 
ut clamata silet, montes ululatibus implent 

et feriunt maesta pectora nuda manu. 
465 attonita est plangore Ceres (modo venerat Hennam) 

nee mora, " me miseram ! filia," dixit " ubi es ? " 
mentis inops rapitur, quales audire solemus 

Thre'icias fusis maenadas ire comis. 
ut vitulo mugit sua mater ab ubere rapto 
460 et quaerit fetus per nemus omne suos : 
sic dea nee retinet gemitus et concita cursu 

fertur et a campis incipit. Henna, tuis. 
Inde puellaris nacta est vestigia plantae 

et pressam noto pondere vidit humum ; 
465 forsitan ilia dies erroris summa fuisset, 

si non turbassent signa reperta sues, 
iamque Leontinos Amenanaque flumina cursu 

praeterit et ripas, herbifer Aci, tuas ; 
praeterit et Cyanen et fontes lenis Anapi 
470 et te, verticibus non adeunde Gela. 

liquerat Ortygien Megareaque Pantagienque, 

quaque Symaetheas accipit aequor aquas, 
antraque Cyclopum positis exusta caminis, 

quique locus curvae nomina falcis habet, 

<* Either Zancle (an ancient name of Messene) or 
Drepanum, named after ^dyxXov or dpeirauov, " a sickle." 
The other places named are also in Sicily. "Tempe of 
Helorus " (1. 477) is the upper gorge of the river-course, re- 
calling Tempe in Thessaly. 

FASTI, IV. 446-474 

carried her oiF and bore her on his dusky steeds into 
his own realm. She in sooth cried out, " Ho, 
dearest mother, they are carrying me away ! " and 
she rent the bosom of her robe. Meantime a road is 
opened up for Dis ; for his steeds can hardly brook 
the unaccustomed daylight. But her troop of play- 
mates, when they had heaped their baskets with 
flowers, cried out, ** Persephone, come to the gifts 
we have for thee ! " When she answered not their 
call, they filled the mountain with shrieks, and smote 
their bare bosoms with their sad hands. 

*^^ Ceres was startled by the loud lament ; she had 
just come to Henna, and straightway, " Woe's me ! 
my daughter," said she, " where art thou ? " Dis- 
traught she hurried along, even as we hear that 
Thracian Maenads rush with streaming hair. As 
a cow, whose calf has been torn from her udder, 
bellows and seeks her offspring through every grove, 
so the goddess did not stifle her groans and ran 
at speed, starting from the plains of Henna. From 
there she lit on prints of the girlish feet and marked 
the traces of the familiar figure on the ground. 
Perhaps that day had been the last of her wander- 
ings if swine had not foiled the trail she found. 
Already in her course she had passed Leontini, 
and the river Amenanus, and the grassy banks 
of Acis. She had passed Cyane, and the springs of 
gently flowing Anapus, and the Gelas with its whirl- 
pools not to be approached. She had left behind 
Ortygia and Megara and the Pantagias, and the 
place where the sea receives the water of the 
Symaethus, and the caves of the Cyclopes, burnt 
by the forges set up in them, and the place that 
takes its name from a curved sickle," and Himera, 



476 Himeraque et Didymen Acragantaque Tauromenum- 
sacrarumque Melan pascua laeta boum. 
hinc Camerinan adit Thapsonque et Heloria TempC; 

quaque iacet Zephyro semper apertus Eryx. 
iamque Peloriadem Lilybaeaque, iamque Pachynon 
480 lustrarat, terrae cornua trina suae. 

quacumque ingreditur, miseris loca cuncta querellis 

implet, ut amissum cum gemit ales Ityn, 

perque vices modo " Persephone ! " modo " filia I " 


clamat et alternis nomen utrumque ciet. 

485 sed neque Persephone Cererem nee filia matrem 

audit, et alternis nomen utrumque perit ; 

unaque, pastorem vidisset an arva colentem, 

vox erat " hac gressus ecqua puella tuht ? " 
iam color unus inest rebus, tenebrisque teguntur 
490 omnia, iam vigiles conticuere canes : 
alta iacet vasti super ora Typhoeos Aetna, 

cuius anhelatis ignibus ardet humus ; 
illic accendit geminas pro lampade pinus : 
hinc Cereris sacris nunc quoque taeda datur. 
495 est specus exesi structura pumicis asper, 
non homini regio, non adeunda ferae : 
quo simul ac venit, frenatos curribus angues 

iungit et aequoreas sicca pererrat aquas. 
efFugit et Syrtes et te, Zanclaea Charybdis, 
600 et vos, Nisaei, naufraga monstra, canes, 

Hadriacumque patens late bimaremque Corinthum : 
sic venit ad portus, Attica terra, tuos. 

• Unknown. 
'' The nightingale : see ii. 629 note. 
• See i. 573. The monster was imprisoned beneath Etna. 

FASTI, IV. 475-502 

and Didyme, and Acragas, and Tauromenum, and 
the Melas,** where are the rich pastures of the sacred 
kine. Next she came to Camerina, and Thapsus, 
and the Tempe of Helorus, and where Eryx Hes 
for ever open to the western breeze. Already 
had she traversed Pelorias, and Lilybaeum, and 
Pachynum, the three horns of her land. And wher- 
ever she set her foot she filled every place with her 
sad plaints, as when the bird doth mourn her Itys 
lost.** In turn she cried, now " Persephone ! " now 
" Daughter ! " She cried and shouted either name 
by turns ; but neither did Persephone hear Ceres, 
nor the daughter hear her mother ; both names 
by turns died away. And whether she spied a 
shepherd or a husbandman at work, her one question 
was, " Did a girl pass this way ? " Now o'er the 
landscape stole a sober hue, and darkness hid the 
world : now the watchful dogs were hushed. Lofty 
Etna hes over the mouth of huge Typhoeus, whose 
fiery breath sets the ground aglow.*' There the 
goddess kindled two pine-trees to serve her as a 
light ; hence to this day a torch is given out at the 
rites of Ceres. There is a cave all fretted with the 
seams of scolloped pumice, a region not to be 
approached by man or beast. Soon as she came 
hither, she yoked the bitted serpents to her car 
and roamed, unwetted, o'er the ocean waves. She 
shunned the Syrtes, and Zanclaean Charybdis, and 
you, ye Nisaean hounds ,** monsters of shipwreck ; 
she shunned the Adriatic, stretching far and wide, 
and Corinth of the double seas. 

^^2 Thus she came to thy havens, land of Attica. 

^ He confuses the sea-monster Scylla with Scylla daughter 
of Nisus» as Virgil did, Eel. vi. 74-77. 

I 225 


hie primum sedit gelido maestissima saxo : 
illud Cecropidae nunc quoque triste vocant. 
505 sub love duravit multis inmota diebus, 
et lunae patiens et pluvialis aquae, 
fors sua cuique loco est : quod nunc Cerialis Eleusin 

dicitur, hoc Celei rura fuere senis. 
ille domum glandes excussaque mora rubetis 
510 portat et arsuris arida Hgna focis. 

fiha parva duas redigebat monte capellas, 

et tener in cunis fiUus aeger erat. 
** mater ! " ait virgo (mota est dea nomine matris) 
** quid facis in soljs incomitata locis ? " 
615 restitit et senior, quamvis onus urget, et orat, 
tecta suae subeat quantulacumque casae. 
ilia negat. simularat anum mitraque capillos 

presserat. instanti talia dicta refert : 
** sospes eas semperque parens ! mihi filia rapta est. 
620 heu, melior quanto sors tua sorte mea est ! " 

dixit, et ut lacrimae (neque enim lacrimare deorum 
decidit in tepidos lucida gutta sinus. 
flent pariter molles animis virgoque senexque ; 
e quibus haec iusti verba fuere senis : 
625 " sic tibi, quam raptam quaeris, sit filia sospes, 
surge nee exiguae despice tecta casae." 
cui dea ** due ! " inquit " scisti, qua cogere posses, 

seque levat saxo subsequiturque senem. 
dux comiti narrat, quam sit sibi filius aeger 
630 nee capiat somnos invigiletque malis. 

<» Athenians, from Cecrops, the first king. 

FASTI, IV. 503-530 

There for the first time she sat her down most 
rueful on a cold stone : that stone even now the 
Cecropids" call the Sorrowful. For many days she 
tarried motionless under the open sky, patiently 
enduring the moonlight and the rain. Not a place 
but has its own peculiar destiny : what now is 
named the Eleusis of Ceres was then the plot of 
land of aged Celeus. He carried home acorns and 
blackberries, knocked from bramble bushes, and dry 
wood to feed the blazing hearth. A little daughter 
drove two nanny-goats back from the mountain, and 
an infant son was sick in his cradle. " Mother," 
said the maid — the goddess was touched by the 
name of mother — ** what dost thou all alone in 
solitary places ? " The old man, too, halted, despite 
the load he bore, and prayed that she would pass 
beneath the roof of his poor cottage. She refused. 
She had disguised herself as an old dame and covered 
her hair with a cap. When he pressed her, she 
answered thus : ** Be happy ! may a parent's joy 
be thine for ever ! My daughter has been taken 
from me. Alas ! how much better is thy lot than 
mine ! " She spoke, and like a tear (for gods can 
never weep) a crystal drop fell on her bosom warm. 
They wept with her, those tender hearts, the old 
man and the maid ; and these were the words of 
the worthy old man ; "So may the ravished 
daughter, whom thou seekest, be restored safe to 
thee, as thou shalt arise, nor scorn the shelter of 
my humble hut." The goddess answered him, 
" Lead on ; thou hast found the way to force me " ; 
and she rose from the stone and followed the old 
man. As he led her and she followed, he told her 
how his son was sick and sleepless, kept wakeful 



ilia soporiferum, parvos initura penates, 

colligit agresti lene papaver humo ; 
dum legit, oblito fertur gustasse palato 

longamque imprudens exsoluisse famem. 
635 quae quia principio posuit ieiunia noetis, 

tempus habent mystae sidera visa cibi. 
limen ut intravit, luctus videt omnia plena I 

lam spes in puero nulla salutis erat. 
matre salutata (mater Metanira vocatur) 
640 iungere dignata est os puerile suo. 

pallor abit, subitasque vident in corpore vires : 

tantus caelesti venit ab ore vigor, 
tota domus laeta est, hoc est materque paterque 

nataque : tres illi tota fuere domus. 
646 mox epulas ponunt, liquefacta coagula lacte 

pomaque et in ceris aurea mella suis. 
abstinet alma Ceres somnique papavera causas 

dat tibi cum tepido lacte bibenda, puer. 
noetis erat medium placidique silentia somni : 
660 Triptolemum gremio sustulit ilia suo 

terque manu permulsit eum, tria carmina dixit, 

carmina mortali non referenda sono, 
inque foco corpus pueri vivente favilla 

obruit, humanum purget ut ignis onus. 
666 excutitur somno stulte pia mater et amens 

** quid facis ? " exclamat membraque ab igne rapit. 
cui dea ** dum non es " dixit " scelerata, fuisti : 

inrita materno sunt mea dona metu. 
iste quidem mortalis erit, sed primus arabit 
560 et seret et culta praemia toilet humo." 

FASTI, IV. 631-560 

by his ills. As she was about to pass within the 
lowly dwelling, she plucked a smooth, a slumbrous 
poppy that grew on the waste ground ; and as she 
plucked, 'tis said she tasted it forgetfully, and so 
unwitting stayed her long hunger. Hence, because 
she broke her fast at nightfall, the initiates time 
their meal by the appearance of the stars. When 
she crossed the threshold, she saw the household 
plunged in grief ; all hope of saving the child was 
gone. The goddess greeted the mother (her name 
was Metanira) and deigned to put her lips to the 
child's lips. His pallor fled, and strength of a sudden 
was visibly imparted to his frame ; such vigour flowed 
from lips divine. There was joy in the whole house- 
hold, that is, in mother, father, and daughter ; for they 
three were the whole household. Anon they set out 
a repast — curds liquefied in milk, and apples, and 
golden honey in the comb. Kind Ceres abstained, 
and gave the child poppies to drink in warm milk 
to make him sleep. It was midnight, and there 
reigned the silence of peaceful sleep ; the goddess 
took up Triptolemus in her lap, and thrice she 
stroked him with her hand, and spoke three spells, 
spells not to be rehearsed by mortal tongue, and 
on the hearth she buried the boy's body in Hve 
embers, that the fire might purge away the burden of 
humanity . His fond-foolish mother awoke from sleep 
and distractedly cried out, " What dost thou ? " 
and she snatched his body from the fire. To her 
the goddess said : " Meaning no wrong, thou hast 
done grievous wrong : my bounty has been baffled 
by a mother's fear. That boy of yours will indeed 
be mortal, but he will be the first to plough and 
sow and reap a guerdon from the turned-up soil." 



dixit et egrediens nubem trahit inque dracones 

transit et alifero tollitur axe Ceres. iv^ «■ 
bunion expositum riraeaque tuta recessu 
linquit et in dextrum quae iacet ora latus. 
666 hinc init Aegaeum, quo Cycladas aspicit omnes, 
loniumque rapax Icariumque legit, 
perque urbes Asiae longum petit Hellespontum, 

diversumque locis alta pererrat iter, 
nam modo turilegos Arabas, modo despicit Indos, 
670 hinc Libys, hinc Meroe siccaque terra subest ; 
nunc adit Hesperios Rhenum Rhodanumque Padum- 
teque, future parens, Thybri, potentis aquae, 
quo feror ? inmensum est erratas dicere terras : 
praeteritus Cereri nullus in orbe locus. 
675 errat et in caelo liquidique inmunia ponti 
adloquitur gelido proxima signa polo : 
" Parrhasides stellae (namque omnia nosse potestis, 

aequoreas numquam cum subeatis aquas), 
Persephonen natam miserae monstrate parenti ! " 
680 dixerat. huic Helice talia verba refert : 

** crimine nox vacua est ; Solem de virgine rapta 

consule, qui late facta diurna videt." 
Sol aditus " quam quaeris," ait " ne vana labores, 
nupta lovis fratri tertia regna tenet." 
685 questa diu secum, sic est adfata Tonantem, 
maximaque in voltu signa dolentis erant : 
** si memor es, de quo mihi sit Proserpina nata, 
dimidium curae debet habere tuae. 

<» A headland of Attica. 

^ She turns from N.E. to S.E. and S.W., passing between 
Libya and Ethiopia, thence to Europe. 

" The constellation of the Great Bear (also Helice), as 
identified with Arcadian Callisto : Parrhasian stands for 
Arcadian. See above, ii. 155, iii. 108. 

FASTI, IV. 561-588 

^®^ She said, and forth she fared, traihng a cloud 
behind her, and passed to her dragons, then soared 
aloft in her winged car. She left behind bold 
Sunium,** and the snug harbour of Piraeus, and the 
coast that lies on the right hand. From there she 
came to the Aegean, where she beheld all the 
Cyclades ; she skimmed the wild Ionian and the 
Icarian Sea ; and passing through the cities of 
Asia she made for the long Hellespont, and pursued 
aloft a roving course, this way and that.*' For now 
she looked down on the incense-gathering Arabs, 
and now on the Indians : beneath her lay on one side 
Libya, on the other side Meroe, and the parched 
land. Now she visited the western rivers, the 
Rhine, the Rhone, the Po, and thee, Tiber, future 
parent of a mighty water. Whither do I stray ? 
'Twere endless to tell of the lands over which she 
wandered. No spot in the world did Ceres leave 
unvisited. She wandered also in the sky, and 
accosted the constellations that lie next to the cold 
pole and never dip in the ocean wave. " Ye 
Parrhasian stars,'' reveal to a wretched mother her 
daughter Persephone ; for ye can know all things, 
since never do ye plunge under the waters of the sea." 
So she spoke, and Helice answered her thus : " Night 
is blameless. Ask of the Sun concerning the ravished 
maid : far and wide he sees the things that are done 
by day." Appealed to, the Sun said, " To spare 
thee vain trouble, she whom thou seekest is wedded 
to Jove's brother and rules the third realm." 

^^^ After long moaning to herself she thus addressed 
the Thunderer, and in her face there were deep lines 
of sorrow : "If thou dost remember by whom I got 
Persephone, she ought to have half of thy care. By 



orbe pererrato sola est iniuria facti 
690 cognita : commissi praemia raptor habet. 

at neque Persephone digna est praedone marito, 

nee gener hoc nobis more parandus erat. 

quid gravius victore Gyge captiva tuhssem, 

quam nunc te caeH sceptra tenente tuH ? 

595 verum impune ferat, nos haec patiemur inultae ; 

reddat et emendet facta priora no vis." 

luppiter hanc lenit factumque excusat amore, 

" nee gener est nobis ille pudendus " ait- 
** non ego nobihor : posita est mihi regia caelo, 
600 possidet alter aquas, alter inane chaos, 
sed si forte tibi non est mutabile pectus, 

statque semel iuncti rumpere vincla tori, 
hoc quoque temptemus, siquidem ieiuna remansit ; 
si minus, inferni coniugis uxor erit." 
605 Tartara iussus adit sumptis Caducifer aHs 
speque redit citius visaque certa refert : 
" rapta tribus " dixit ** solvit ieiunia granis, 
Punica quae lento cortice poma tegunt." 
non secus indoluit, quam si modo rapta fuisset, 
610 maesta parens, longa vixque refecta mora est, 
atque ita ** nee nobis caelum est habitabile " dixit ; 

" Taenaria recipi me quoque valle iube." 
et factura fuit, pactus nisi luppiter esset, 
bis tribus ut caelo mensibus ilia foret. 
615 tum demum voltumque Ceres animumque recepit 

" He confuses the hundred-handed brothers with the 
giants who tried to storm heaven (see ill. 805). 

* She has wedded Pluto or Hades, himself a king like 
Jupiter and Poseidon. Chaos, the abyss, is used for Hades. 
See i. 103, note. 

" Tartarus, since there was supposed to be a mouth of hell 
at Taenarum, a promontory in Laconia, 

FASTI, IV. 589-615 

wandering round the world I have learned naught 
but the knowledge of the wrong : the ravisher 
enjoys the reward of his crime. But neither did 
Persephone deserve a robber husband, nor was it meet 
that in this fashion we should find a son-in-law. 
What worse wrong could I have suffered if Gyges ° had 
been victorious and I his captive, than now I have 
sustained while thou art sceptered king of heaven ? 
But let him escape unpunished ; I'll put up with it 
nor ask for vengeance ; only let him restore her 
and repair his former deeds by new." Jupiter 
soothed her, and on the plea of love excused the deed. 
** He is not a son-in-law," said he, "to put us to 
shame : I myself am not a whit more noble : my 
royalty is in the sky, another owns the waters, 
and another the void of chaos. ^ But if haply thy 
mind is set immutably, and thou art resolved to 
break the bonds of wedlock, once contracted, come 
let us try to do so, if only she has kept her fast ; if 
not, she will be the wife of her infernal spouse." 
The Herald God received his orders and assumed 
his wings : he flew to Tartarus and returning sooner 
than he was looked for brought tidings sure of 
what he had seen. " The ravished Maid," said he, 
** did break her fast on three grains enclosed in the 
tough rind of a pomegranate." Her rueful parent 
grieved no less than if her daughter had just been 
reft from her, and it was long before she was herself 
again, and hardly then. And thus she spoke : 
" For me, too, heaven is no home ; order that I 
too be admitted to the Taenarian vale.^ " And she 
would have done so, if Jupiter had not promised 
that Persephone should be in heaven for twice 
three months. Then at last Ceres recovered her 



imposuitque suae spicea serta comae ; 
largaque provenit cessatis messis in arvis, 

et vix congestas area cepit opes, 
alba decent Cererem : vestis Cerialibus albas 
620 sumite ; nunc pulli velleris usus abest. 

18. G EID • N> LVDi 

Occupat Aprilis Idus cognomine Victor 
luppiter : hac illi sunt data templa die. 

hac quoque, ni fallor, populo dignissima nostro 
atria Libertas coepit habere sua. 

14. HN LVDI 

625 Luce secutura tutos pete, navita, portus : 
ventus ab occasu grandine mixtus erit. 
sit licet ut fuerit, tamen hac Mutinensia Caesar 
grandine militia perculit arma sua. 

15. A FORD • ^PLVDI 16. BN lvdi 

Tertia post Veneris cum lux surrexerit Idus, 
630 pontifices, forda sacra litate bove. 

forda ferens bos est fecundaque, dicta ferendo : 

hinc etiam fetus nomen habere putant. 
nunc gravidum pecus est, gravidae quoque semine 
terrae : 
Telluri plenae victima plena datur. 
635 pars cadit arce lovis, ter denas curia vaccas 
accipit et largo sparsa cruore madet. 

" Vowed by Q. Fabius Maximus, 295 b.c. 

* Atrium Libertatis, not far from the Forum. 

* He relieved the siege of Mutina in 43 b.c, against 
Antony. * See ii. 530 note, iii. 140. 

FASTI, IV. 616-636 

looks and her spirits, and set wreaths of corn ears 
on her hair ; and the laggard fields yielded a 
plenteous harvest, and the threshing-floor could 
hardly hold the high-piled sheaves. White is Ceres' 
proper colour ; put on white robes at Ceres' 
festival ; now no one wears dun-coloured wool. 

Id. 13th 

*2^ The Ides of April belong to Jupiter under the 
title of Victor : a temple was dedicated to him on 
that day." On that day, too, if I mistake not, 
Liberty began to own a hall well worthy of our 

XVIII. Kal. Mai. 14th 

®2^ On the next day steer for safe harbours, thou 
mariner : the wind from the west will be mixed 
with hail. Yet be that as it may, on tha,t day, a 
day of hail, Caesar in battle-array smote hip and 
thigh his foes at Modena." 

XVII. Kal. 15th 

629 When the third day shall have dawned after 
the Ides of Venus, ye pontiffs, offer in sacrifice a 
pregnant {fordo) cow. Forda is a cow with calf 
and fruitful, so called from ferendo (" bearing ") : 
they think thaX fetus is derived from the same root. 
Now are the cattle big with young ; the ground, 
too, is big with seed : to teeming Earth is given a 
teeming victim. Some are slain in the citadel of 
Jupiter ; the wards (Curiae) ^ get thrice ten cows, 
and are splashed and drenched with blood in plenty. 



ast abi visceribus vitulos rapuere ministri 

sectaque fumosis exta dedere focis, 
igne cremat vitulos quae natu maxima virgo est, 
640 luce Palis populos purget ut ille cinis. 
rege Numa, fructu non respondente labori, 

inrita decepti vota colentis erant. 
nam modo siccus erat gelidis aquilonibus annus, 
nunc ager assidua luxuriabat aqua : 
645 saepe Ceres primis dominum fallebat in herbis, 
et levis obsesso stabat avena solo, 
et pecus ante diem partus edebat acerbos, 
agnaque nascendo saepe necabat ovem. 
silva vetus nullaque diu violata securi 
650 stabat, Maenalio sacra relicta deo : 
ille dabat tacitis animo responsa quieto 

noctibus. hie geminas rex Numa mactat eves, 
prima cadit Fauno, leni cadit altera Somno ; 
sternitur in duro vellus utrumque solo. 
655 bis caput intonsum fontana spargitur unda, 
bis sua faginea tempora fronde tegit. 
usus abest Veneris, nee fas animalia mensis 

ponere, nee digitis anulus ullus inest. 
veste rudi tectus supra nova vellera corpus 
660 ponit, adorato per sua verba deo. 

interea placidam redimita papavere frontem 

nox venit et secum somnia nigra trahit. 
Faunus adest, oviumque premens pede vellera duro 
edidit a dextro talia verba toro : 
666 ** morte boum tibi, rex, Tellus placanda duarum : 

« See below, ]. 721. * Pan. 


FASTI, IV. 637-665 

But when the attendants have torn the calves from 
the bowels of their dams, and put the cut entrails on 
the smoking hearths, the eldest (Vestal) Virgin burns 
the calves in the fire, that their ashes may purify 
the people on the day of Pales." When Numa was 
king, the harvest did not answer to the labour 
bestowed on it ; the husbandman was deceived, 
and his prayers were offered in vain. For at one 
time the year was dry, the north winds blowing 
cold ; at another time the fields were rank with 
ceaseless rain ; often at its first sprouting the crop 
balked its owner, and the light oats overran the 
choked soil, and the cattle dropped their unripe 
young before the time, and often the ewe perished 
in giving birth to her lamb. There was an ancient 
wood, long unprofaned by the axe, left sacred to 
the god of Maenalus.^ He to the quiet mind gave 
answers in the silence of the night. Here Numa 
sacrificed two ewes. The first fell in honour of 
Faunus, the second fell in honour of gentle Sleep : 
the fleeces of both were spread on the hard ground. 
Twice the king's unshorn head was sprinkled with 
water from a spring ; twice he veiled his brows with 
beechen leaves. He refrained from the pleasures 
of love ; no flesh might be served up to him at 
table ; he might wear no ring on his fingers. 
Covered with a rough garment he laid him down 
on the fresh fleeces after worshipping the god in 
the appropriate words. Meantime, her calm brow 
wreathed with poppies. Night drew on, and in her 
train brought darkling dreams. Faunus was come, 
and setting his hard hoof on the sheep's fleeces 
uttered these words on the right side of the bed : 
** O King, thou must appease Earth by the death 



det sacris animas una luvenca duas." 
excutitur terrore quies : Numa visa revolvit 

et secum ambages caecaque iussa refert. 
expedit errantem nemori gratissima coniunx 
670 et dixit " gravidae posceris exta bo vis." 
exta bovis gravidae dantur, fecundior annus 

provenit, et fructum terra pecusque ferunt. 
hanc quondam Cytherea diem properantius ire 

iussit et admissos praecipitavit equos, 
676 at titulum imperii quam primum luce sequenti 

Augusto iuveni prospera bella darent. 

17. CN LVDi 18. DN LVDi 

Sed iam praeteritas quartus tibi Lucifer Idus 
respicit : hac Hyades Dorida nocte tenent. 

19. E CER • N LVD • IN • cm 

Tertia post Hyadas cum lux erit orta remotas 
680 carcere partitos Circus habebit equos. 
cur igitur missae vinctis ardentia taedis 

terga ferant volpes, causa docenda mihi est. 
frigida Carseolis nee olivis apt a ferendis 
terra, sed ad segetes ingeniosus ager ; 
686 hac ego Pelignos, natalia rura, petebam, 
parva, sed assiduis uvida semper aquis. 

" Egeria. 

^ Venus, as the ancestress of the Julian house, is made to 
hasten the sun's setting on April 15, that he might rise the 
sooner on the 16th, when the title of Imperator was given him 
for his relief of Mutina. 

" The true evening setting was on April 20. 

** Because this loosing of foxes was part of the Games of 
Ceres. * Compare Judges xv. 4-6. 


FASTI, IV. 666-686 

of two cows : let one heifer yield two lives in 
sacrifice." Fear banished sleep : Numa pondered 
the vision, and revolved in his mind the dark sayings 
and mysterious commands. His wife,'^ the darling 
of the grove, extricated him from his doubts and 
said, " What is demanded of thee are the inwards 
of a pregnant cow." The inwards of a pregnant 
cow were offered ; the year proved more fruitful, 
and earth and cattle yielded their increase. This 
day once on a time Cytherea commanded to go 
faster and hurried the galloping horses down hill, 
that on the next day the youthful Augustus might 
receive the sooner the title of emperor for his 
victories in war.^ 

XV. Kal. 17th 

*'' But when you shall have counted the fourth day 
after the Ides, the Hyades will set in the sea that 

XIII. Kal. 19th 

679 When the third morn shall have risen after 
the disappearance of the Hyades, the horses will 
be in the Circus, each team in its separate stall. I 
must therefore '^ explain the reason why foxes are 
let loose with torches tied to their burning backs.* 
The land of Carseoli ^ is cold and not suited for the 
growth of olives, but the soil is well adapted for 
corn. By it I journeyed on my way to the Pelignian 
land, my native country, a country small but always 
moist with never-failing water. There I entered, 

' A Latin town, on the road to Paelignian Corfinium. 



hospitis antiqui solitas intra vimus aedes ; 

dempserat emeritis iam iuga Phoebus equis. 
is mihi multa quidem, sed et haec narrare solebat, 
690 unde meum praesens instrueretur opus : 

" hoc " ait "in campo " (campumque ostendit) 
'' habebat 
rus breve cum duro parca colona viro. 
ille suam peragebat humum, sive usus aratri 
seu curvae falcis sive bidentis erat. 
695 haec modo verrebat stantem tibicine villam, 
nunc matris plumis ova fovenda dabat, 
aut virides malvas aut fungos colligit albos, 

aut humilem grato calfacit igne focum. 
et tamen assiduis exercet brachia telis 
700 adversusque minas frigoris arma parat, 
filius huius erat primo lascivus in aevo 

addideratque annos ad duo lustra duo . 
is capit extremi volpem convalle saUcti : 
abstulerat multas ilia cohortis aves. 
705 captivam stipula faenoque involvit et ignes 
admovet : urentes efFugit ilia manus : 
qua fugit, incendit vestitos messibus agros ; 

damnosis vires ignibus aura dabat. 
factum abiit, monumenta manent ; nam dicere certa 
710 nunc quoque lex volpem Carseolana vetat ; 
utque luat poenas gens haec Cerialibus ardet, 
quoque modo segetes perdidit, ipsa perit." 

20. FN 

Proxima cum veniet terras visura patentes 
Memnonis in roseis lutea mater equis, 

* Aurora. 

FASTI, IV. 687-714 

as usual, the house of an old host ; Phoebus had 
already unyoked his spent steeds. My host was 
wont to tell me many things, and among them 
matters which were to be embodied in my present 
work. " In yonder plain," said he, and he pointed 
it out, " a thrifty countrywoman had a small croft, 
she and her sturdy spouse. He tilled his own 
land, whether the work called for the plough, or 
the curved sickle, or the hoe. She would now sweep 
the cottage, supported on props ; now she would 
set the eggs to be hatched under the plumage of 
the brooding hen ; or she gathered green mallows 
or white mushrooms, or warmed the low hearth 
with welcome fire. And yet she diligently em- 
ployed her hands at the loom, and armed herself 
against the threats of winter. She had a son, in 
childhood frolicsome, who now had seen twice five 
years and two more. He in a valley at the end of 
a willow copse caught a vixen fox which had carried 
off many farmyard fowls. The captive brute he 
wrapped in straw and hay, and set a light to her ; 
she escaped the hands that would have burned her. 
Where she fled, she set fire to the crops that clothed 
the fields, and a breeze fanned the devouring flames. 
The incident is forgotten, but a memorial of it 
survives ; for to this day a certain law of Carseoli 
forbids to name a fox ; and to punish the species a 
fox is burned at the festival of Ceres, thus perishing 
itself in the way it destroyed the crops." 

XII. Kal. 20th 

713 When next day Memnon's saffron-robed mother" 
on her rosy steeds shall come to view the far-spread 



715 de duce lanigeri pecoris, qui prodidit Hellen, 
sol abit : egresso victima maior adest. 
vacca sit an taurus, non est cognoscere promptum : 

pars prior apparet, posteriora latent, 
seu tamen est taurus sive est hoc femina signum, 
720 lunone invita munus amoris habet. 

21. G PARM> 

Nox abiit, oriturque Aurora. Parilia' poscor : 

non poscor frustra, si favet alma Pales, 
alma Pales, faveas pastoria sacra canenti, 

prosequor officio si tua festa meo. 
725 certe ego de vitulo cinerem stipulasque fabalis 

saepe tuli plena, februa casta, manu : 
certe ego transilui positas ter in ordine flammas, 

udaque roratas laurea misit aquas, 
mota dea est operique favet : navalibus exit 
730 puppis, habent ventos iam mea vela suos. 
i, pete virginea, populus, suffimen ab ara : 

Vesta dabit, Vestae munere purus eris. 
sanguis equi suffimen erit vitulique favilla, 

tertia res durae culmen inane fabae. 
735 pastor, oves saturas ad prima crepuscula lustra : 

unda prius spargat, virgaque verrat humum, 
frondibus et fixis decorentur ovilia ramis, 

et tegat ornatas longa corona fores. 

^ parilia AU: palilia BXMm and most mss. {** caeteri^"* 


« See iii. 851-876. 

* Whether it be lo as a cow, or the bull that carried ofl" 
Europa, Juno is equally offended at the reminder of her 
husband's unfaithfulness. 

' See Appendix, p. 411. * See Appendix, p. 413. 


FASTI, IV. 715-738 

lands, the sun departs from the sign of the leader 
of the woolly flock, the ram which betrayed Helle ; ^ 
and when he has passed out of that sign, a larger 
victim meets him. Whether that victim is a cow 
or a bull, it is not easy to know ; the fore part is 
visible, the hinder part is hid. But whether the sign 
be a bull or a cow, it enjoys this reward of love 
against the will of Juno. ^ 

XI. Kal. 21st 

'2^ The night has gone, and Dawn comes up. I 
am called upon to sing of the Parilia,*' and not in 
vain shall be the call, if kindly Pales favours me. 
O kindly Pales, favour me when I sing of pastoral 
rites, if I pay my respects to thy festival. Sure 
it is that I have often brought with full hands the 
ashes of the calf and the beanstraws, chaste means 
of expiation. Sure it is that I have leaped over the 
flames ranged three in a row, and the moist laurel- 
bough has sprinkled water on me. The goddess is 
moved and favours the work I have in hand. My 
bark is launched ; now fair winds fill my sails. 

'^^^ Ye people, go fetch materials for fumigation 
from the Virgin's altar. Vesta will give them ; by 
Vesta's gift ye shall be pure. The materials for 
fumigation will be the blood of a horse and the" 
ashes of a calf ; the third thing will be the empty 
stalks of hard beans.^ Shepherd, do thou purify 
thy well-fed sheep at fall of twilight ; first sprinkle 
the ground with water and sweep it with a broom. 
Deck tlie sheepfold with leaves and branches 
fastened to it ; adorn the door and cover it with 



caerulei fiant puro de sulphure fumi, 
740 tactaque fumanti sulphure balet ovis. 

ure mares oleas taedamque herbasque Sabinas, 

et crepet in mediis laurus adusta focis. 
libaque de milio milii fiscella sequatur : 

rustica praecipue est hoc dea laeta cibo. 
745 adde dapes mulctramque suas, dapibusque resectis 

silvicolam tepido lacte precare Palem. 
" consule " die " pecori pariter pecorisque magistris: 

efFugiat stabuhs noxa repulsa meis. 
sive sacro pavi sedive sub arbore sacra, 
750 pabulaque e bustis inscia carpsit ovis : 
si nemus intravi vetitum, nostrisve fugatae 

sunt ocuUs nymphae semicaperque deus : 
si mea falx ramo lucum spoliavit opaco, 

unde data est aegrae fiscina frondis ovi : 
755 da veniam culpae. nee, dum degrandinet, obsit 

agresti fano supposuisse pecus, 
nee noceat turbasse lacus. ignoscite, nymphae, 

mota quod obscuras ungula fecit aquas, 
tu, dea, pro nobis fontes fontanaque placa 
760 numina, tu sparsos per nemus omne decs, 
nee Dryadas nee nos videamus labra Dianae, 

nee Faunum, medio cum premit arva die. 
pelle procul morbos ; valeant hominesque gregesque, 

et valeant vigiles, provida turba, canes. 
765 neve minus multos redigam, quam mane fuerunt, 

neve gemam referens vellera rapta lupo. 
absit iniqua fames : herbae frondesque supersint, 

quaeque lavent artus quaeque bibantur aquae. 

" It was dangerous to disturb Pan (Faunus) at midday, 
or to see satyrs and nymphs at their gambols. He alludes 
also to the story of Actaeon and Diana, Metam. iii. 161. 

FASTI, IV. 739-768 

a long festoon. Make blue smoke with pure 
sulphur, and let the sheep, touched with the smoking 
sulphur, bleat. Burn wood of male olives and pine 
and savines, and let the singed laurel crackle in 
the midst of the hearth. And let a basket of millet 
accompany cakes of millet ; the rural goddess particu- 
larly delights in that food. Add viands and a pail of 
milk, such as she loves ; and when the viands have 
been cut up, pray to sylvan Pales, offering warm milk 
to her. Say, " O, take thought alike for the cattle 
and the cattle's masters ; ward off from my stalls all 
harm, O let it flee aw ay ! If I have fed my sheep on 
holy ground, or sat me down under a sacred tree, 
and my sheep unwittingly have browsed on graves ; if 
I have entered a forbidden grove, or the nymphs 
and the half-goat god have been put to flight at 
sight of me ; if my pruning-knife has robbed a 
sacred copse of a shady bough, to fill a basket with 
leaves for a sick sheep, pardon my fault. Count 
it not against me if I have sheltered my flock 
in a rustic shrine till the hail left off, and may I 
not suffer for having troubled the pools : forgive 
it, nymphs, if the tramphng of hoofs has made your 
waters turbid. Do thou, goddess, appease for us 
the springs and their divinities ; appease the gods 
dispersed through every grove. May we not see 
the Dryads, nor Diana's baths, nor Faunus," when 
he Hes in the fields at noon. Drive far away 
diseases : may men and beasts be hale, and hale 
too the sagacious pack of watch-dogs. May I drive 
home my flocks as numerous as they were at 
morn, nor sigh as I bring back fleeces snatched 
from the wolf. Avert dire hunger. Let grass 
and leaves abound, and water both to wash and 



ubera plena premam, referat mihi caseus aera, 
770 dentque viam liquido vimina rara sero. 

sitque salax aries, conceptaque semina coniunx 

reddat, et in stabulo multa sit agna meo. 
lanaque proveniat nullas laesura puellas, 
mollis et ad teneras quamlibet apta manus. 
775 quae precor eveniant, et nos faciemus ad annum 
pastorum dominae grandia liba Pali." 
his dea placanda est : haec tu conversus ad ortus 

die quater et vivo perlue rore manus. 
turn licet adposita, veluti cratere, camella 
780 lac niveum potes purpureamque sapam ; 

moxque per ardentes stipulae crepitantis acervos 

traicias celeri strenua membra pede. 
expositus mos est : moris mihi restat origo : 
turba facit dubium coeptaque nostra tenet. 
785 omnia purgat edax ignis vitiumque metallis 
excoquit : idcirco cum duce purgat ovis. 
an, quia cunctarum contraria semina rerum 

sunt duo discordes, ignis et unda, dei, 
iunxerunt elementa patres aptumque putarunt 
790 ignibus et sparsa tangere corpus aqua ? 

an, quod in his vitae causa est, haec perdidit exul, 

his nova fit coniunx, haec duo magna putant ? 
vix equidem credo: sunt qui Phaethonta referri 
credant et nimias Deucalionis aquas. 
795 pars quoque, cum saxis pastores saxa feribant, 
scintillam subito prosiluisse ferunt ; 
prima quidem periit, stipulis excepta secunda est ; 

" Fire and water were supposed in combination to create 
life. The exiled man was debarred from fire and water 
(" igni atque aqua interdictus") ; and these two were presented 
to the bride as she entered her new home. 


FASTI, IV. 769-797 

drink. Full udders may I milk ; may my cheese 
bring me in money ; may the sieve of wicker-work 
give passage to the liquid whey ; lustful be the 
ram, and may his mate conceive and bear, and 
many a lamb be in my fold. And let the wool 
grow so soft that it could not fret the skin of girls 
nor chafe the tenderest hands. May my prayer 
be granted, and we will year by year make great 
cakes for Pales, the shepherds' mistress." With 
these things is the goddess to be propitiated ; 
these words pronounce four times, facing the east, 
and wash thy hands in living dew. Then may est 
thou set a wooden bowl to serve as mixer, and mayest 
quaff the snow-white milk and purple must ; anon 
leap with nimble foot and straining thews across 
the burning heaps of crackling straw. 

"^^^ I have set forth the custom ; it remains for 
me to tell its origin. The multitude of explanations 
creates a doubt and thwarts me at the outset. 
Devouring fire purges all things and melts the dross 
from out the metals ; therefore it purges the shepherd 
and the sheep. Or are we to suppose that, because 
all things are composed of opposite principles, fire and 
water — those two discordant deities — therefore our 
fathers did conjoin these elements and thought meet 
to touch the body with fire and sprinkled water ? 
Or did they deem these two important because they 
contain the source of life, the exile loses the use 
of them, and by them the bride is made a wife ? « 
Some suppose (though I can hardly do so) that 
the allusion is to Phaethon and Deucalion's flood. 
Some people also say that when shepherds were 
knocking stones together, a spark suddenly leaped 
forth ; the first indeed was lost, but the second 



hoc argumentum flamma Parilis habet ? 
an magis hunc morem pietas Aeneia fecit, 
800 innocuum victo cui dedit ignis iter ? 

num tamen est vero propius, cum condita Roma est, 

transferri iussos in nova tecta Lares 
mutantesque domum tectis agrestibus ignem 
et cessaturae supposuisse casae, 
805 per flammas saluisse pecus, saluisse colonos ? 
quod fit natali nunc quoque, Roma, tuo. 

Ipse locus causas vati facit. urbis origo 

venit. ades factis, magne Quirine, tuis ! 
lam luerat poenas frater Numitoris, et omne 
810 pastorum gemino sub duce volgus erat. 
contrahere agrestes et moenia ponere utrique 

convenit : ambigitur, moenia ponat uter. 
*' nil opus est " dixit " certamine " Romulus " ullo : 

magna fides avium est, experiamur aves." 
815 res placet, alter adit nemorosi saxa Palati, 

alter Aventinum mane cacumen init. 
sex Remus, hie volucres bis sex videt ordine. pacto 

statur, et arbitrium Romulus urbis habet. 

apta dies legitur, qua moenia signet aratro. 

820 sacra Palis suberant : inde movetur opus. 

fossa fit ad solidum, fruges iaciuntur in ima 

et de vicino terra petita solo. 

" The Palilia. * Amulius. See iii. 67. 

*^ See Mundust Appendix, p. 417. 

FASTI, IV. 798-822 

was caught in straw ; is that the reason of the 
flame at the PariUa ? Or is the custom rather 
based on the piety of Aeneas, whom, even in the 
hour of defeat, the fire allowed to pass unscathed ? 
Or is it haply nearer the truth that, when Rome 
was founded, orders were given to transfer the 
household gods to the new houses, and in changing 
homes the husbandmen set fire to their country 
houses and to the cottages they were about to 
abandon, and that they and their cattle leaped 
through the flames ? Which happens even to the 
present time on the birthday of Rome.** 

^^"^ The subject of itself furnishes a theme for the 
poet. We have arrived at the foundation of the city 
Great Quirinus, help me to sing thy deeds. Already 
the brother of Numitor ^ had suffered punishment, 
and all the shepherd folk were subject to the twins. 
The twins agreed to draw the swains together and 
found a city ; the doubt was which of the two 
should found it. Romulus said, '* There needs no 
contest. Great faith is put in birds ; let's try the 
birds." The proposal was accepted. One of the 
two betook him to the rocks of the wooded Palatine ; 
the other hied at morn to the top of the Aventine. 
Remus saw six birds ; Romulus saw twice six, one 
after the other : they stood by their compact, and 
Romulus was accorded the government of the city. 
A suitable day was chosen on which he should mark 
out the hne of the walls with the plough. The festival 
of Pales was at hand ; on that day the work began.*' 
A trench was dug down to the solid rock ; fruits 
of the earth were thrown into the bottom of it, 
and with them earth fetched from the neighbouring 



fossa repletur humo, plenaeque imponitur ara, 
et novus accenso fungitur igne focus. 
825 inde premens stivam designat moenia sulco ; 
alba iugum niveo cum bove vacca tulit. 
vox fuit haec regis : " condenti, luppiter, urbem 

et genitor Mavors Vestaque mater, ades ; 
quosque pium est adhibere deos, advertite cuncti. 
830 auspicibus vobis hoc mihi surgat opus. 

longa sit huic aetas dominaeque potentia terrae, 

sitque sub hac oriens occiduusque dies." 
ille precabatur, tonitru dedit omina laevo 
luppiter, et laevo fulmina missa polo. 
835 augurio laeti iaciunt fundamina cives, 
et novus exiguo tempore murus erat. 
hoc Celer urget opus, quem Romulus ipse vocarat, 
** sint," que " Celer, curae " dixerat " ista tuae, 
neve quis aut muros aut factam vomere fossam 
840 transeat : audentem talia dede neci." 

quod Remus ignorans humiles contemnere muros 
coepit et " his populus " dicere " tutus erit ? " 
nee mora, transiluit. rutro Celer occupat ausum ; 
ille premit duram sanguinulentus humum. 
845 haec ubi rex didicit, lacrimas introrsus obortas 
devorat et clausum pectore volnus habet. 
flere palam non volt exemplaque fortia servat, 

" sic " que " meos muros transeat hostis " ait. 
dat tamen exequias nee iam suspendere fletum 
850 sustinet, et pietas dissimulata patet ; 
osculaque adplicuit posito suprema feretro 


FASTI, IV. 823-851 

soil. The trench was filled up with mould, and on 
the top was set an altar, and a fire was duly lit on 
a new hearth. Then pressing on the plough- 
handle he drew a furrow to mark out the line of the 
walls : the yoke was borne by a white cow and 
snow-white steer. The king spoke thus : " O 
Jupiter, and Father Mavors, and Mother Vesta, 
stand by me as I found the city ! O take heed, 
all ye gods whom piety bids summon ! Under 
your auspices may this my fabric rise ! May this 
imperial country long endure and its dominion ! 
May East and West be subject unto it ! " So he 
prayed. Jupiter vouchsafed omens by thunder on 
the left and lightnings flashing in the leftward sky. 
Glad at the augury, the citizens laid the foundations, 
and in a short time the new wall stood. The work 
was urged on by Celer, whom Romulus himself had 
named and said, " Celer, be this thy care ; let no 
man cross the walls nor the trench which the 
share hath made : who dares to do so, put him to 
death." Ignorant of this, Remus began to mock 
the lowly walls and say, " Shall these protect the 
people ? " And straightway he leaped across them. 
Instantly Celer struck the rash man with a shovel. 
Covered with blood, Remus sank on the stony 
ground. When the king heard of this, he smothered 
the springing tears and kept his grief locked up 
within his breast. He would not weep in public ; 
he set an example of fortitude, and " So fare," 
quoth he, " the foe who shall cross my walls." Yet 
he granted funeral honours, and could no longer 
bear to check his tears, and the affection which he 
had dissembled was plain to see. When they set 
down the bier, he gave it a last kiss, and said, 



atque ait " invito frater adempte, vale ! ** 
arsurosque artus unxit. fecere, quod ille, 

Faustulus et maestas Acca soluta comas. 
855 turn iuvenem nondum facti flevere Quirites ; 

ultima plorato subdita flamma rogo est. 
urbs oritur (quis tunc hoc ulli credere posset ?) 

victorem terris impositura pedem. 
cuncta regas et sis magno sub Caesare semper, 
860 saepe etiam pluris nominis huius habe ; 
et quotiens steteris domito sublimis in orbe, 

omnia sint humeris inferiora tuis. 

22. HN 23. A VIN • N* 

Dicta Pales nobis, idem Vinalia dicam ; 
una tamen media est inter utramque dies. 
865 numina volgares Veneris celebrate puellae : 
multa professarum quaestibus apta Venus, 
poscite ture dato form am populique favorem, 

poscite blanditias dignaque verba ioco, 
cumque sua dominae date grata sisymbria myrto 
870 tectaque composita iuncea vincla rosa. 
templa frequentari Collinae proxima portae 
nunc decet, a Siculo nomina colle tenent ; 
utque Syracusas Arethusidas abstulit armis 
Claudius et bello te quoque cepit, Eryx, 
875 carmine vivacis Venus est translata Sibyllae, 
inque suae stirpis maluit urbe coli. 

** M. Claudius Marcellus captured Syracuse, 212 b.c. 

FASTI, IV. 852-876 

** Snatched from thy brother, loath to part, brother, 
farewell ! " With that he anointed the body before 
committing it to the flames. Faustulus and Acca. 
her mournful hair unbound, did the same. Then 
the Quirites, though not yet known by that name, 
wept for the youth, and last of all a light was put 
to the pyre, wet with their tears. A city arose 
destined to set its victorious foot upon the neck of 
the whole earth ; who at that time could have 
believed in such a prophecy ? Rule the universe, 
O Rome, and may est thou ever be subject to great 
Caesar, and mayest thou often have several of that 
name, and whensoe'er thou standest sublime in a 
conquered world, may all else reach not up to thy 
shoulders ! 

IX. Kal. 23rd 

^*3 I have told of Pales, I will now tell of the 
festival of the Vinalia ; but there is one day inter- 
posed between the two. Ye common wenches, 
celebrate the divinity of Venus : Venus favours the 
earnings of ladies of a liberal profession. Offer 
incense and pray for beauty and popular favour ; 
pray to be charming and witty ; give to the Queen 
her own myrtle and the mint she loves, and bands 
of rushes hid in clustered roses. Now is the time 
to throng her temple next the Colline gate ; the 
temple takes its name from the SiciHan hill. When 
Claudius carried Arethusian Syracuse** by force of 
arms, and captured thee, too, Eryx, in war, Venus 
was transferred to Rome in obedience to an oracle 
of the long-lived Sibyl, and chose to be worshipped 
in the city of her own offspring. You ask. Why then 



cur igitur Veneris festum Vinalia dicant, 
quaeritis, et quare sit lovis ista dies ? 
Turnus an Aeneas Latiae gener esset Amatae, 
880 bellum erat : Etruscas Turnus adorat opes, 
clarus erat sumptisque ferox Mezentius armis 

et vel equo magnus vel pede maior erat ; 
quern Rutuli Turnusque suis adsciscere temptat 
partibus. haec contra dux ita Tuscus ait : 
886 " Stat mihi non parvo virtus mea : volnera testor 
armaque, quae sparsi sanguine saepe meo. 
qui petis auxilium, non grandia divide mecum 

praemia, de lacubus proxima musta tuis. 
nulla mora est operae : vestrum est dare, vincere 
890 quam velit Aeneas ista negata mihi ! " 
adnuerant Rutuli. Mezentius induit arma, 

induit Aeneas alloquiturque lovem : 
** hostica Tyrrheno vota est vindemia regi : 
luppiter, e Latio palmite musta feres ! " 
895 vota valent meliora. cadit Mezentius ingens 
atque indignanti pectore plangit humum. 
venerat Autumnus calcatis sordidus uvis : 

redduntur merito debita \'ina lovi. 
dicta dies hinc est Vinalia : luppiter illam 
900 vindicat et festis gaudet inesse suis. 

24. BC 25. C ROB • JP 

Sex ubi, quae restant, luces Aprilis habebit, 

in medio cursu tempora veris erunt, 
et frustra pecudem quaeres Athamantidos Helles, 

<* Apparent setting was on March 20, true setting on 
April 5. 


FASTI, IV. 877-903 

do they call the Vinalia a festival of Venus ? And 
why does that day belong to Jupiter ? There was 
war to decide whether Turnus or Aeneas should be 
the husband of Latin Amata's daughter : Turnus 
sued the help of the Etruscans. Mezentius was 
famous and a haughty man - at - arms ; mighty 
was he on horseback, but mightier still on foot, 
Turnus and the Rutulians attempted to win him to 
their side. To these overtures the Tuscan chief thus 
replied : " My valour costs me dear. Witness my 
wounds and those weapons which oft I have be- 
dabbled with my blood. You ask my help : divide 
with me the next new wine from your vats — surely 
no great reward. Delay there need be none : 'tis 
yours to give, and mine to conquer. How would 
Aeneas wish you had refused my suit ! " The 
Rutulians consented. Mezentius donned his arms, 
Aeneas donned them too, and thus he spoke to 
Jupiter. " The foe has pledged his vintage to the 
Tyrrhenian king ; Jupiter, thou shalt have the new 
wine from the Latin vines." The better vows pre- 
vailed : huge Mezentius fell, and with his breast 
indignant smote the ground. Autumn came round, 
stained with the trodden grapes ; the wine that was 
his due was justly paid to Jupiter. Hence the day 
is called the Vinalia : Jupiter claims it for his own, 
and loves to be present at his own feast. 

VII. Kal. 25th 

901 When April shall have six days left, the season 
of spring will be in mid course, and in vain will you 
look for the ram of Helle, daughter of Athamas " ; 



signaque dant imbres, exoriturque Canis. 
905 hac mihi Nomento Romam cum luce redirem, 
obstitit in media Candida turba via. 
flamen in antiquae lucum Robiginis ibat, 
exta canis flammis, exta daturus ovis. 
protinus accessi, ritus ne nescius essem : 
910 edidit haec flamen verba, Quirine, tuus : 
" aspera Robigo, parcas Cerialibus herbis, 

et tremat in summa leve cacumen humo. 
tu sata sideribus caeli nutrita secundis 
crescere, dum fiant falcibus apta, sinas. 
915 vis tua non levis est : quae tu frumenta notasti, 
maestus in amissis ilia colonus habet. 
nee venti tantum Cereri nocuere nee imbres, 

nee sic marmoreo pallet adusta gelu, 
quantum, si culmos Titan incalfacit udos : 
920 tunc locus est irae, diva timenda, tuae. 

parce, precor, scabrasque manus a messibus aufer 

neve noce cultis : posse nocere sat est. 
nee teneras segetes, sed durum amplectere ferrum. 
quodque potest alios perdere, perde prior. 
925 utilius gladios et tela nocentia carpes : 
nil opus est illis, otia mundus agit. 
sarcula nunc durusque bidens et vomer aduncus, 

ruris opes, niteant ; inquinet arma situs, 
conatusque aliquis vagina ducere ferrum 
930 adstrictum longa sentiat esse mora. 

at tu ne viola Cererem, semperque colonus 

absenti possit solvere vota tibi." 
dixerat : a dextra villis mantele solutis 

" The Dog-star then rose in the morning of August 2, 
set in the evening of May 1 ; not in April. 
* See Appendix, p. 420. 


FASTI, IV. 904-933 

the rains will be your sign, and the constellation 
of the Dog will rise.* 

^^^ On that day, as I was returning from Nomentum 
to Rome, a white-robed crowd blocked the middle of 
the road. A flamen was on his way to the grove 
of ancient Mildew (Rohigo),^ to throw the entrails 
of a dog and the entrails of a sheep into the flames. 
Straightway I went up to him to inform myself 
of the rite. Thy flamen, O Quirinus, pronounced 
these words : " Thou scaly Mildew, spare the sprout- 
ing corn, and let the smooth top quiver on the 
surface of the ground. O let the crops, nursed 
by the heaven's propitious stars, grow till they are 
ripe for the sickle. No feeble power is thine : the 
corn on which thou hast set thy mark, the sad 
husbandman gives up for lost. Nor winds, nor 
showers, nor ghstening frost, that nips the sallow 
corn, harm it so much as when the sun warms the 
wet stalks ; then, dread goddess, is the hour to wreak 
thy wrath. O spare, I pray, and take thy scabby 
hands from off the harvest ! Harm not the tilth ; 
'tis enough that thou hast the power to harm. 
Grip not the tender crops, but rather grip the 
hard iron. Forestall the destroyer. Better that 
thou shouldst gnaw at swords and baneful weapons 
There is no need of them : the world is at peace. 
Now let the rustic gear, the rakes, and the hard 
hoe, and the curved share be burnished bright ; 
but let rust defile the arms, and when one essays 
to draw the sword from the scabbard, let him 
feel it stick from long disuse. But do not thou 
profane the corn, and ever may the husbandman 
be able to pay his vows to thee in thine absence." 
So he spoke. On his right hand hung a napkin 
K 257 


cumque meri patera turis acerra fuit. 
935 tura focis vinumque dedit fibrasque bidentis 
turpiaque obscenae (vidimus) exta canis. 
turn mihi " cur detur sacris nova victima, quaeris ? *' 

(quaesieram) " causam percipe " flamen ait. 
" est Canis, Icarium dicunt, quo sidere moto 
940 tosta sitit tellus, praecipiturque seges. 
pro cane sidereo canis hie imponitur arae, 
et quare pereat, nil nisi nomen habet." 

26. DF 27. EC 28. F N* lvd • flor 
29. GC LVDi 30. HC LVDi 

Cum Phrygis Assaraci Tithonia fratre relicto 

sustulit inmenso ter iubar orbe suum, 
946 mille venit variis florum dea nexa coronis : 

scaena ioci morem liberioris habet. 
exit et in Maias sacrum Florale Kalendas ; 

tunc repetam, nunc me grandius urget opus, 
aufer Vesta diem ! cognati Vesta recepta est 
950 limine : sic iusti constituere patres. 

Phoebus habet partem, Vestae pars altera cessit ; 

quod superest illis, tertius ipse tenet, 
state Palatinae laurus, praetextaque quercu 

stet domus : aeternos tres habet una deos. 

« The dog. 

'' Supposed to be the dog Maera, which discovered the 
body of his master Icarius. 

" According to Homer, Tithonus was a distant cousin of 
Assaracus. Prater is often used loosely. 

^ When Augustus was made Pontifex Maximus, he should 
have taken up his residence in the Regia near Vesta's temple, 
but instead he built a chapel of Vesta in his own house on 
the Palatine, and dedicated it on April 28, which was made 
a public holiday. The mention of Phoebus refers to the 

FASTI, IV. 934-954 

with a loose nap, and he had a bowl of wine and a 
casket of incense. The incense, and wine, and sheep's 
guts, and the foul entrails of a filthy dog, he put 
upon the hearth — we saw him do it. Then to me 
he said, " Thou askest why an unwonted victim" is 
assigned to these rites ? " Indeed, I had asked the 
question. " Learn the cause," the flamen said. 
" There is a Dog (they call it the Icarian dog),^ and 
when that constellation rises the earth is parched 
and dry, and the crop ripens too soon. This dog 
is put on the altar instead of the starry dog, and 
the only reason for killing him is his name." 

IV. Kal. 28th 

943 When the spouse of Tithonus has left the 
brother of Phrygian Assaracus," and thrice has lifted 
up her radiant light in the vast firmament, there 
comes a goddess decked with garlands of a thousand 
varied flowers, and the stage enjoys a customary 
licence of mirth. The rites of Flora also extend 
into the Calends of May. Then I will resume 
the theme : now a loftier task is laid upon me. O 
Vesta, take thy day ! Vesta has been received in 
the home of her kinsman : so have the Fathers 
righteously decreed. Phoebus owns part of the 
house ; another part has been given up to Vesta ; 
what remains is occupied by Caesar himself. Long 
live the laurels of the Palatine ! Long live the 
house wreathed with the oaken boughs ! A single 
house holds three eternal gods.^ 

temple of Apollo built on the Palatine containing the famous 
library. Here, as in iii. 425, the poet claims kinship for 
Augustus with Vesta through Aeneas. For the oaken 
boughs cf. p. 44, note d. 



Quaeritis, unde putem Maio data nomina mensi ? 

non satis est liquido cognita causa mihi. 
ut stat et incertus qua sit sibi nescit eundum, 

cum videt ex omni parte viator iter : 
6 sic, quia posse datur diversas reddere causas, 

qua ferar, ignoro, copiaque ipsa nocet. 
dicite, quae fontes Aganippidos Hippocrenes 

grata Medusaei signa tenetis equi. 
dissensere deae. quarum Polyhymnia coepit 
10 prima ; silent aliae dictaque mente notant. 

** post chaos ut primum data sunt tria corpora mundo, 

inque novas species omne recessit opus, 
pondere terra suo subsedit et aequora traxit, 

at caelum levitas in loca summa tulit ; 
15 sol quoque cum stellis nulla gravitate retentus 

et vos lunares exiluistis equi. 
sed neque Terra diu Caelo, nee cetera Phoebo 

sidera cedebant ; par erat omnis honos. 
saepe aliquis solio, quod tu, Satume, tenebas, 
20 ausus de media plebe sedere deus, 

<* Aganippe and Hippocrene, two springs associated with 
the Muses, on Mount Helicon. Hippocrene (not A.) was 
supposed to have gushed from the rock where the hoof of 
Pegasus struck the ground. Here the two are identified. 
For Medusa see iii. 450. 



You ask whence I suppose the name of the month 
of May to be derived. The reason is not quite 
clearly known to me. As a wayfarer stands in 
doubt, and knows not which way to go, when he 
sees roads in all directions, so, because it is 
possible to assign different reasons, I know not 
where to turn ; the very abundance of choice is 
an embarrassment. Declare to me, ye who haunt 
the springs of Aganippian Hippocrene, those dear 
traces of the Medusaean steed." The goddesses dis- 
agreed; of them Polyhymnia began the first; the 
others were silent, and noted her sayings in their 
mind. " After chaos, as soon as the three elements 
were given to the world, and the whole creation re- 
solved itself into new species, the earth subsided by 
its own weight, and drew the seas after it, but the 
sky was borne to the highest regions by its own 
lightness; the sun, too, not checked by gravity, 
and the stars, and you, ye horses of the moon, ye 
bounded high. But for a long time neither did 
Earth yield pride of place to Sky, nor did the other 
heavenly bodies to Phoebus ; their honours were all 
equal. Often someone of the common sort of gods 
would dare to sit upon the throne which thou, 
Saturn, didst own; not one of the upstart deities 



nee latus Oceano quisquam deus advena iunxit,* 

et Themis extreme saepe recepta loco est, 
donee Honor plaeidoque deeens Reverentia voltii 

eorpora legitimis inposuere toris.^ 
26 hine sata Maiestas, quae mundum temperat omnem. 

quaque die partu est edita, magna fuit. 
nee mora, consedit medio sublimis Olympo 

aurea purpureo conspieienda sinu. 
eonsedere simul Pudor et Metus : omne videres 
30 numen ad hane voltus eomposuisse suos. 
protinus intravit mentes suspeetus honorum : 

fit pretium dignis, nee sibi quisque plaeet. 
hie status in eaelo multos permansit in annos, 

dum senior fatis exeidit aree deus. 
35 Terra feros partus, immania monstra, Gigantas 

edidit ausuros in lovis ire domum ; 
mille manus ilhs dedit et pro eruribus angues, 

atque ait ' in magnos arma movete deos.' 
extruere hi montes ad sidera summa parabant 
40 et magnum bello sollieitare lovem ; 
fulmina de eaeh iaeulatus luppiter area 

vertit in auctores pondera vasta suos. 
his bene Maiestas armis defensa deorum 

restat et ex illo tempore eulta manet ; 
46 assidet inde lovi, lovis est fidissima eustos 

et praestat sine vi sceptra tenenda lovi. 
venit et in terras : eoluerunt Romulus illam 

et Numa, mox alii, tempore quisque sue. 

^ nee latus Oceano quisquam deus advena iunxit. This 
is the reading of almost all the mss.^ except that A has lacus 
for latus, and that many of them {including UXM) read et 
for nee. 

^ The best manuscript {A) ends with this line. Hence- 
forward the principal manuscript is U {codex Ursinianus). 


FASTI, V. 21-48 

took the outer side of Ocean," and Themis was often 
relegated to the lowest place, until Honour and 
comely Reverence with her calm look united in law- 
ful wedlock. From that union sprang Majesty, who 
regulates the whole world, and who was great on 
the very day she was born. Without delay she 
took her seat high in the midst of Olympus, a golden 
figure far seen in purple vest. With her sat Modesty 
and Fear. You might see every divinity modelling 
his aspect upon hers. Straightway respect for 
dignities made its way into their minds ; the worthy 
got their due, and nobody thought much of himself. 
This state of things in heaven lasted for many a 
year, till fate banished the elder god from heaven's 
citadel. Earth brought forth the Giants,^ a fierce 
brood, enormous monsters, who durst assault Jove's 
mansion ; she gave them a thousand hands, and 
snakes for legs, and said, ' Take arms against the 
great gods.' They set themselves to pile up the 
mountains to the topmost stars and to harass great 
Jupiter in war. From heaven's citadel Jupiter 
hurled thunderbolts and turned the ponderous 
weights upon their movers. These weapons of the 
gods protected Majesty well ; she survived and has 
been worshipped ever since. Hence she sits beside 
Jupiter, she is Jupiter's most faithful guardian ; she 
assures to him his sceptre's peaceful tenure. She 
came also to earth . Romulus and Numa worshipped 
her, and others after them, each in his time. She 

" For latus claudere or tegere^ to take the left hand 
in walking together {i.e. to be exterior) ; originally to defend 
the unshielded side, then a mode of honour (c/. 68 below). 
Ocean and Themis were among the primaeval deities. 

» See iii. 439. 



ilia patres in honore pio matresque tuetur, 
50 ilia comes pueris virginibusque venit, 
ilia datos fasces commendat eburque curule, 

ilia coronatis alta triumphat equis." 
finierat voces Polyhymnia : dicta probarunt 

Clioque et curvae scita Thalia lyrae. 
55 excipit Uranie : fecere silentia cunctae, 

et vox audiri nulla nisi ilia potest. 
" magna fuit quondam capitis reverentia cani, 

inque suo pretio ruga senilis erat. 
Martis opus iuvenes animosaque bella gerebant 
60 et pro dis aderant in statione suis : 
viribus ilia minor nee habendis utilis armis 

consilio patriae saepe ferebat opem. 
nee nisi post annos patuit tunc curia seros, 

nomen et aetatis mite senatus erat. 
65 iura dabat populo senior, finitaque certis 

legibus est aetas, unde petatur honor ; 
et medius iuvenum, non indignantibus ipsis, 

ibat et interior, si comes unus erat. 
verba quis auderet coram sene digna rubore 
70 dicere ? censuram longa senecta dabat. 
Romulus hoc vidit selectaque pectora patres 

dixit : ad hos urbis summa relata novae, 
hinc sua maiores tribuisse vocabula Maio 

tang or et aetati consuluisse suae. 
75 et Numitor dixisse potest * da, Romule, mensem 

hunc senibus ' nee avum sustinuisse nepos. 
nee leve propositi pignus successor honoris 

Junius, a iuvenum nomine dictus, habet." 

*• The first such law was passed in 180 b.c. by L. Villius. 

'' Tangor seems to be used for " I am influenced," inducor 
nt credam : compare Tac. Ann. iv. 57 " permoveor (ut 
quaeram) num . . . verius sit." 

FASTI, V. 49-78 

keeps fathers and mothers in honour due ; she 
bears boys and maidens company ; she enhances the 
Hctor's rods and the ivory chair of office ; she rides 
aloft in triumph on the festooned steeds." 

^^ Polyhymnia ended. CUo and Thalia, mistress of 
the curved lyre, approved her words. Urania took 
up the tale ; all kept silence, and not a voice but 
hers could be heard. " Great was of old the rever- 
ence for the hoary head, and wrinkled eld was valued 
at its true worth. Martial exploits and doughty 
wars were work for youths, who in defence of their 
own gods kept watch and ward. In strength un- 
equal, and for arms unfit, age often stood the country 
in good stead by its advice. The senate-house was 
then open only to men of mature years, and the very 
name of senate signified a ripe old age. The elders 
legislated for the people, and certain laws defined 
the age at which office might be sought.** An 
elder man used to walk between younger men, 
at which they did not repine, and if he had only 
one companion, the elder walked on the inner side. 
Who would dare to talk bawdy in the presence of an 
old man ? Old age conferred a right of censor- 
ship. This Romulus perceived, and on the men of 
his choice he bestowed the title of Fathers : on them 
the government of the new city was conferred. 
Hence I incline to think ^ that the elders {maiores) gsive 
their own name to the month of May, and that in doing 
so they had their own age in view. And Numitor 
may have said, * Romulus, grant this month to the 
old men,' and the grandson may not have been able 
to resist his grandsire. No shght proof of the 
proposed honour is furnished by the next month, the 
month of June, which is named after young men 



tunc sic, neglectos hedera redimita capillos, 
80 prima sui coepit Calliopea chori : 

" duxerat Oceanus quondam Titanida Tethyn, 

qui terram liquidis, qua patet, ambit aquis. 

hinc sata Pleione cum caelifero Atlante 

iungitur, ut fama est, Pleiadasque parit. 

86 quarum Maia suas forma superasse sorores 

traditur et summo concubuisse lovi. 

haec enixa iugo cupressiferae Cyllenes, 

aetherium volucri qui pede carpit iter. 
Arcades hunc Ladonque rapax et Maenalus ingens 
90 rite colunt, luna credita terra prior, 
exul ab Arcadia Latios Evander in agros 

venerat, impositos attuleratque deos. 
hie, ubi nunc Roma est, orbis caput, arbor et herbae 
et paucae pecudes et casa rara fuit. 
95 quo postquam ventum est, * consistite ! ' praescia 
' nam locus imperii rus erit istud ' ait. 
et matri et vati paret Nonacrius heros 

inque peregrina constitit hospes humo, 
sacraque multa quidem sed Fauni prima bicornis 
100 has docuit gentes ahpedisque dei. 

semicaper, coleris cinctutis, Faune, Lupercis, 

cum lustrant celebres vellera secta vias. 
at tu materno donasti nomine mensem, 
inventor curvae, furibus apte, fidis. 
106 nee pietas haec prima tua est : septena putaris, 
Pleiadum numerum, fila dedisse lyrae." 

" See iv. 169. » See i. 469. 

" Nonacris, a city of Arcadia. * Mercury (Hermes). 

• See above, ii. 267, and Appendix, p. 390. 

FASTI, V. 79-106 

(iuvenes)." Then Calliope, her unkempt hair 
bound up with ivy, thus began, first of her choir : 
" Tethys, the Titaness, was wedded of old by 
Ocean, who encompasses the earth, far as it 
stretches, with his flowing waters. Their daughter 
Pleione, as report has it, was united to Atlas, 
who upholds the sky, and she gave birth to the 
Pleiades.'* Of them Maia is said to have surpassed 
her sisters in beauty and to have lain with sovran 
Jove. She on the ridge of Mount Cyllene, wooded 
with cypresses, gave birth to him who speeds through 
the air on winged foot. Him the Arcadians, and 
hurrying Ladon, and huge Maenalus — that land 
accounted older than the moon^ — worship with 
honours due. An exile from Arcadia, Evander came 
to the Latin fields and brought his gods on shipboard. 
On the spot where now stands Rome, the capital of 
the world, there were trees, and grass, and a few 
sheep, and here and there a cottage. When they 
had come hither, * Halt ye,' said his prophetic 
mother, ' for that rural scene will be a place of 
empire.* The Nonacrian '^ hero obeyed the prophetess 
his mother, and halted as a stranger in a foreign land. 
He taught the natives many sacred rites, but first 
of all the rites of two-horned Faunus and of the 
wing-footed god.'* Faunus, thou half-goat god, thou 
art worshipped by the Luperci in their loin-cloths 
what time the severed hides purify the crowded 
streets.* But thou didst bestow thy mother's name 
upon the month, O thou inventor of the curved 
lyre, patron of thieves .•* Nor was this the first proof 
that thou didst give of thine affection : thou art 
supposed to have given to the lyre seven strings, 
the number of the Pleiades." Calliopea ended in 



haec quoque desierat : laudata est voce sororum. 
quid faciam ? turbae pars habet omnis idem, 
gratia Pieridum nobis aequaliter adsit, 
110 nullaque laudetur plusve minus ve mihi. 

1. [A • K • MAI • NPlvdi] 2. [BF lvdi] 

Ab love surgat opus, prima mihi nocte videnda 

Stella est in cunas officiosa lovis : 
nascitur Oleniae signum pluviale Capellae ; 
ilia dati caelum praemia lactis habet. 
115 Nais Amalthea, Cretaea nobilis Ida, 
dicitur in silvis occuluisse lovem. 
huic fuit haedorum mater formosa duorum, 

inter Dictaeos conspicienda greges, 
cornibus aeriis atque in sua terga recurvis, 
120 ubere, quod nutrix posset habere lovis. 
lac dabat ilia deo. sed fregit in arbore cornu 
truncaque dimidia parte decoris erat. 
• sustuUt hoc nymphe cinxitque recentibus herbis 

et plenum pomis ad lovis ora tulit. 
125 ille ubi res caeli tenuit solioque paterno 
sedit, et invicto nil love maius erat, 
sidera nutricem, nutricis fertile cornu 

fecit, quod dominae nunc quoque nomen habet. 
praestitibus Maiae Laribus videre Kalendae 
130 aram constitui parvaque signa deum : 

voverat ilia quidem Curius : sed multa^ vetustas 

^ voverat UM^rn^: struxerat one S'{cited by Heinsius): 
ara erat DXM^m^BC and many 5" : vota erat one S~ : arserat 
H. Peter {following M. Haupt and H. Jordan): ars erat 
Merkel^. curius tJm?-'. curibus DXM^m^: laribus M^S'. 
multa Xni^C and some b : longa UDMm^ and most mss. 

" Apparent morning rising of Capella was on April 7. 

FASTI, V. 107-131 

her turii and was praised by the voices of her sisters. 
What am I to do ? Each side has the same number 
of votes. May the favour of all the Muses alike 
attend me, and let me never praise anyone of them 
more or less than the rest. 

Kal. Mai. 1st 

^^^ Begin the work with Jupiter. On the first night 
is visible the star that tended the cradle of Jupiter ^ ; 
the rainy sign of the Olenian ^ She-goat rises. She 
has her place in the sky as a reward for the milk she 
gave the babe. The Naiad Amalthea, famous on 
the Cretan Mount Ida, is said to have hidden Jupiter 
in the woods. She owned a she-goat, conspicuous 
among the Dictaean flocks, the fair dam of two kids ; 
her airy horns bent over on her back ; her udder was 
such as the nurse of Jove might have. She suckled 
the god. But she broke a horn on a tree, and was 
shorn of half her charm. The nymph picked it up, 
wrapped it in fresh herbs, and carried it, full of 
fruit, to the lips of Jove. He, when he had gained 
the kingdom of heaven and sat on his father's throne, 
and there was nothing greater than unconquered 
Jove, made his nurse and her horn of plenty into 
stars : the horn still keeps its mistress' name." 

^29 The Calends of May witnessed the foundation 
of an altar to the Guardian Lares, together with small 
images of the gods. Curius indeed had vowed 
them, but length of time destroys many things, 

* Perhaps from Olene in Achaea. 

" The horn of Amalthea, or cornucopiae, "Horn of Plenty," 
which was supposed to produce for its possessor whatever 
he wished. 



destruit, et saxo longa senecta nocet. 
causa tamen positi fuerat cognominis illis, 

quod praestant oculis omnia tuta suis. 
135 stant quoque pro nobis et praesunt moenibus urbis 

et sunt praesentes auxiliumque ferunt. 
at canis ante pedes saxo fabricatus eodem 

stabat : quae standi cum Lare causa fuit ? 
servat uterque domum, domino quoque fidus uterque : 
140 compita grata deo, compita grata cani. 
exagitant et Lar et turba Diania fures ; 

pervigilantque Lares per vigilant que canes, 
bina gemellorum quaerebam signa deorum 

viribus annosae facta caduca morae : 
145 mille Lares Geniumque ducis, qui tradidit illos, 

urbs habet, et vici numina trina colunt. 
quo feror ? Augustus mensis mihi carminis huius 

ius habet : interea Diva canenda Bona est. 
est moles nativa loco, res nomina fecit : 
150 appellant Saxum ; pars bona montis ea est. 
huic Remus institerat frustra, quo tempore fratri 

prima Palatinae signa dedistis aves. 
templa Patres illic oculos exosa viriles 

leniter acclini constituere iugo. 
155 dedicat haec veteris Clausorum nominis heres, 

virgineo nullum corpore passa virum : 
Livia restituit, ne non imitata maritum 

esset et ex omni parte secuta suum. 

« Praestites, " guardians," because they " stand before " 
and so guard. 

^ Lares Compitales. 

<= Augustus made 265 vici in Rome, and each had a 
shrine of the Lares Compitales. The Lares were two ; and 
the figure of Augustus was set up with them. 

** The Good Goddess was formerly an Earth-goddess. 


FASTI, V. 132-168 

and age prolonged wears out a stone. The reason 
for the epithet* apphed to them is that they 
guard all things by their eyes. They also stand for 
us, and preside over the city walls, and they are 
present and bring us aid. But a dog, carved out of 
the same stone, used to stand before their feet. 
What was the reason for its standing with the Lar ? 
Both guard the house : both are faithful to their 
master : cross-roads are dear to the god,^ cross-roads 
are dear to dogs : the Lar and Diana's pack give 
chase to thieves ; and wakeful are the Lares, and 
wakeful too are dogs. I sought for the images of 
the twin gods, but by the force of yearlong time they 
had decayed. In the city there are a thousand 
Lares, and the Genius of the chief, who handed them 
over to the public ; the parishes worship the three 

1*7 Whither do I stray ? The month of August 
has a rightful claim to that subject of my verse : 
meantime the Good Goddess ^ must be the theme of 
my song. There is a natural knoll, which gives its 
name to the place ; they call it the Rock * ; it forms 
a good part of the hill. On it Remus took his stand 
in vain, what time, birds of the Palatine, ye did vouch- 
safe the first omens to his brother. There, on the 
gentle slope of the ridge, the Senate founded a 
temple which abhors the eyes of males. It was 
dedicated by an heiress of the ancient name of the 
Clausi, who in her virgin body had never known a 
man : ^ Li via restored it, that she might imitate her 
husband and follow him in everything. 

Men were not allowed to enter her temple. See Appendix, 
p. 423. * The peak of the Aventine. 

^ See iv. 305 note. Livia is the wife of Augustus. 



Postera cum roseam pulsis Hyperionis astris 
160 in matutinis lampada toilet equis, 

frigidus Argestes summas mulcebit aristas, 

candidaque a Calabris vela dabuntur aquis. 
at simul inducent obscura crepuscula noetem, 
pars Hyadum toto de grege nulla latet. 
165 ora micant Tauri septem radiantia flammis, 
navita quas Hyadas Graius ab imbre vocat ; 
pars Bacchum nutrisse putat, pars credidit esse 

Tethyos has neptes Oceanique senis. 
nondum stabat Atlas humeros oneratus Olympo, 
170 cum satus est forma conspiciendus Hyas ; 
hunc stirps Oceani maturis nixibus Aethra 
edidit et nymphas, sed prior ortus Hyas. 
dum nova lanugo est, pavidos formidine cervos 
terret, et est illi praeda benigna lepus. 
175 at postquam virtus annis adolevit, in apros 
audet et hirsutas comminus ire leas, 
dumque petit latebras fetae catulosque leaenae, 

ipse fuit Libycae praeda cruenta ferae, 
mater Hyan et Hyan maestae flevere sorores 
180 cervicemque polo suppositurus Atlas, 

victus uterque parens tamen est pietate sororum : 
ilia dedit caelum, nomina fecit Hyas. 

" He alludes to the derivation from 5s, whence they were 
called suculae. 

^ True morning rising was on May 16, apparent June 9; 
true evening setting. May 3. 


FASTI, V. 159-182 

VI. NoN. 2nd 

159 When next Hyperion's daughter on the steeds 
of morn shall lift her rosy lamp, and the stars are put 
to flight, the cold north-west wind will sleek the top- 
most corn-ears, and white sails will put out from 
Calabrian waters. But no sooner shall the dusk of 
twilight lead on the night, than no single part of 
the whole flock <* of the Hyades will be invisible.^ The 
head of the Bull sparkles radiant with seven flames, 
which the Grecian sailor calls the Hyades after the 
word for rain (hyein). Some think that they nursed 
Bacchus ; some believe that they are the grand- 
daughters of Tethys and old Ocean. Not yet did 
Atlas stand bearing the burden of Olympus upon 
his shoulders when Hyas was born, of loveHness 
far-seen ; to him and to the nymphs did Aethra, 
of the stock of Ocean, give birth in due time, but 
Hyas was the elder. While the down was fresh 
upon his cheeks, he was the terror of the bucks that 
sliied at his snares, and he was glad to bag a hare. 
But when with his years his manly spirit grew, he 
dared to close with boars and shaggy lionesses, and 
while he sought out the lair and the whelps of a 
lioness with young, he himself fell a blood-stained 
prey to the Libyan brute. For Hyas his mother 
wept, and for Hyas his sad sisters, and Atlas, soon 
to bow his neck to the burden of the pole, yet 
the love of the sisters exceeded that of both parents : 
it won for them a place in the sky, but Hyas gave 
them their name (of Hyades). 



** Mater, ades, florum, ludis celebranda iocosis 1 

distuleram partes mense priore tuas. 
185 incipis Aprili, transis in tempora Mai : 

alter te fugiens, cum venit, alter habet. 
cum tua sint cedantque tibi confinia mensum, 

convenit in laudes ille vel ille tuas. 
Circus in hunc exit clamataque palma theatris : 
190 hoc quoque cum Circi munere carmen eat. 
ipsa doce, quae sis. hominum sententia fallax : 

optima tu proprii nominis auctor eris." 
sic ego. sic nostris respondit diva rogatis 

(dum loquitur, vernas efflat ab ore rosas) : 
195 ** Chloris eram, quae Flora vocor : corrupta Latino 

nominis est nostri littera Graeca sono. 
Chloris eram, nymphe campi felicis, ubi audis 

rem fortunatis ante fuisse viris. 
quae fuerit mihi forma, grave est narrare modestae 
200 sed generum matri repperit ilia deum. 

ver erat, errabam : Zephyrus conspexit, abibam. 

insequitur, fugio : fortior ille fuit, 
et dederat fratri Boreas ius omne rapinae 

ausus Erechthea praemia ferre domo. 
205 vim tamen emendat dando mihi nomina nuptae, 

inque meo non est ulla querella toro. 
vere fruor semper : semper nitidissimus annus, 

arbor habet frondes, pabula semper humus, 
est mihi fecundus dotalibus hortus in agris : 

" The Floralia extended over six days, April 28 to May 3. 

*• Flora is obviously from flos, and has nothing to do with 

" Boreas carried off Oreithyia, daughter of Erechtheus. 

FASTI, V. 183-209 

V. NoN. Srd 

183 " Come, Mother of Flowers, that we may* 
honour thee with merry games ; last month I put 
off giving thee thy due. Thou dost begin in April 
and passest into the time of May " ; the one month 
claims thee as it flies, the other as it comes. Since 
the borders of the months are thine and appertain 
to thee, either of the two is a fitting time to sing 
thy praises. The games of the circus and the victor's 
palm, acclaimed by the spectators, fall in this 
month ; let my song run side by side with the 
shows in the circus. Tell me thyself who thou art ; 
the opinion of men is fallacious ; thou wilt be the 
best voucher of thine own name." 

^^^ So I spoke, and the goddess answered my 
question thus, and while she spoke, her lips breathed 
vernal roses : "I who now am called Flora was 
formerly Chloris : a Greek letter of my name is 
corrupted in the Latin speech.^ Chloris I was, a 
nymph of the happy fields where, as you have heard, 
dwelt fortunate men of old. Modesty shrinks from 
describing my figure ; but it procured the hand of 
a god for my mother's daughter. 'Twas spring, 
and I was roaming ; Zephyr caught sight of me ; 
I retired ; he pursued and I fled ; but he was the 
stronger, and Boreas had given his brother full right 
of rape by daring to carry off the prize from the 
house of Erechtheus.*' However, he made amends 
for his violence by giving me the name of bride, and 
in my marriage-bed I have naught to complain of. 
I enjoy perpetual spring; most buxom is the year 
ever ; ever the tree is clothed with leaves, the ground 
with pasture. In the fields that are my dower, I 



210 aura fovet, liquidae fonte rigatur aquae, 
hunc meus implevit generoso flore maritus 
atque ait * arbitrium tu, dea, floris habe.* 
saepe ego digestos volui numerare colores 
nee potui : numero copia maior erat. 
215 roscida cum primum foliis excussa pruina est, 
et variae radiis intepuere comae, 
conveniunt pictis incinctae vestibus Horae 

inque leves calathos munera nostra legunt. 
protinus accedunt Charites nectuntque coronas 
220 sertaque caelestes implicitura comas. 

prima per immensas sparsi nova semina gentes : 

unius tellus ante coloris erat. 
prima Therapnaeo feci de sanguine florem, 
et manet in folio scripta querella suo. 
225 tu quoque nomen habes cultos, Narcisse, per hortos, 
infelix, quod non alter et alter eras, 
quid Crocon aut Attin referam Cinyraque creatum, 

de quorum per me volnere surgit honor ? 
Mars quoque, si nescis, per nostras editus artes : 
230 luppiter hoc, ut adhuc, nesciat usque, precor. 
sancta lovem luno, nata sine matre Minerva, 

officio doluit non eguisse suo. 
ibat, ut Oceano quereretur facta mariti ; 
restitit ad nostras fessa labore fores. 
235 quam simul aspexi, ' quid te, Saturnia,' dixi 

« Purple iris, with marks of AI (alaX) : said to have sprung 
from the blood of Hyacinthus, slain by Apollo. Therapnaean 
= Spartan, as Therapne was a town in Laconia and Hya 
cinthus was the son of the Spartan King Amyclas. See 
Met, X. 162-219. 

" Narcissus, a beautiful youth, died for love of his own 
image reflected in a pool. See Met. iii. 402-510. 

FASTI, V. 210-235 

have a fruitful garden, fanned by the breeze and 
watered by a spring of running water. This garden 
my husband filled with noble flowers and said, 
* Goddess, be queen of flowers.' Oft did I wish to 
count the colours in the beds, but could not ; the 
number was past counting. Soon as the dewy rime 
is shaken from the leaves, and the varied foliage is 
warmed by the sunbeams, the Hours assemble, clad 
in dappled weeds, and cull my gifts in light 
baskets. Straightway the Graces draw near, and 
twine garlands and wreaths to bind their heavenly 
hair. I was the first to scatter new seeds among the 
countless peoples ; till then the earth had been of 
but one colour. I was the first to make a flower out of 
Therapnaean blood, and on its petals the lament 
remains inscribed." Thou, too. Narcissus, hast a 
name in the trim gardens, unhappy thou in that thou 
hadst not a double of thyself.^ What need to tell 
of Crocus," and Attis,** and the son of Cinyras,* from 
whose wounds by my art doth beauty spring ? Mars, 
too, was brought to the birth by my contrivance ; 
perhaps you do not know it, and I pray that Jupiter, 
who thus far knows it not, may never know it. Holy 
Juno^ grieved that Jupiter had not needed her 
services when Minerva was born without a mother. 
She went to complain of her husband's doings to 
Ocean ; tired by the journey, she halted at my door. 
As soon as I set eyes on her, ' What brings thee here,' 

* Crocus, another fair youth, who was turned into the 
flower so named. See Met. iv. 283. 

^ Violets were thought to have sprung from the blood of 
his wound. See iv. 223 for the story. 

* Adonis : the red anemone is said to have sprung from 
his blood ; see Met. x. 710-739. 

' That is, Juno Lucina ; see above, iii, 841. 



* attulit ? ' exponit, quern petat ilia locum, 
addidit et causam. verbis solabar amicis : 

' non ' inquit ' verbis cura levanda mea est. 
si pater est factus neglecto coniugis usu 
240 luppiter et solus nomen utrumque tenet, 
cur ego desperem fieri sine coniuge mater 
et par ere intacto, dummodo casta, viro ? 
omnia temptabo latis medicamina terris 
et freta Tartareos excutiamque sinus.' 
245 vox erat in cursu : voltum dubitantis habebam. 

* nescio quid, nymphe, posse videris ' ait. 

ter volui promittere opem, ter lingua retenta est : 
ira lovis magni causa timoris erat. 

* fer, precor, auxilium ! ' dixit * celabitur auctor 
250 et Stygiae numen testificabor aquae.* 

* quod petis, Oleniis ' inquam * mihi missus ab arvis 

flos dabit : est hortis unicus ille meis. 
qui dabat, ** hoc " dixit " sterilem quoque tange 
mater erit." tetigi, nee mora, mater erat.* 
265 protinus haerentem decerpsi poUice florem : 
tangitur et tacto concipit ilia sinu. 
iamque gravis Thracen et laeva Propontidos intrat 

fitque potens voti, Marsque creatus erat. 
qui memor accepti per me natalis * habeto 
260 tu quoque Romulea * dixit * in urbe locum.* 
forsitan in teneris tantum mea regna coronis 
esse putes ? tangit numen et arva meum. 
si bene floruerint segetes, erit area dives ; 

« The great oath of the gods was taken by this water 
" eldest daughter of Oceanus " (Hesiod, Theog. 776). 


FASTI, V. 236-263 

I said, * daughter of Saturn ? ' She set forth her 
journey's goal, adding its reason. I consoled her 
with friendly words. ' My grief, quoth she, * is 
not to be assuaged with words. If Jupiter has 
become a father without the use of a wife, and 
unites both titles in his single person, why should 
I despair of becoming a mother without a husband, 
and of bringing forth without contact with a man, 
always supposing that I am chaste ? I will try all 
the drugs in the wide world, and I will explore the 
seas and the depths of Tartarus.' Her speech would 
have flowed on, but on my face there was a look of 
doubt. * Thou seemest, nymph,' said she, ' to have 
some power to help me.' Thrice did I wish to promise 
help, but thrice my tongue was tied : the anger of 
great Jupiter filled me with fear. ' Help me, I pray,' 
she said, ' the helper's name will be kept secret, and 
I will call on the divinity of the Stygian water to be 
my witness.' ** ' Thy wish,' quoth I, ' will be accom- 
plished by a flower that was sent me from the fields 
of Olenus. It is the only flower of the kind in my 
garden.' He who gave it me said, * Touch also 
with this a barren heifer ; she will be a mother.' 
I touched, and without delay she was a mother. 
Straightway I plucked with my thumb the clinging 
flower and touched Juno, and she conceived when it 
touched her bosom. And now being with child, she 
passed to Thrace and the left shores of the Propontis ; 
her wish was granted, and Mars was born. In memory 
of the birth he owed to me, he said, ' Do thou also 
have a place in the city of Romulus.' Perhaps you 
may think that I am queen only of dainty garlands ; 
but my divinity has to do also with the tilled fields. 
If the crops have blossomed well, the threshing-floor 



si bene floruerit vinea, Bacchus erit ; 
265 si bene floruerint oleae, nitidissimus annus, 

pomaque proventum temporis huius habent. 
flore semel laeso pereunt viciaeque fabaeque, 

et pereunt lentes, advena Nile, tuae. 
vina quoque in magnis operose condita cellis 
270 florent, et nebulae dolia summa tegunt. 

mella meum munus : volucres ego mella daturas 

ad violam et cytisos et thyma cana voco. 
[nos quoque idem facimus tunc, cum iuvenalibus annis 
luxuriant animi, corporaque ipsa vigent.] " 
275 talia dicentem tacitus mirabar. at ilia 
" ius tibi discendi, si qua requiris " ait. 
" die, dea," respondi " ludorum quae sit origo.** 

vix bene desieram, rettulit ilia mihi : 
" cetera luxuriae nondum instrumenta vigebant, 
280 aut pecus aut latam dives habebat humum ; 
hinc etiam locuples, hinc ipsa pecunia dicta est. 

sed iam de vetito quisque parabat opes : 
venerat in morem populi depascere saltus, 
idque diu licuit, poenaque nulla fuit. 
285 vindice servabat nuUo sua publica volgus ; 
iamque in privato pascere inertis erat. 
plebis ad aediles perducta licentia talis 

Publicios : animus defuit ante viris. 
rem populus recipit, multam subiere nocentes : 
290 vindicibus laudi publica cura fuit. 

multa data est ex parte mihi, magnoque favore 

" locuples^ i.e. loco-pies, from locus and the root of plenus, 
first in the sense of owning landed property ; pecunia, from 
pecus. These derivations are correct, for a wonder. 

" L. and Manlius Publicius Malleolus, aediles, 240 B.C. 

FASTI, V. 264-291 

will be piled high ; if the vines have blossomed well, 
there will be wine ; if the olive-trees have blossomed 
well, most buxom will be the year; and the fruitage will 
be according to the time of blossoming. If once the 
blossom is nipped, the vetches and beans wither, and 
thy lentils, O Nile that comest from afar, do likewise 
wither. Wines also bloom, laboriously stored in great 
cellars, and a scum covers their surface in the jars. 
Honey is my gift. 'Tis I who call the winged 
creatures, which yield honey, to the violet, and the 
clover, and the grey thyme. 'Tis I, too, who dis- 
charge the same function when in youthful years 
spirits run riot and bodies are robust." 

2'^^ I silently admired her as she spoke thus. But 
she said, " Thou art free to learn the answers to 
any questions thou mayest put." " Say, goddess," 
I replied, " what is the origin of the games." Scarce 
had I ended when she answered me. " The other 
instruments of luxury were not yet in vogue : the 
rich man owned either cattle or broad lands ; hence 
came the name for rich, and hence the name for 
money itself." But already some amassed wealth 
from unlawful sources : it had become a custom to 
graze the pubHc pastures, the thing was suffered 
long, and no penalty was exacted. Common folk 
had no champion to protect their share in public 
property ; and at last it was deemed the sign 
of a poor spirit in a man to graze his cattle on his 
own land. Such licence was brought to the notice 
of the plebeian aediles, the Publicii^; till then 
men's hearts had failed them.. The case was tried 
before the people : the guilty were fined : the 
champions were praised for their public spirit. 
Part of the fine was given to me ; and the winners 



victores ludos instituere novos. 
parte locant clivum, qui tunc erat ardua rupes : 

utile nunc iter est, Publiciumque vocant." 
295 annua credideram spectacula facta, negavit, 

addidit et dictis altera verba suis : 
" nos quoque tangit honor : festis gaudemus et aris, 

turbaque caelestes ambitiosa sumus. 
saepe deos aliquis peccando fecit iniquos, 
300 et pro delictis hostia blanda fuit ; 

saepe lovem vidi, cum iam sua mittere vellet 

fulmina, ture dato sustinuisse manum. 
at si neglegimur, magnis iniuria poenis 

solvitur, et iustum praeterit ira modum. 
305 respice Thestiaden : flammis absentibus arsit ; 

causa est, quod Phoebes ara sine igne fuit. 
respice Tantaliden : eadem dea vela tenebat ; 

virgo est, et spretos bis tamen ulta focos. 
Hippolyte infelix, velles coluisse Dionen, 
310 cum consternatis diripereris equis. 

longa referre mora est correcta oblivia damnis. 

me quoque Romani praeteriere patres. 
quid facerem, per quod fierem manifesta doloris } 

exigerem nostrae qualia damna notae ? 
315 excidit officium tristi mihi. nulla tuebar 

rura, nee in pretio fertilis hortus erat ; 
lilia deciderant, violas arere videres, 

filaque punicei languida facta croci. 

" A road up the Aventine, made by L. and M. Publicii, 
as aediles, 240 b.c. 

^ Meleager, son of Oeneus, king of Calydon, by Althaea, 
daughter of Thestius. Oeneus had neglected Diana (Artemis), 
and in revenge she sent a boar to ravage Calydon. In a 
dispute, Meleager killed his mother's brothers ; and she in 
revenge burnt a fatal brand upon which his life depended. 
See Met. viii. 270-525. 


FASTI, V. 292-318 

of the suit instituted new games with great applause. 
With part of the fine they contracted for making 
a way up the slope, which then was a steep rock : 
now it is a serviceable road, and they call it the 
Publician road."" I had thought that the shows 
were annual ; the goddess denied it and added to 
her former discourse a second speech. " We, too, are 
touched by honour ; we delight in festivals and altars ; 
we heavenly beings are a greedy gang. Often by 
sinning has a man disposed the gods against him, and 
a sacrificial victim has been a sop for crimes. Often 
have I seen Jupiter, when he was just about to 
launch his thunderbolts, hold his hand on the receipt 
of incense. But if we are neglected, we avenge the 
wrong by heavy penalties, and our wrath exceeds 
just bounds. Remember Thestiades ^ : he was burnt 
by flames afar ; the reason was that no fire blazed 
on Phoebe's altar. Remember Tantalides *' : the same 
goddess detained the fleet ; she is a virgin, yet she 
twice avenged her slighted hearths.** Unhappy Hip- 
polytus,^ fain wouldst thou have worshipped Dione^ 
when thy scared steeds were rending thee asunder ! 
'Twere long to tell of cases of forgetfulness redressed 
by forfeitures. I myself was once neglected by the 
Roman senate. What was I to do ? By what could I 
show my resentment ? What punishment exact for 
the slight put on me ? In my gloom I relinquished 
my office. I guarded not the countryside, and the 
fruitful garden was naught to me. The lilies had 
dropped ; you might see the violets withering, 
and the tendrils of the crimson saffron languishing. 

« Agamemnon, as descended from Tantalus. 
^ In the cases of Oeneus and of Agamemnon. 
* See iv. 265, vi. 737. ' Used for Venus (Aphrodite). 



saepe mihi Zephyrus * dotes corrumpere noli 
320 ipsa tuas ' dixit : dos mihi vilis erat. 
florebant oleae ; venti nocuere protervi : 

florebant segetes ; grandine laesa seges : 
in spe vitis erat ; caelum nigrescit ab Austris, 

et subita frondes decutiuntur aqua. 
326 nee volui fieri nee sum crudelis in ira, 

cura repellendi sed mihi nulla fuit. 
convenere patres et, si bene floreat annus, 

numinibus nostris annua festa vovent. 
annuimus voto. consul cum consule ludos 
330 Postumio Laenas persoluere mihi." 
quaerere conabar, quare lascivia maior 

his foret in ludis liberiorque iocus, 
sed mihi succurrit numen non esse severum 

aptaque deliciis munera ferre deam. 
335 tempora sutilibus cinguntur pota coronis, 

et latet iniecta splendida mensa rosa ; 
ebrius incinctis philyra conviva capillis 

saltat et imprudens utitur arte meri ; 
ebrius ad durum formosae limen amicae 
340 cantat, habent unctae mollia serta comae, 
nulla coronata peraguntur seria fronte, 

nee liquidae vinctis flore bibuntur aquae ; 
donee eras mixtus nullis, Acheloe, racemis, 

gratia sumendae non erat uUa rosae. 
345 Bacchus amat flores : Baccho placuisse coronam 

ex Ariadneo sidere nosse potes. 
scaena levis decet hanc : non est, mihi credite, non est 

ilia coturnatas inter habenda deas. 

« Consuls 173 b.c. 

' Achelous is used for water simply. The meaning is, 
that there is a natural connexion between wine-drinking and 
chaplets of flowers. " See iii. 459-515. 


FASTI, V. 319-348 

Often Zephyr said to me, ' Spoil not thine own dowry/ 
But my dowry was worthless in my sight. The 
olive - trees were in blossom ; the wanton winds 
blighted them : the crops were in blossom ; the 
crop was blasted by the hail : the vines were pro- 
mising ; the sky grew black under the south wind, 
and the leaves were shaken down by a sudden 
shower. I did not will it so, nor am I cruel in my 
anger ; but I did not care to ward off these ills. 
The senate assembled and voted an annual festival 
to my divinity if the year should prove fruitful. I 
accepted the vow. The consuls " Laenas and Postu- 
mius celebrated the games which had been vowed 
to me." 

^^^ I was about to ask why these games are 
marked by greater wantonness and broader jests ; 
but it occurred to me that the divinity is not strait- 
laced, and that the gifts she brings lend them- 
selves to delights. The brows of wassailers are 
wreathed with stitched garlands, and the polished 
table is buried under a shower of roses. Maudlin 
the guest dances, his hair bound with linden bark, 
and all unwitting phes the tipsy art. Maudlin the 
lover sings at the hard threshold of his lady fair : 
soft garlands crown his perfumed locks. No serious 
business does he do whose brow is garlanded ; no 
water of the running brook is quaffed by such as 
twine their hair with flowers : so long as thy stream, 
Achelous, was dashed with no juice of grapes, none 
cared to pluck the rose.^ Bacchus loves flowers ; 
that he delights in a floral crown, you may know 
from Ariadne's clustered stars." A rakish stage fits 
Flora well ; she is not, believe me she is not, to 
be counted among your buskined goddesses. The 



turba quidem cur hos celebret meretricia ludos, 
350 non ex difficili causa petita subest. 

non est de tetricis, non est de magna professis, 

volt sua plebeio sacra patere choro, 
et monet aetatis specie, dum floreat, uti ; 

contemni spinam, cum cecidere rosae. 
355 cur tamen, ut dantur vestes Cerialibus albae, 

sic haec est cultu versicolore decens ? 
an quia maturis albescit messis aristis, 

et color et species floribus omnis inest ? 
annuit, et motis flores cecidere capillis, 
360 accidere in mensas ut rosa missa solet. 
lumina restabant, quorum me causa latebat, 

cum sic errores abstulit ilia meos : 
** vel quia purpureis collucent floribus agri, 

lumina sunt nostros visa decere dies ; 
365 vel quia nee flos est hebeti nee flamma colore, 

atque oculos in se splendor uterque trahit ; 
vel quia deliciis nocturna licentia nostris 

convenit. a vero tertia causa venit.'* 
" est breve praeterea, de quo mihi quaerere restat, 
370 si liceat " dixi : dixit et ilia " licet." 

** cur tibi pro Libycis clauduntur rete leaenis 

imbelles capreae sollicitusque lepus ? " 
non sibi, respondit, silvas cessisse, sed hortos 

arvaque pugnaci non adeunda ferae. 
375 omnia finierat : tenues secessit in auras, 

mansit odor ; posses scire fuisse deam. 
floreat ut toto carmen Nasonis in aevo, 

sparge, precor, donis pectora nostra tuis. 

" That is, hunted in the arena at the Floralia. 

FASTI, V. 349-378 

reason why a crowd of drabs frequents these games is 
not hard to discover. She is none of your glum, none 
of your high-flown ones : she wishes her rites to be 
open to the common herd ; and she warns us to use 
Hfe's flower, while it still blooms ; for the thorn, she 
reminds us, is flouted when the roses have fallen away. 

^^^ But why is it that whereas white robes are 
given out at the festival of Ceres, Flora is neatly 
clad in attire of many colours ? Is it because 
the harvest whitens when the ears are ripe, but 
flowers are of every hue and every shape ? She 
nodded assent and at the motion of her tresses 
the flowers dropped down, as falls the rose cast by 
a hand upon a table. 

3^^ There yet remained the lights, the reason 
whereof escaped me ; when the goddess thus re- 
moved my doubts : " Lights are thought to befit my 
days either because the fields do glow with purple 
flowers ; or because neither flowers nor flames are 
of a dull colour, and the splendour of both attracts 
the eye ; or because nocturnal licence befits my 
revels. The third reason comes nearest the truth." 

369 " There is yet a small matter about which it 
remains, with thy leave, to put a question." " Thou 
hast my leave," said she. " Why, instead of Libyan 
lionesses, are unwarlike roes and shy hares pent 
in thy nets ° ? " She replied that her province 
was not woods, but gardens and fields, where no 
fierce beast may come. 

^'^ Her tale was ended, and she vanished i*nto 
thin air. A fragrance hngered ; you could know a 
goddess had been there. That Naso's lay may 
bloom for aye, O strew, I pray thee, goddess, thy 
boons upon my breast ! 



S. [CC LVD • IN • CIr] 

Nocte minus quarta promet si;a sidera Chiron 
380 semivir et flavi corpore mixtus equi. 

Pelion Haemoniae mons est obversus in Austros : 

summa virent pinu, cetera quercus habet. 
Phillyrides tenuit. saxo stant antra vetusto, 

quae iustum memorant incoluisse senem. 
385 ille manus olim missuras Hectora leto 

creditur in lyricis detinuisse modis. 
venerat Alcides exhausta parte laborum, 

iussaque restabant ultima paene viro. 
stare simul casu Troiae duo fata videres : 
390 hinc puer Aeacides, hinc love natus erat. 
excipit hospitio iuvenem Philyreius heros, 

et causam adventus hie rogat, ille docet. 
respicit interea clavam spoliumque leonis, 

" vir " que ait " his armis, armaque digna viro ! " 
395 nee se, quin horrens auderent tangere saetis 

vellus, Achilleae continuere manus. 
dumque senex tractat squalentia tela venenis, 

excidit et laevo fixa sagitta pede est. 
ingemuit Chiron traxitque e corpore ferrum, 
100 et gemit Alcides Haemoniusque puer. 
ipse tamen lectas Pagasaeis collibus herbas 

temperat et vana volnera mulcet ope : 
virus edax superabat opem, penitusque recepta 

ossibus et to to corpore pestis erat. 

" The Centaur : true evening rising, May 3 ; apparent, 
April 15. '' Thessaly. " Chiron. 

^ The descendant of Aeacus is Achilles. Hercules, " son 
of Jupiter," destroyed Troy, because Laomedon had broken 
faith with him. 

* See 405. Hercules poisoned his arrows with the hydra's 

FASTI, V. 379-404 

V. NoN. 3rd 

^"^^ In less than four nights the semi-human Chiron, 
who is compounded with the body of a tawny horse, 
will put forth his stars." Pelion is a mountain of 
Haemonia ^ wliich looks southward : its top is green 
with pinewoods : the rest is draped with oaks. It 
was the home of Philyra's son.° There remains an 
ancient rocky cave, which they say was inhabited 
by the righteous old man. He is believed to have 
employed, in strumming the lyre, those hands 
which were one day to send Hector to death. 
Alcides had come after accomphshing a part of his 
labours, and little but the last orders remained for 
the hero to obey. You might see standing by chance 
together the two masters of the fate of Troy, on the 
one side the boyish descendant of Aeacus, on the other 
the son of Jupiter.** The Philyrean hero received 
Hercules hospitably and asked the reason of his 
coming, and Hercules informed him. Meantime 
Chiron looked askance at the club and lion's skin and 
said, " Man worthy of those arms, and arms worthy 
the man ! " Nor could Achilles keep his hands from 
daring to touch the skin all shaggy with bristles. 
And while the old man fingered the shafts clotted 
with poison,* one of the arrows fell out of the quiver 
and stuck in his left foot. Chiron groaned and drew 
the steel from his body ; and Alcides groaned, and 
so did the Haemonian boy. The centaur himself, how- 
ever, compounded herbs gathered on the Pagasaean 
hills and assuaged the wounds by bootless remedies ; 
but the gnawing poison defied all remedies, and 
the bane soaked into the bones and the whole body. 
L 289 


406 sanguine centauri Lernaeae sanguis echidnae 

mixtus ad auxilium tempora nulla dabat. 
stabat, ut ante patrem, lacrimis perfusus Achilles : 

sic flendus Peleus, si moreretur, erat. 
saepe manus aegras manibus fingebat amicis 
410 (morum, quos fecit, praemia doctor habet), 
oscula saepe dedit, dixit quoque saepe iacenti 

** vive, precor, nee me, care, relinque, pater ! '* 
nona dies aderat, cum tu, iustissime Chiron, 

bis septem stellis corpora cinctus eras. 

4. [DC] 5 

415 Hunc Lyra curva sequi cuperet, sed idonea nondum 
est via : nox aptum tertia tempus erit. 

6. FG 

Scorpios in caelo, cum eras lucescere Nonas 
dicimus, a media parte notandus erit. 

7. G NON • N 8. HF 9- A LEM • N 

Hine ubi protulerit Formosa ter Hesperus ora, 
420 ter dederint Phoebo sidera victa locum, 
ritus erit veteris, nocturna Lemuria, sacri : 

inferias tacitis manibus ilia dabunt. 
annus erat brevior, nee adhuc pia februa norant, 
nee tu dux mensum, lane biformis, eras : 
425 iam tamen extincto cineri sua dona ferebant, 

" The constellation of Chiron. 

'' True evening rising, April 23 ; apparent, April 15. 
* True morning setting, April 26 ; apparent, May 13. 
But there were many stars in it. 
** See Appendix, p. 424. 


FASTI, V. 405-426 

The blood of the Lernaean hydra, mingled with 
the centaur's blood, left no time for rescue. Achilles, 
bathed in tears, stood before him as before a father ; 
so would he have wept for Peleus at the point of 
death. Often he fondled the feeble hands with 
his own loving hands ; the teacher reaped the reward 
of the character he had moulded. Often Achilles 
kissed him, and often said to him as he lay there, 
" Live, I pray thee, and do not forsake me, dear 
father." The ninth day was come when thou, most 
righteous Chiron, didst gird thy body with twice 
seven stars." 

III. NoN. 5th 

*^^ The curved Lyre ^ would wish to follow the 
Centaur, but the road is not yet clear. The third 
night will be the proper time. 

Pr. Non. 6th 

*^' The Scorpion <= will be visible from its middle 
in the sky, when we say that to-morrow the Nones 
will dawn. 

VII. Id. 9th 

419 When from that day the Evening Star shall 
thrice have shown his beauteous face, and thrice 
the vanquished stars shall have retreated before 
Phoebus, there will be celebrated an olden rite, 
the nocturnal Lemuria ^ : it will bring offerings to 
the silent ghosts. The year was formerly shorter, 
and the pious rites of purification (Jebrud) were 
unknown, and thoii, two-headed Janus, wast not 
the leader of the months. Yet even then people 
brought gifts to the ashes of the dead, as their 



compositique nepos busta piabat avi. 
mensis erat Maius, maiorum nomine diet us, 

qui partem prisci nunc quoque moris habet. 
nox ubi iam media est somnoque silentia praebet, 
430 et canis et variae conticuistis aves, 

ille memor veteris ritus timidusque deorum 

surgit (habent gemini vincula nulla pedes) 
signaque dat digitis medio cum pollice iunctis, 

occurrat tacito ne levis umbra sibi. 
435 cumque manus puras fontana perluit unda, 

vertitur et nigras accipit ante fabas 
aversusque iacit ; sed dum iacit, " haec ego mitto, 

his " inquit " redimo meque meosque fabis." 
hoc novies dicit nee respicit : umbra putatur 
440 colligere et nullo terga vidente sequi. 

rursus aquam tangit Temesaeaque eonerepat aera 

et rogat, ut tectis exeat umbra suis. 
cum dixit novies " Manes exite paterni,'* 

respicit et pure sacra peracta putat. 
445 dicta sit unde dies, quae nominis extet origo, 

me fugit : ex aliquo est invenienda deo. 
Pleiade nate, mone, virga venerande potenti : 

saepe tibi est Stygii regia visa lovis. 
venit adoratus Caducifer. accipe causam 
450 nominis : ex ipso est cognita causa deo. 
Romulus ut tumulo fraternas condidit umbras, 

et male veloci iusta soluta Remo, 

* The charm to avert the evil eye ; it is called in Italian 
** the fig," lafica or mano fica. 

^ Copper mines near Temesa in Bruttium. 

* Hermes (Mercury), son of Maia. 


FASTI, V. 426-452 

due, and the grandson paid his respects to the 
tomb of his buried grandsire. It was the month 
of May, so named after our forefathers (maiores), 
and it still retains part of the ancient custom. 
When midnight has come and lends silence to sleep, 
and dogs and all ye varied fowls are hushed, the 
worshipper who bears the olden rite in mind and 
fears the gods arises ; no knots constrict his feet ; 
and he makes a sign with his thumb in the middle 
of his closed fingers," lest in his silence an unsub- 
stantial shade should meet him. And after washing 
his hands clean in spring water, he turns, and first 
he receives black beans and throws them away with 
face averted ; but while he throws them, he says : 
" These I cast ; with these beans I redeem me and 
mine." This he says nine times, without looking 
back : the shade is thought to gather the beans, 
and to follow unseen behind. Again he touches 
water, and clashes Temesan ^ bronze, and asks the 
shade to go out of his house. When he has said 
nine times, " Ghosts of my fathers, go forth ! " he 
looks back, and thinks that he has duly performed 
the sacred rites. 

445 Why the day was called Lemuria, and what 
is the origin of the name, escapes me ; it is for some 
god to discover it. Son of the Pleiad,'' thou reverend 
master of the puissant wand, inform me : oft hast 
thou seen the palace of the Stygian Jove. At my 
prayer the Bearer of the Herald's Staff (Caducifer) 
was come. Learn the cause of the name ; the god 
himself made it known. When Romulus had buried 
his brother's ghost in the grave, and the obsequies 
had been paid to the too nimble Remus, un- 



Faustulus infelix et passis Acca capillis 

spargebant lacrimis ossa perusta suis. 
455 inde domum redeunt sub prima crepuscula maesti, 

utque erat, in duro procubuere toro. 
umbra cruenta Remi visa est assistere lecto 

atque haec exiguo murmure verba loqui : 
** en ego dimidium vestri parsque altera voti, 
460 cernite, sim qualis, qui modo qualis eram ! 
qui modo, si volucres habuissem regna iubentes, 

in populo potui maximus esse meo, 
nunc sum elapsa rogi flammis et inanis imago : 

haec est ex illo forma relicta Remo ! 
465 heu ubi Mars pater est ? si vos modo vera locuti, 

uberaque expositis ille ferina dedit. 
quem lupa servavit, manus hunc temeraria civis 

perdidit. o quanto mitior ilia fuit ! 
saeve Celer, crudelem animam per volnera reddas, 
470 utque ego, sub terras sanguinulentus eas. 
noluit hoc frater, pietas aequahs in illo est : 

quod potuit, lacrimas manibus ille dedit. 
hunc vos per lacrimas, per vestra alimenta rogate, 

ut celebrem nostro signet honore diem." 
475 mandantem amplecti cupiunt et bracchia tendunt : 

lubrica prensantes efFugit umbra manus. 
ut secum fugiens somnos abduxit imago, 

ad regem voces fratris uterque ferunt. 
Romulus obsequitur, lucemque Remuria dicit 
480 illam, qua positis iusta feruntur avis, 
aspera mutata est in lenem tempore longo 

littera, quae toto nomine prima fuit ; 

« See iii. 55, iv. 854. 
* Who killed Remus, according to Ovid ; see iv. 837. 


FASTI, V. 453-482 

happy Faustulus and Acca," with streaming hair, 
sprinkled the burnt bones with their tears. Then at 
twilight's fall they sadly took the homeward way, 
and flung themselves on their hard couch, just as it 
was. The gory ghost of Remus seemed to stand 
at the bedside and to speak these words in a faint 
murmur : " Look on me, who shared the half, 
the full half of your tender care, behold what I am 
come to. and what I was of late ! A little while 
ago I might have been the foremost of my people, if 
but the birds had assigned the throne to me. Now 
I am an empty wraith, escaped from the flames of 
the pyre ; that is all that remains of the once great 
Remus. Alas, where is my father Mars ? If only 
you spoke the truth, and it was he who sent the 
wild beast's dugs to suckle the abandoned babes. 
A citizen's rash hand undid him whom the she-wolf 
saved ; O how far more merciful was she ! Ferocious 
Celer,^ mayest thou yield up thy cruel soul through 
wounds, and pass like me all bloody underneath the 
earth ! My brother willed not this : his love's a 
match for mine : he gave to my departed soul — 
'twas all he could — his tears. Pray him by your 
tears, by your fosterage, that he would celebrate 
a day by signal honour done to me." As the ghost 
gave this charge, they yearned to embrace him 
and stretched forth their arms ; the slippery shade 
escaped the clasping hands. When the vision fled 
and carried slumber with it, the pair reported to 
the king his brother's words. Romulus complied, 
and gave the name of Remuria to the day on which 
due worship is paid to buried ancestors. In course 
of ages the rough letter, which stood at the beginning 
of the name, was changed into the smooth ; and soon 



mox etiam lemures animas dixere silentum : 

hie sensus verbi, vis ea vocis erat. 
486 fana tamen veteres illis clausere diebus, 

ut nunc ferali tempore operta vides. 
nee viduae taedis eadem nee virginis apta 

tempora : quae nupsit, non diuturna fuit. 
hae quoque de eausa, si te proverbia tangunt, 
490 mense malum Maio nubere volgus ait. 

sed tamen haee tria sunt sub eodem tempore festa 

inter se nulla eontinuata die. 

10. BG 11. G LEM-N 

Quorum si mediis Boeotum Oriona quaeres, 
falsus eris. signi causa canenda mihi. 
495 luppiter et lato qui regnat in aequore frater 
earpebant soeias Mercuriusque vias. 
tempus erat, quo versa iugo referuntur aratra, 

et pronus saturae lac bibit agnus ovis. 
forte senex Hyrieus, angusti eultor agelli, 
600 hos videt, exiguam stabat ut ante casam ; 

atque ita " longa via est, nee tempora longa super- 
dixit " et hospitibus ianua nostra patet." 
addidit et voltum verbis iterumque rogavit : 
parent promissis dissimulantque deos. 
606 tecta senis subeunt nigro deformia fumo ; 
ignis in hesterno stipite parvus erat. 
ipse genu nixus flammas exsuscitat aura 
et promit quassas comminuitque faces, 
stant ealices ; minor inde fabas, holus alter habebat, 

" May 11 was the true evening setting of one of the stars 
of Orion. 


FASTI, V. 483-509 

the souls of the silent multitude were also called 
Lemures : that is the meaning of the word, that is 
the force of the expression. But the ancients shut 
the temples on these days, as even now you see 
them closed at the season sacred to the dead. The 
times are unsuitable for the marriage both of a 
widow and a maid : she who marries then, will not 
Uve long. For the same reason, if you give weight 
to proverbs, common folk say 'tis ill to wed in May. 
But these three festivals fall about the same time, 
though not on three consecutive days. 

V. Id. 11th 

498 If you look for Bocotian Orion on the middle 
of these three days, you will be disappointed. ° I must 
now sing of the cause of the constellation. Jupiter, 
and his brother who reigns in the deep sea, and 
Mercury, were journeying together. It was the 
time when the yoked kine draw home the upturned 
plough, and the lamb lies down and drinks the milk 
of the full ewe. An old man Hyrieus, who cul- 
tivated a tiny farm, chanced to see them as he 
stood before his Httle cottage ; and thus he spoke : 
" Long is the way, but short the hours of daylight 
left, and my door is open to strangers." He enforced 
his words by a look, and again invited them. They 
accepted the offer and dissembled their divinity. 
They passed beneath the old man's roof, begrimed 
with black smoke ; a little fire was ghmmering in 
the log of yesterday. He knelt and blew up the 
flames with his breath, and drawing forth the stumps 
of torches he chopped them up. Two pipkins stood 
on the fire ; the lesser contained beans, the other 



610 et spumat testu pressus uterque suo. 

dumque mora est, tremula dat vina rubentia dextra : 

accipit aequoreus pocula prima deus. 
quae simul exhausit, " da nunc bibat ordine " dixit 
** luppiter." audi to palluit ille love. 
615 ut rediit animus, cultorem pauperis agri 

immolat et magno torret in igne bovem ; 
quaeque puer quondam primis difFuderat annis, 

promit fumoso condita vina cado. 
nee mora, flumineam lino celantibus ulvam, 
520 sic quoque non altis, incubuere toris. 

nunc dape, nunc posito mensae nituere Lyaeo : 

terra rubens crater, pocula fagus erant. 
verba fuere lovis : " siquid fert impetus, opta : 
omne feres." placidi verba fuere senis : 
625 " cara fuit coniunx, primae mihi flore iuventae 
cognita. nunc ubi sit, quaeritis ? urna tegit. 
huic ego iuratus, vobis in verba vocatis, 

* coniugio ' dixi ' sola fruere meo.' 
et dixi et servo, sed enim diversa voluntas 
630 est mihi ; nee coniunx, sed pater esse volo." 
annuerant omnes : omnes ad terga iuvenci 
constiterant — pudor est ulteriora loqui — 
tum superiniecta texere madentia terra ; 
iamque decem menses, et puer ortus erat. 
635 hunc Hyrieus, quia sic genitus, vocat Uriona : 
perdidit antiquum littera prima sonum. 
creverat immensum ; comitem sibi Delia sumpsit, 
ille deae custos, ille satelles erat. 

" The absurd derivation of Orion from oSpov^ " urine," 
explains what had been done upon the hide ; thus Orion 
should have been created without a mother. Various tales 
are told of his death : here he is defender of Latona, the 

FASTI, V. 610-538 

kitchen herDs ; both boiled, each under the pressure 
of its lid. While he waited, he served out red wine 
with shaky hand. The god of the sea received the 
first cup. When he had drained it, " Now serve the 
drink," said he, " to Jupiter in order." At the word 
Jupiter the old man paled. When he recovered 
himself, he sacrificed the ox that ploughed his poor 
land, and he roasted it in a great fire ; and the wine 
which as a boy he had laid up in his early years, he 
brought forth stored in its smoky jar. And straight- 
way they reclined on mattresses stuffed with river 
sedge and covered with linen, but lowly still. The 
table shone, now with the viands, now with the wine 
set down on it : the bowl was of red earthenware, 
the cups were beechen wood. Quoth Jupiter : *' If 
thou hast any fancy, choose : all will be thine." 
The calm old man thus spoke : " I had a dear wife, 
whose love I won in the flower of early youth. 
Where is she now ? you ask. The urn her ashes 
holds. To her I swore, and called you gods to 
witness, * Thou shalt be my only spouse.' I gave 
my word, and I keep it. But a different wish is 
mine : I would be, not a husband, but a father." 
All the gods assented ; all took their stand at the 
bullock's hide — I am ashamed to describe what 
followed — then they covered the reeking hide by 
throwing earth on it : when ten months had passed, 
a boy was born. Him Hyrieus called Urion on 
account of the mode of his begetting : <* the first 
letter of his name has lost its ancient sound. He 
grew to an enormous size ; the Delian goddess took 
him to be her companion ; he was her guardian, he 

goddess who brought forth her twins, Apollo and Artemis, 
in Delos. 



verba movent iram non circumspecta deorum : 
540 " quam nequeam " dixit " vincere, nulla fera est." 
scorpion immisit Tellus : fuit impetus illi 

curva gemelliparae spicula ferre deae ; 
obstitit Orion. Latona nitentibus astris 

addidit et " meriti praemia " dixit " habe." 

12. D N* LVD • MART • IN • CIRC 

646 Sed quid et Orion et cetera sidera mundo 

cedere festinant, noxque coartat iter ? 
quid solito citius liquido iubar aequore toUit 

Candida, Lucifero praeveniente, dies ? 
fallor, an arma sonant ? non fallimur, arma sonabant ; 
650 Mars venit et veniens bellica signa dedit. 
Ultor ad ipse suos caelo descendit honores 

templaque in Augusto conspicienda foro. 
et deus est ingens et opus : debebat in urbe 

non aliter nati Mars habitare sui. 
665 digna Giganteis haec sunt delubra tropaeis : 

hinc fera Gradivum bella movere decet, 
seu quis ab Eoo nos impius orbe lacesset, 

seu quis ab occiduo sole domandus erit. 
prospicit armipotens operis fastigia summi 
560 et probat invictos summa tenere deos. 
prospicit in foribus diversae tela figurae 

armaque terrarum milite victa suo. 
hinc videt Aenean oneratum pondere caro 

et tot luleae nobilitatis avos : 

" See 577. The future Augustus had vowed a temple to 
Mars Ultor, if he should avenge the death of Julius Caesar ; 
this he dedicated in 2 B.C., but on August 1. Augustus had 
built another temple to the same god for the standards re- 
covered from the Parthians in 20 B.C., which Ovid may have 
confused with this. 

FASTI, V. 539-564 

her attendant. Heedless words excite the wrath 
of gods. ** There is no wild beast," said he, " which 
I cannot master." Earth egged on a scorpion : its 
mission was to attack the Goddess Mother of Twins 
with its hooked fangs. Orion threw himself in the 
way. Latona set him among the shining stars, and 
said, "Take thy well-earned reward." 

IV. Id. 12th 

^*5 But why do Orion and the other stars haste to 
withdraw from the sky ? And why does night shorten 
her course ? Why does the bright day, heralded 
by the Morning Star, raise its radiant light faster 
than usual from the watery main ? Do I err, or was 
there a clash of arms ? I err not, there was a clash 
of arms. Mars comes, and at his coming he gave 
the sign of war. The Avenger descends himself 
from heaven to behold his own honours and his 
splendid temple in the forum of Augustus." The god 
is huge, and so is the structure : no otherwise ought 
Mars to dwell in his son's city. That shrine is 
worthy of trophies won from giants ; from it might 
the Marching God fitly open his fierce campaigns, 
whether an impious foe shall assail us from the 
eastern world or whether another will have to be 
vanquished where the sun goes down. The god of 
arms surveys the pinnacles of the lofty edifice, 
and approves that the highest places should be 
filled by the unconquered gods. He surveys on the 
doors weapons of diverse shapes, and arms of lands 
subdued by his soldiery. On this side he sees 
Aeneas laden with his dear burden, and many an 
ancestor of the noble Julian line. On the other side 



665 hinc videt Iliaden humeris ducis arma ferentem, 
claraque dispositis acta subesse viris. 
spectat et Augusto praetextum nomine templum, 

et visum lecto Caesare maius opus, 
voverat hoc iuvenis tunc, cum pia sustulit arma : 
670 a tantis Princeps incipiendus erat. 

ille manus tendens, hinc stanti milite iusto, 

hinc coniuratis, talia dicta dedit : 
" si mihi bellandi pater est Vestaeque sacerdos 
auctor, et ulcisci numen utrumque paro : 
575 Mars, ades et satia scelerato sanguine ferrura, 
stetque favor causa pro meliore tuus. 
templa feres et, me victore, vocaberis Ultor." 

voverat et fuso laetus ab hoste redit. 
nee satis est meruisse semel cognomina Marti i 
680 persequitur Parthi signa retenta manu. 
gens fuit et campis et equis et tuta sagittis 

et circumfusis invia fluminibus. 
addiderant animos Crassorum funera genti, 
cum periit miles signaque duxque simul. 
585 signa, decus belli, Parthus Romana tenebat, 
Romanaeque aquilae signifer hostis erat. 
isque pudor mansisset adhuc, nisi fortibus armis 

Caesaris Ausoniae protegerentur opes, 
ille notas veteres et longi dedecus aevi 
590 sustulit : agnorunt signa recepta suos. 

« The spolia opima taken from Acron. 

* To punish Brutus and Cassius. 

« Julius Caesar, Pontifex Maximus ; see iii. 699. 

" M. Licinius Crassus, killed with his son Publius, and his 
army destroyed, by the Parthians at Carrhae, 53 b.c. 
Augustus recovered the captured standards in 20 b.c. 



FASTI, V. 565-590 

he sees Romulus carrying on his shoulders the arms 
of the conquered leader," and their famous deeds 
inscribed beneath the statues arranged in order. He 
beholds, too, the name of Augustus on the front of 
the temple ; and the building seems to him still 
greater, when he reads the name of Caesar. Augustus 
had vowed it in his youth at the time when he took 
up arms in duty's cause. ^ Deeds so great were 
worthy to inaugurate a prince's reign. While the 
loyal troops stood on the one side, and the 
conspirators on the other, he stretched forth his 
hands and spoke these words : "If my father," 
Vesta's priest, is my warrant for waging war, and 
I do now prepare to avenge both his divinity and 
hers, come. Mars, and glut the sword with knavish 
blood, and grant thy favour to the better cause. 
Thou shalt receive a temple, and shalt be called 
Avenger, when victory is mine." So he vowed, and 
returned rejoicing from the routing of the foe. Nor 
is he content to have earned once for all the surname 
of Avenger for Mars : he tracks down the standards 
detained by the hands of the Parthians. These were 
a nation whom their plains, their horses, and their 
arrows rendered safe, and surrounding rivers made 
inaccessible. The pride of the nation had been 
fostered by the deaths of Crassus and his son, when 
soldiers, general, and standards perished together.*^ 
The Parthians kept the Roman standards, the glory 
of war, and a foe was the standard-bearer of the 
Roman eagle. That shame would have endured till 
now, had not Ausonia's empire been guarded by 
Caesar's powerful arms. He put an end to the old 
reproach, to the disgrace of a w hole generation : the 
recovered standards knew their true owners again. 



quid tibi nunc solitae mitti post terga sagittae, 

quid loca, quid rapidi profuit usus equi, 
Parthe ? refers aquilas, victos quoque porrigis arcus : 

pignora iam nostri nulla pudoris habes. 
595 rite deo templumque datum nomenque bis ulto, 

et meritus voti debita solvit honor, 
sollemnes ludos Circo celebrate, Quirites ! 

non visa est fort em scaena decere deum. 

IS. E LEM • N 

Pliadas aspicies omnes totumque sororum 
600 agmen, ubi ante Idus nox erit una super, 
turn mihi non dubiis auctoribus incipit aestas, 
et tepidi finem tempora veris habent. 

14. FG 

Idibus ora prior stellantia toUere Taurum 

indicat. huic signo fabula nota subest. 
605 praebuit, ut taurus, Tyriae sua terga puellae 

luppiter et falsa cornua fronte tulit. 
ilia iubam dextra, laeva retinebat amictus, 

et timor ipse novi causa decoris erat. 
aura sinus implet. flavos mo vet aura capillos : 
610 Sidoni, sic fueras aspicienda lovi. 

saepe puellares subduxit ab aequore plantas 

et metuit tactus assilientis aquae : 

" Probably he really referred to the Hyades : their true 
morning rising was on May 16 ; apparent, on June 9. 

'' Europa. 

FASTI, V. 591-612 

What now availed thee, thou Parthian, the arrows thou 
art wont to shoot behind thy back ? What availed thy 
deserts ? What the use of the fleet steed ? Thou 
bringest back the eagles ; thou tender est, too, thy 
conquered bows. Now thou hast no tokens of our 
shame. Justly have the temple and the title of 
Avenger been given to the god, who has earned that 
title twice over ; and the well-deserved honour has 
paid the debt incurred by the vow. Quirites, cele- 
brate the solemn games in the Circus : the stage 
seems little to befit a valiant god. 

III. Id. 13th 

^®^ You will behold all the Pleiades, even the whole 
bevy of sisters, when there shall be one night re- 
maining before the Ides. Then summer begins, as 
I learn from sure authorities, and the season of warm 
spring comes to an end. 

Pr. Id. 14th 

^^ The day before the Ides marks the time when 
the Bull lifts his starry front." This constellation is 
explained by a familiar tale. Jupiter in the shape 
of a bull offered his back to the Tyrian maid ^ and 
wore horns on his false brow. She held the bull's 
mane in her right hand, her drapery in her left ; 
and her very fear lent her fresh grace. The breeze 
fills the robe on her bosom, it stirs her yellow hair ; 
Sidonian damsel, thus indeed it became thee to 
meet the gaze of Jove. Oft did she withdraw her 
girlish soles from the sea, and feared the contact of 



saepe deus prudens tergum demisit in undas, 

haereat ut coUo fortius ilia suo. 
616 litoribus tactis stabat sine cornibus ullis 

luppiter inque deum de bove versus erat. 
taurus init caelum ; te, Sidoni, luppiter implet, 

parsque tuum terrae tertia nomen habet. 
hoc alii signum Phariam dixere iuvencam, 
620 quae bos ex homine est, ex bove facta dea. 
turn quoque priscorum virgo simulacra virorum 

mittere roboreo scirpea ponte solet. 
625 fama vetus tunc, cum Saturnia terra vocata est, 

talia fatidici dicta fuisse lovis : 
" falcifero libata seni duo corpora, gentes, 

mittite, quae Tuscis excipiantur aquis : ** 
donee in haec venit Tirynthius arva, quotannis 
630 tristia Leucadio sacra peracta modo ; 

ilium stramineos in aquam misisse Quirites : 

Herculis exemplo corpora falsa iaci. 
pars putat, ut ferrent iuvenes suffragia soli, 

pontibus infirmos praecipitasse senes. 

623 corpora post decies senos qui credidit annos 

624 missa neci, sceleris crimine damnat avos. 

635 Thybri, doce verum. tua ripa vetustior urbe est, 
principium ritus tu bene nosse potes. 

Thybris harundiferum medio caput extulit alveo 
raucaque dimovit talibus ora sonis : 

** haec loca desertas vidi sine moenibus herbas : 

** lo, often identified with Egyptian Isis. 

* The Vestals. See Appendix, p. 425, The Argei. 

" The " lover's leap " at the promontory of Leucas is well 
known. A man used to be cast from it every year ; but all 
possible means were taken to make his fall easy and to save 


FASTI, V. 613-639 

the dashing wave ; often the god knowingly plunged 
his back into the billows, that she might cling the 
closer to his neck. On reaching the shore, Jupiter 
stood without any horns, and the bull was turned 
into the god. The bull passed into the sky : thou, 
Sidonian damsel, wast got with child by Jupiter, 
and a third part of the earth doth bear thy name. 
Others say that this constellation is the Pharian 
heifer, which from a human being was made a cow, 
and from a cow was made a goddess.** 

*2i Then, too, the Virgin ^ is wont to throw the rush- 
made effigies of ancient men from the oaken bridge. 
There is an old tradition, that when the land was 
called Saturnia these words were spoken by sooth- 
saying Jove : " Ye clans, cast into the water of the 
Tuscan river two bodies as a sacrifice to the Ancient 
who bears the sickle." The gloomy rite was per- 
formed, so runs the tale, in the Leucadian manner " 
every year, until the Tirynthian hero came to these 
fields; he cast men of straw into the water, and 
now dummies are thrown after the example set 
by Hercules. Some think that the young men used 
to hurl the feeble old men from the bridges,** in 
order that they themselves alone should have the 
vote. He who believes that after sixty years men 
were put to death, accuses our forefathers of a 
wicked crime. " O Tiber, inform me of the truth : 
thy bank is older than the city : thou canst well 
know the origin of the rite." The Tiber raised his 
reed-crowned head from the mid channel, and opened 
his hoarse mouth to utter these words : " These regions 
I have seen when they were solitary grass-lands 

** The pontes here are the raised passages, through which 
voters used to be ushered into the septa (i. 53). 



640 pascebat sparsas utraque ripa boves, 

et quern nunc gentes Tiberim noruntque timentque, 

tunc etiam pecori despiciendus eram. 
Arcadis Evandri nomen tibi saepe refertur : 
ille meas remis ad vena torsit aquas. 
645 venit et Alcides, turba comitatus Achiva 

(Albula, si memini, tunc mihi nomen erat) : 
excipit hospitio iuvenem Pallantius heros, 

et tandem Caco debita poena venit. 
victor abit secumque boves, Erytheida praedam, 
660 abstrahit. at comites longius ire negant 

(magnaque pars horum desertis venerat Argis) : 
montibus his ponunt spemque laremque suum. 
saepe tamen patriae dulci tanguntur am ore, 
atque aliquis moriens hoc breve mandat opus : 
665 * mittite me in Tiberim, Tiberinis vectus ut undis 
litus ad Inachium pulvis inanis eam.' 
displicet heredi mandati cura sepulchri : 

mortuus Ausonia conditur hospes humo, 
scirpea pro domino Tiberi iactatur imago, 
660 ut repetat Graias per freta longa domos/* 
hactenus, et subiit vivo rorantia saxo 
antra : leves cursum sustinuistis aquae. 

15 G EID • N» 16. HF 17. AC 

18. BC 19. CC 

Clare nepos Atlantis, ades, quem montibus olim 
edidit Arcadiis Pleias una lovi, 

« See i. 469, iv. 65. " See ii. 389. 

* Evander, born at Pallantium in Arcadia. 
" See above, i. 550. 

• Mercury ; he was worshipped by merchants at Rome, as 
the patron of gain. See above, 1. 104. So the Greek Hermes 
of commerce, 'EfjLiro\a2o$. 


FASTI, V. 640-664 

without any city walls : scattered kine pastured on 
either bank ; and I, the Tiber, whom the nations 
now both know and fear, was then a thing to be 
despised even by cattle. You often hear mention 
of the name of Arcadian Evander ^ : he came from 
far and churned my waters with his oars. Alcides 
also came, attended by a troop of Greeks. At that 
time, if I remember aright, my name was Albula.^ 
The Pallantian hero '^ received him hospitably ; and 
Cacus ^ got at last the punishment he deserved. The 
victorious Hercules departed and carried off with 
him the kine, the booty he had taken from Erythea. 
But his companions refused to go farther : a great part 
of them had come from Argos, which they abandoned. 
On these hills they set their hope and their home ; 
yet were they often touched by the sweet love of 
their native land, and one of them in dying gave 
this brief charge : * Throw me into the Tiber, that, 
borne upon his waves, my empty dust may pass to 
the Inachian shore.' His heir disliked the charge 
of sepulture thus laid on him : the dead stranger 
was buried in Ausonian ground, and an effigy of 
rushes was thrown into the Tiber instead of him, 
that it might return to his Greek home across the 
waters wide." Thus far did Tiber speak, then 
passed into the dripping cave of living rock : ye 
nimble waters checked your flow. 

Idus. 15th 

®^^ Gome, thou famed grandson * of Atlas, thou 
whom of old upon the Arcadian mountains one of 
the Pleiads bore to Jupiter. Thou arbiter of peace 



665 pacis et armorum superis imisque deorum 
arbiter, alato qui pede carpis iter, 
laete lyrae pulsu, nitida quoque laete palaestra, 

quo didicit culte lingua docente loqui, 
templa tibi posuere patres spectantia Circum 
670 Idibus : ex illo est haec tibi festa dies. 

te, quicumque suas profitentur vendere merces, 

ture dato, tribuas ut sibi lucra, rogant. 

est aqua Mercurii portae vicina Capenae ; 

si iuvat expertis credere, numen habet. 

676 hue venit incinctus tunica mercator et urna 

purus suffita, quam ferat, haurit aquam. 

uda fit hinc laurus, lauro sparguntur ab uda 

omnia, quae dominos sunt habitura novos ; 
spargit et ipse suos lauro rorante capillos 
680 et peragit solita fallere voce preces : 

" ablue praeteriti periuria temporis," inquit 

" ablue praeteritae perfida verba die. 
sive ego te feci testem falsove citavi 
non audituri numina magna lovis, 
685 sive deum prudens alium divamve fefelli, 
abstulerint celeres improba verba Noti, 
et pateant veniente die periuria nobis, 
nee curent superi si qua locutus ero. 
da modo lucra mihi, da facto gaudia lucro, 
690 et fac, ut emptori verba dedisse iuvet." 
talia Mercurius poscentem ridet ab alto, 
se memor Ortygias surripuisse boves. 

« 495 B.C. 
^ Belonging to Apollo, who was born in Delos (Ortygia). 

FASTI, V. 666-692 

and war to gods above and gods below, thou who 
dost ply thy way on winged foot ; thou who dost 
delight in the music of the lyre, and dost delight 
too in the wrestling-school, ghstening with oil ; thou 
by whose instruction the tongue learns to discourse 
elegantly, the senate founded for thee on the Ides " 
a temple looking towards the Circus : since then 
the day has been thy festival. All who make a 
business of selHng their wares give thee incense and 
beg that thou wouldst grant them gain. There is 
a water of Mercury near the Capene Gate : if you 
care to take the word of those who have tried it, 
there is a divinity in the water. Hither comes the 
merchant with his tunic girt up, and, ceremonially 
pure, draws water in a fumigated jar to carry it 
away. With the water he wets a laurel bough, and 
with the wet bough he sprinkles all the goods that 
soon are to change owners ; he sprinkles, too, his own 
hair with the dripping laurel and recites prayers in 
a voice accustomed to deceive. ** Wash away the 
perjuries of past time," says he, ** wash away my 
glozing words of the past day. Whether I have 
called thee to vidtness, or have falsely invoked the 
great divinity of Jupiter, in the expectation that he 
would not hear, or whether I have knowingly taken 
in vain the name of any other god or goddess, let 
the swift south winds carry away the wicked words, 
and may to-morrow open the door for me to fresh 
perjuries, and may the gods above not care if I shall 
utter any ! Only grant me profits, grant me the 
joy of profit made, and see to it that I enjoy cheating 
the buyer ! " At such prayers Mercury laughs from 
on high, remembering that he himself stole the 
Ortygian ^ kine^ 



20. DC 

At mihi pande, precor, tanto meliora petenti, 

in Geminos ex quo tempore Phoebus eat. 
695 '* cum totidem de mense dies superesse videbis, 

quot sunt Herculei facta laboris " ait. 
" die " ego respondi " causam mihi sideris huius." 

causam facundo reddidit ore deus : 
" abstulerant raptas Phoeben Phoebesque sororem 
700 Tyndaridae fratres, hie eques, ille pugil. 

bella parant repetuntque suas et frater et Idas, 

Leucippo fieri pactus uterque gener. 
his amor, ut repetant, illis, ut reddere noHnt, 

suadet ; et ex causa pugnat uterque pari. 
705 efFugere Oebahdae cursu potuere sequentes, 

sed visum celeri vincere turpe fuga. 
Hber ab arboribus locus est, apta area pugnae : 

constiterant iUic : nomen Aphidna loco, 
pectora traiectus Lynceo Castor ab ense 
710 non expectato volnere pressit humum. 
ultor adest Pollux et Lyncea perforat hasta, 

qua cervix humeros continuata premit. 
ibat in hunc Idas vixque est lovis igne repulsus, 

tela tamen dextrae fulmine rapta negant. 
715 iamque tibi, Pollux, caelum sublime patebat, 

cum * mea ' dixisti ' percipe verba, pater : 
quod mihi das uni caelum, partire duobus : 

" Castor (horseman) and Pollux (boxer), sons of Tyndareus, 
carried off Phoebe and Hilaira, daughters of Leucippus. 
betrothed to Idas and Lynceus. Oebalus was father of 


FASTI, V. 693-717 

XIII. Kal. Ivn. 20th 

^•3 But I put up a far better prayer. Unfold to 
me, I beseech thee, at what time Phoebus passes 
into the sign of the Twins. " When thou shalt see," 
he answered, " that as many days of the month 
remain over as are the labours of Hercules." " Tell 
me," I repHed, " the cause of this constellation." 
The god in answer explained the cause in eloquent 
speech. The brother Tyndarids, the one a horseman, 
the other a boxer, had ravished and carried away 
Phoebe and Phoebe's sister .<* Idas and his brother 
prepare for war and demand the restitution of 
their brides ; for both of them had covenanted 
with Leucippus to be his sons-in-law. Love 
prompts the one pair to demand the restitution, 
the other to refuse it; each pair is spurred on to 
fight by the like motive. The Oebalids might have 
escaped their pursuers by superior speed ; but it 
seemed base to win by rapid flight. There is a 
place free from trees, a suitable ground for a fight : 
they took their stand there : the name of the place 
is Aphidna. Pierced through the breast by the 
sword of Lynceus — a wound he had not looked for 
— Castor fell to the ground. Pollux comes up to 
avenge him, and runs Lynceus through with his 
spear at the point where the neck joins on to and 
presses upon the shoulders. Idas attacked him, 
and scarcely was repulsed by the fire of Jupiter ; 
yet they say that his weapon was not wrested from 
his right hand by the thunderbolt. And already 
the lofty heaven opened its door for thee, Pollux, 
when thou saidst, ** Hear my words, O Father. 
The heaven that thou dost give to me alone, O 



dimidium toto munere maius erit.' 
dixit et alterna fratrem statione redemit. 
720 utile sollicitae sidus utrumque rati." 

21. E AGON-N> 

Ad lanum redeat, qui quaerit, Agonia quid sint : 
quae tamen in fastis hoc quoque tempus habent. 

22. FN 

Nocte sequente diem canis Erigoneius exit : 
est alio signi reddita causa loco. 

23. G TVB • N> 

725 Proxima Volcani lux est, Tubilustria dicunt % 
lustrantur purae, quas facit ille, tubae. 

24. HQ • R • C • F 

Quattuor inde notis locus est, quibus ordine lectis 
vel mos sacrorum vel fuga regis inest. 

** Pollux was born immortal, but Castor mortal ; hence 
Pollux can offer his price and share his immortality with 
Castor. They were worshipped by sailors, as harbingers of 

" See i. 317. 

« Sirius : true morning rising was on July 19 ; apparent, 
August 2. ^ See iii. 849. 

* This was to have come later, but the poem was never 


FASTI, V. 718-728 

share between us two ; one-half the gift will be 
greater than the whole." He spoke, and redeemed 
his brother from death by changing places with him 
alternately. Both stars are helpful to the storm- 
tossed bark." 

XII. Kal. 21st 

'2^ He who would learn what the Agonia are, may 
turn back to January, though they have a place in 
the calendar at this season also.^ 

XI. Kal. 22nd 

'23 In the night that follows the day the dog of 
Erigone rises '^ : I have given the explanation of 
tliis constellation in another place .<* 

X. Kal. 23rd 

'2^ The next day belongs to Vulcan ; they call it 
Tubilustria.* The trumpets which he makes are 
then cleansed and purified. 

IX. Kal. 24th 

'2' The next place is marked by four letters, which, 
read in order, signify either the custom of the 
sacred rites or the FUght of the King.' 

' " Quando Rex Comitiavit Fas." The Regifugium was 
on February 24. The alternative wrongly suggested by Ovid 
is " Quod Rex Comitio Fugerat." See above, i. 54 note. 



25. AC 26. BC 27. CC 28. DC 
29. EC SO. FC 31. GC 

Nee te praetereo, populi Fortuna potentis 
730 Publiea, eui templum luee sequente datum est. 
banc ubi dives aquis acceperit Amphitrite, 
grata lovi fulvae rostra videbis avis. 

Auferet ex oculis veniens aurora Booten, 
continuaque die sidus Hyantis erit. * 

" The Eagle : only one day too late. 


FASTI, V. 729-734 

VIII. Kal. 25th 

729 Nqj, ^u I pg^gg ^j^gg over, thou Public Fortune 
of the powerful people, to whom a temple was 
dedicated next day. When that day shall have 
sunk into Amphitrite's wealth of waters, thou wilt 
see the beak of the tawny bird, dear to Jupiter.** 

VII. Kal. 26th 

'^^ The coming morn will remove Bootes from thy 
sight, and next day the constellation of Hyas will 
be visible. 



Hie quoque mensis habet dubias in nomine causas, 

quae placeant, positis omnibus ipse leges, 
facta canam ; sed erunt qui me finxisse loquantur 

nuUaque mortali numina visa putent. 
6 est deus in nobis ; agitante calescimus illo : 

impetus hie sacrae semina mentis habet. 
fas mihi praecipue voltus vidisse deorum, 

vel quia sum vates, vel quia sacra cano. 
est nemus arboribus densum, secretus ab omni 
10 voce locus, si non obstreperetur aquis. 
hie ego quaerebam, coepti quae mensis origo 

esset, et in cura nominis huius eram. 
ecce deas vidi, non quas praeceptor arandi 

viderat, Ascraeas cum sequeretur oves, 
16 nee quas Priamides in aquosae vallibus Idae 

contulit : ex illis sed tamen una fuit. 
ex illis fuit una, sui germana mariti ; 

haec erat (agnovi) quae stat in arce lovis. 
horrueram tacitoque animum pallore fatebar ; 
20 tum dea, quos fecit, sustulit ipsa metus. 
namque ait " o vates, Romani conditor anni, 

" Hesiod of Ascra : Theogonia 22. 

* The Judgement of Paris, on " many-fountained Ida," 
"1577 TToXvirida^. This una is Juno, " lovis et soror et coniux," 
Virg. Aen. i. 46. The great temple on the Capitol contained 


The explanations of this month's name also are 
doubtful. I will state them all, and you shall 
choose which you please. I'll sing the truth, but 
some will say I lied, and think that no deities were 
ever seen by mortal. There is a god within us. 
It is when he stirs us that our bosom warms ; it is 
his impulse that sows the seeds of inspiration. I 
have a peculiar right to see the faces of the gods, 
whether because 1 am a bard, or because I sing of 
sacred things. There is a grove where trees grow 
thick, a spot sequestered from every sound except 
the purl of water. There I was musing on what 
might be the origin of the month just begun, and 
was meditating on its name. Lo, I beheld the 
goddesses, but not those whom the teacher of 
ploughing beheld when he followed his Ascraean 
sheep " ; nor those whom Priam's son compared in 
watery Ida's dells ; ^ yet one there was of these. 
Of these there was one, the sister of her husband : 
she it was, I recognized, who stands within Jove's 
citadel. I shivered, and, speechless though I was, 
my pallid hue betrayed my feeling ; then the 
goddess herself removed the fears she had inspired. 
For she said, " O poet, minstrel of the Roman year, 

three shrines, dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. 
Compare 11. 52, 73, below. 



ause per exiguos magna referre modos, 
ius tibi fecisti numen caeleste videndi, 
cum placuit numeris condere festa tuis. 
25 ne tamen ignores volgique errore traharis, 
lunius a nostro nomine nomen habet. 
est aliquid nupsisse lovi, lovis esse sororem : 

fratre magis, dubito, glorier, anne viro. 
si genus aspicitur, Saturnum prima parentem 
30 feci, Saturni sors ego prima fui. 

a patre dicta meo quondam Saturnia Roma est j 

haec illi a caelo proxima terra fuit. 
si torus in pretio est, dicor matrona Tonantis, 
iunctaque Tarpeio sunt mea templa lovi. 
35 an potuit Maio paelex dare nomina mensi, 
hie honor in nobis invidiosus erit ? 
cur igitur regina vocor princepsque dearum ? 

aurea cur dextrae sceptra dedere meae ? 
an facient mensem luces, Lucinaque ab ilHs 
40 dicar et a nullo nomina mense traham ? 
tum me paeniteat posuisse fideliter iras 

in genus Electrae Dardaniamque domum. 

causa duplex irae : rapto Ganymede dolebam, 

forma quoque Idaeo iudice victa mea est. 

45 paeniteat, quod non foveo Carthaginis arces, 

cum mea sint illo currus et arma loco : 

paeniteat Sparten Argosque measque Mycenas 

et veterem Latio supposuisse Samon : 
adde senem Tatium lunonicolasque Faliscos, 
50 quos ego Romanis succubuisse tuli. 

*» Dardanus, son of Electra, by Zeus. 
" Virgil, Aen. i. 12-18 "hie illius arma, hie currus fuit." 
* He alludes to Juno Curitis, Curritis, or Quiritis, whose 
worship Titus Tatius, Sabine king, is said to have introduced 
at Rome, setting up a table in her honour in each curia. 

FASTI, VI. 22-60 

thou who hast dared to chronicle great things in 
slender couplets, thou hast won for thyself the right 
to look upon a celestial divinity by undertaking to 
celebrate the festivals in thy numbers. But lest 
thou should be ignorant and led astray by vulgar 
error, know that June takes its name from mine. 
It is something to have married Jupiter and to be 
Jupiter's sister. I doubt whether I am prouder of 
my brother or of my husband. If descent is con- 
sidered, I was the first to call Saturn by the name 
of father : I was the first child whom fate bestowed 
on him. Rome was once named Saturnia after 
my sire : this land was the next he came to after 
heaven. If the marriage-bed counts for much, I 
am called the consort of the Thunderer, and my 
temple is joined to that of Tarpeian Jupiter. If a 
leman could give her name to the month of May, 
shall a like honour be grudged to me ? To what 
purpose, then, am I called Queen and chief of 
goddesses ? Why did they put a golden sceptre 
in my right hand ? Shall the days (luces) make up 
a month and I be called Lucina after them, and 
yet shall I take a name from not a single month ? 
Then indeed might I repent of having loyally laid 
aside my anger at the offspring of Electra and the 
Dardanian house." I had a double cause of anger : 
I fretted at the rape of Ganymede, and my beauty 
was misprized by the Idaean judge. It might repent 
me that I cherish not the battlements of Carthage, 
since my chariot and arms are there. ^ It might 
repent me that I have laid Sparta, and Argos, and 
my Mycenae, and ancient Samos, under the heel of 
Latium ; add to these old Tatius,^ and the Faliscans, 
who worship Juno, and whom I nevertheless suffered 
M 321 


sed neque paeniteat, nee gens mihi carior ulla est : 

hie colar, hie teneam eum love templa meo. 
ipse mihi Mavors * commendo moenia ' dixit 

* haec tibi. tu pollens urbe nepotis eris.* 
65 dicta fides sequitur : centum celebramur in aris, 

nee levior quo vis est mihi mensis honor. 
nee tamen hunc nobis tantummodo praestat honorem 

Roma : suburbani dant mihi munus idem, 
inspice, quos habeat nemoralis Aricia fastos 
60 et populus Laurens Lanuviumque meum ; 
est illic mensis lunonius. inspice Tibur 

et Praenestinae moenia sacra deae ; 
lunonale leges tempus. nee Romulus illas 

condidit : at nostri Roma nepotis erat.** 
65 finierat luno. respeximus : Herculis uxor 

stabat, et in voltu signa vigoris erant. 
" non ego, si toto mater me cedere caelo 

iusserit, invita matre morabor " ait. 
** nunc quoque non luctor de nomine temporis huius : 
70 blandior et partes paene rogantis ago 
remque mei iuris mahm tenuisse precando, 

et faveas causae forsitan ipse meae. 
aurea possedit socio Capitolia templo 

mater et, ut debet, cum love summa tenet. 
75 at decus omne mihi contingit origine mensis : 

unicus est, de quo sollicitamur, honor, 
quid grave, si titulum mensis, Romane, dedisti 

Herculis uxori, posteritasque memor ? 

" Called Junonius at Aricia and Praeneste. 

•• Hebe, daughter of Zeus and Hera, whom he thinks of 
by the Latin name luventas. 

FASTI. VI. 51-78 

to succumb to the Romans. Yet let me not repent, 
for there is no people dearer to me : here may 
I be worshipped, here may I occupy the temple 
with my own Jupiter. Mavors himself hath said 
to me, ' I entrust these walls to thee. Thou shalt 
be mighty in the city of thy grandson.' His words 
have been fulfilled : I am celebrated at a hundred 
altars, and not the least of my honours is that of 
the month (named after me). Nevertheless it is 
not Rome alone that does me that honour : the 
inhabitants of neighbouring towns pay me the same 
compUment. Look at the calendar of woodland 
Aricia, and the calendars of the Laurentine folk 
and of my own Lanuvium ; there, too, there is a 
month of June." Look at Tibur and at the sacred 
walls of the Praenestine goddess : there shalt thou 
read of Juno's season. Yet Romulus did not found 
these towns ; but Rome was the city of my grandson." 
^^ So Juno ended. I looked back. The wife of 
Hercules stood by, and in her face were signs of 
vigour.^ " If my mother were to bid me retire from 
heaven outright," quoth she, " I would not tarry 
against my mother's will. Now, too, I do not 
contend about the name of this season. I coax, 
and I act the part almost of a petitioner, and I 
should prefer to maintain my right by prayer alone. 
Thou thyself mayest haply favour my cause. My 
mother owns the golden Capitol, where she shares 
the temple, and, as is right, occupies the summit 
along with Jupiter. But all my glory comes from 
the naming of the month ; the honour about which 
they tease me is the only one I enjoy. What harm 
was it if thou didst, O Roman, bestow the title of 
a month upon the wife of Hercules, and if posterity 



haec quoque terra aliquid debet mihi nomine magni 
80 coniugis ; hue captas appulit ille boves, 
hie male defensus flammis et dote paterna 

Cacus Aventinam sanguine tinxit humum. 

ad propiora vocor. populum digessit ab annis 

Romulus, in partes distribuitque duas : 

85 haec dare consilium , pugnare paratior ilia est ; 

haec aetas bellum suadet, at ilia gerit. 

sic statuit mensesque nota secrevit eadem : 

Junius est iuvenum ; qui fuit ante, senum." 
dixit, et in htem studio certaminis issent, 
90 atque ira pietas dissimulata foret : 
venit Apollinea longas Concordia lauro 

nexa comas, placidi numen opusque ducis. 
haec ubi narravit Tatium fortemque Quirinum 
binaque cum popuhs regna coisse suis 
96 et lare communi soceros generosque receptos, 
" his nomen iunctis Junius " inquit " habet.** 
dicta triplex causa est. at vos ignoscite, divae : 

res est arbitrio non dirimenda meo. 
ite pares a me. perierunt iudice formae 
100 Pergama : plus laedunt, quam iuvat una, duae. 

1. [HK-IVN-JN 

Prima dies tibi, Carna, datur. dea cardinis haec est : 
numine clausa aperit, claudit aperta suo. 

« See i. 543 fF. «> Compare v. 59. 

« See i. 637-650. ^ gg^ yj 195.228. 

* Probably the name is derived from caro, carnis, " flesh," 
but Ovid has confounded her with Cardea, goddess of hinges, 
as if from cardo. 


FASTI, VI. 79-102 

remembered and ratified the gift ? This land also 
owes me something on account of my great husband. 
Hither he drove the captured kine " : here Cacus, ill 
protected by the flames, his father's gift, dyed with 
his blood the soil of the Aventine. But I am called to 
nearer themes. Romulus divided and distributed 
the people into two parts according to their years. 
The one was readier to give counsel, the other to 
fight ; the one age advised war, the other waged it. 
So he decreed, and he distinguished the months by 
the same token. June is the month of the young 
(iuvenes) ; the preceding is the month of the old."^ 

^^ So she spoke, and in the heat of rivalry the 
goddesses might have engaged in a dispute, wherein 
anger might have belied natural affection. But 
Concord came,*' at once the deity and the work of 
the pacific chief, her long tresses twined with Apollo's 
laurel. When she had told how Tatius and brave 
Quirinus, and their two kingdoms and peoples, 
had united in one, and how fathers-in-law and 
sons-in-law were received in a common home, " The 
month of June," quoth she, ** gets its name from 
their junction."** 

®^ Thus were three causes pleaded. But pardon 
me, ye goddesses ; the matter is not one to be 
decided by my judgement. Depart from me all 
equal. Pergamum was ruined by him who adjudged 
the prize of beauty : two goddesses mar more than 
one can make. 

Kal. Ivn. 1st 

101 The first day is given to thee, Carna.* She is 
the goddess of the hinge : by her divine power she 
opens what is closed, and closes what is open. 



unde datas habeat vires, obscurior aevo 
fama, sed e nostro carmine certus eris. 
105 adiacet antiquus Tiberino lucus Helerni : 

pontifices illuc nunc quoque sacra ferunt. 
inda sata est nymphe (Cranen^ dixere priores) 

nequiquam multis saepe petita procis. 
rura sequi iaculisque feras agitare solebat 
110 nodosasque cava tendere valle plagas. 

non habuit pharetram, Phoebi tamen esse sororem 

credebant ; nee erat, Phoebe, pudenda tibi. 
huic aliquis iuvenum dixisset amantia verba, 
reddebat tales protinus ilia sonos : 
116 " haec loca lucis habent nimis et cum luce pudoris : 
si secreta magis ducis in antra, sequor." 
credulus ante ut iit, frutices haec nacta resistit 

et latet et nullo est invenienda modo. 
viderat banc lanus visaeque cupidine captus 
120 ad duram verbis mollibus us us erat. 

nympha iubet quaeri de more remotius antrum 

utque comes sequi tur destituitque ducem. 
stulta ! videt lanus, quae post sua terga gerantur : 
nil agis, et latebras respicit ille tuas. 
125 nil agis, en ! dixi : nam te sub rupe latentem 
occupat amplexu speque potitus ait : 
** ius pro concubitu nostro tibi cardinis esto : 

hoc pretium positae virginitatis habe." 
sic fatus spinam, qua tristes pellere posset 
130 a foribus noxas (haec erat alba), dedit. 

sunt avidae volucres, non quae Phineia mensis 

^ cranen U^ : grannen U^ : granen m^ : granem M 
gramen Xm} : ganien Dm^ : cranaen Merkel. 

° See ii. 67. 

'' Branches of whitethorn, or buckthorn, kept out witches, 
and protected against wandering ghosts. See below, 1. 165. 

FASTI, VI. 103-131 

Time has dimmed the tradition which sets forth 
how she acquired the powers she owns, but you 
shall learn it from my song. Near to the Tiber 
lies an ancient grove of Helernus ; * the pontiffs 
still bring sacrifices thither. There a nymph was 
born (men of old named her Crane), often wooed in 
vain by many suitors. Her wont it was to scour the 
countryside and chase the wild beasts with her darts, 
and in the hollow vale to stretch the knotty nets. 
No quiver had she, yet they thought that she was 
Phoebus* sister ; and, Phoebus, thou needst not 
have been ashamed of her. If any youth spoke to 
her words of love, she straightway made him this 
answer : "In this place there is too much of light, 
and with the hght too much of shame ; if thou wilt 
lead to a more retired cave, I'll follow." While he 
confidingly went in front, she no sooner reached 
the bushes than she halted, and hid herself, and 
was nowise to be found. Janus had seen her, and 
the sight had roused his passion ; to the hard- 
hearted nymph he used soft words. The nymph 
as usual bade him seek a more sequestered cave, 
and she pretended to follow at his heels, but deserted 
her leader. Fond fool ! Janus sees what goes on 
behind his back ; vain is thine effort ; he sees thy 
hiding-place behind him. Vain is thine effort, lo ! 
said I. For he caught thee in his embrace as thou 
didst lurk beneath a rock, and having worked his 
will he said : "In return for our dalliance be 
thine the control of hinges ; take that for the price 
of thy lost maidenhood." So saying, he gave her 
a thorn — and white it was — wherewith she could 
repel all doleful harm from doors.* There are greedy 
birds, not those that cheated Phineus' maw of its 



guttura fraudabant, sed genus inde trahunt : 
grande caput, stantes oculi, rostra apta rapinis, 
canities pinnis, unguibus hamus inest. 
135 nocte volant puerosque petunt nutricis egentes 
et vitiant cunis corpora rapta suis. 
carpere dicuntur lactentia viscera rostris 

et plenum poto sanguine guttur habent. 
est illis strigibus nomen ; sed nominis huius 
140 causa, quod horrendum stridere nocte solent. 
sive igitur nascuntur aves, seu carmine fiunt 
naeniaque in volucres Marsa figurat anus, 
in thalamos venere Procae. Proca natus in illis 
praeda recens avium quinque diebus erat, 
145 pectoraque exsorbent avidis infantia Unguis ; 
at puer infelix vagit opemque petit, 
territa voce sui nutrix accurrit alumni 

et rigido sectas invenit ungue genas. 
quid faceret ? color oris erat, qui frondibus olim 
150 esse solet seris, quas nova laesit hiems. 

pervenit ad Cranen et rem docet. ilia " timorem 

pone : tuus sospes " dixit " alumnus erit." 
venerat ad cunas : flebant materque paterque : 
" sistite vos lacrimas, ipsa medebor " ait. 
165 protinus arbutea postes ter in ordine tangit 
fronde, ter arbutea limina fronde notat ; 
spargit aquis aditus (et aquae medicamen habebant) 

extaque de porca cruda bimenstre tenet ; 
atque ita ** noctis aves, extis puerilibus " inquit 
160 " parcite : pro parvo victima parva cadit. 

« The Harpies. See Virg. Aen. iii. 225. 

'' Marsians were famous for wizardry. 

« King of Alba Longa. 



FASTI, VI. 132-160 

repast," though from those they are descended. Big is 
their head, goggle their eyes, their beaks are formed 
for rapine, their wings are blotched with grey, their 
claws fitted with hooks . They fly by night and attack 
nurseless children, and defile their bodies, snatched 
from their cradles. They are said to rend the flesh 
of sucklings with their beaks, and their throats are 
full of the blood which they have drunk. Screech- 
owl is their name, but the reason of the name is that 
they are wont to screech horribly by night. Whether, 
therefore, they are born birds, or are made such by 
enchantment and are nothing but beldames trans- 
formed into fowls by a Marsian ^ spell, they came into 
the chambers of Proca." In the chambers Proca, a 
child five days old, was a fresh prey for the birds. 
They sucked his infant breast with greedy tongues, 
and the poor child squalled and craved help . Alarmed 
by the cry of her fosterling, the nurse ran to him 
and found his cheeks scored by their rigid claws. 
What was she to do ? The colour of the child's 
face was hke the common hue of late leaves 
nipped by an early frost. She went to Crane and 
told what had befallen. Crane said, " Lay fear 
aside ; thy nursling will be safe." She went to 
the cradle ; mother and father were weeping. 
" Restrain your tears," she said, " I myself will 
heal the child." Straightway she thrice touched 
the doorposts, one after the other, with arbutus 
leaves ; thrice with arbutus leaves she marked the 
threshold. She sprinkled the entrance with water 
(and the water was drugged), and she held the 
raw inwards of a sow just two months old. And 
thus she spoke : ** Ye birds of night, spare the 
child's inwards : a small victim falls for a small 



cor pro corde, precor, pro fibris sumite fibras. 

hanc animam vobis pro meliore damus." 
sic ubi libavit, prosecta sub aethere ponit, 

quique adsint sacris, respicere ilia vetat ; 
165 virgaque lanalis de spina ponitur alba, 

qua lumen thalamis parva fenestra dabat. 
post illud nee aves cunas violasse feruntur, 

et rediit puero, qui fuit ante, color, 
pinguia cur illis gustentur larda Kalendis, 
170 mixtaque cum calido sit faba farre, rogas ? 

prisca dea est aliturque cibis, quibus ante solebat, 

nee petit ascitas luxuriosa dapes. 
piscis adhuc illi populo sine fraude natabat, 

ostreaque in conchis tuta fuere suis. 
175 nee Latium norat, quam praebet Ionia dives, 

nee quae Pygmaeo sanguine gaudet, avem ; 
et praeter pennas nihil in pavone placebat, 

nee tellus captas miserat ante feras. 
sus erat in pretio, caesa sue festa colebant : 
180 terra fabas tantum duraque farra dabat. 

quae duo mixta simul sextis quicumque Kalendis 

ederit, huic laedi viscera posse negant. 
arce quoque in summa lunoni templa Monetae 

ex voto memorant facta, Camille, tuo : 
185 ante domus Manli fuerat, qui Gallica quondam 

a Capitolino reppulit arma love, 
quam bene, di magni, pugna cecidisset in ilia, 

defensor solii, luppiter alte, tui ! 
vixit, ut occideret damnatus crimine regni : 

" Francolin {attagen). 

^ Crane. The Cranes were said to wage war on the 
Pygmies. « See i. 637. 

" M. Manlius Capitolinus, 390 b.c. 

FASTI, VI. 161-189 

child. Take, I pray ye, a heart for a heart, entrails 
for entrails. This life we give you for a better 
life." When she had thus sacrificed, she set the 
severed inwards in the open air, and forbade those 
present at the sacrifice to look back at them. A 
rod of Janus, taken from the white-thorn, was placed 
where a small window gave hght to the chambers. 
After that, it is said that the birds did not violate 
the cradle, and the boy recovered his former colour. 

^^^ You ask why fat bacon is eaten on these 
Calends, and why beans are mixed with hot spelt. 
She is a goddess of the olden time, and subsists upon 
the foods to which she was inured before ; no 
voluptuary is she to run after foreign viands. Fish 
still swam unharmed by the people of that age, 
and oysters were safe in their shells. Latium knew 
not the fowl that rich Ionia supplies,'* nor the bird 
that delights in Pygmy blood ^ ; and in the peacock 
naught but the feathers pleased, nor had the earth 
before sent captured beasts. The pig was prized, 
people feasted on slaughtered swine : the ground 
yielded only beans and hard spelt. Whoever eats 
at the same time these two foods on the Calends of 
the sixth month, they affirm that nothing can hurt his 

1^3 They say, too, that the temple of Juno Moneta 
was founded in fulfilment of thy vow, Camillus, on 
the summit of the citadel '^ : formerly it had been 
the house of Manlius, who once protected Capitoline 
Jupiter against the Gallic arms.<^ Great gods, how 
well had it been for him if in that fight he had fallen 
in defence of thy throne, O Jupiter on high ! He 
lived to perish, condemned on a charge of aiming at 



190 hunc illi titulum longa ^necta dabat. 

lux eadem Marti festa est, quern prospicit extra 

appositum Teetae porta Capena viae, 
te quoque, Tempestas, meritam delubra fatemur, 
cum paene est Corsis obruta classis aquis. 
195 haec hominum monumenta patent, si quaeritis astraj 
tunc oritur magni praepes adunca lovis. 

2. [AF] 

Postera lux Hyadas, Taurinae cornua frontis, 
evocat, et multa terra madescit aqua. 

S. BG 

Mane ubi bis fuerit Phoebusque iteraverit ortus 
200 factaque erit posito rore bis uda seges, 
hac sacrata die Tusco Bellona duello 

dicitur et Latio prospera semper adest. 
Appius est auctor, Pyrrho qui pace negata 
multum animo vidit, lumine captus erat. 
205 prospicit a templo summum brevis area Circum, 
est ibi non parvae parva columna notae : 

" Probably a colonnade rising along the side of the Appian 

* Dedicated by L. Corn. Scipio, 259 b.c, after expelling 
the Carthaginians from Corsica. 

" True evening rising was on June 3. 
•* Vowed by Appius Claudius Caecus in 296 B.C., when he 
as consul conquered the Etruscan and Samnite united forces. 

• After the defeat of 280 b.c, Pyrrhus offered honourable 


FASTI, VI. 190-206 

the crown : that was the title that length of years 
reserved for him. 

1^1 The same day is a festival of Mars, whose 
temple, set beside the Covered Way," is seen afar 
without the walls from the Capene Gate. Thou, too, 
O Storm, didst deserve a shrine, by our avowal, 
what time the fleet was nearly overwhelmed in 
Corsican waters.^ These monuments set up by men 
are plain for all to see : if you look for stars, the bird 
of great Jupiter with its hooked talons then rises.*' 

IV. NoN. 2nd 

1^' The next day calls up the Hyades, which form 
the horns of the Bull's forehead ; and the earth is 
soaked with heavy rain. 

III. NoN. 3rd 

199 When twice the morning shall have passed, and 
twice Phoebus shall have repeated his rising, and 
twice the crops shall have been wetted by the fallen 
dew, on that day Bellona is said to have been 
consecrated in the Tuscan war,** and ever she comes 
gracious to Latium. Her founder was Appius, who, 
when peace was refused to Pyrrhus, saw clearly in 
his mind, though from the light of day he was cut 
off.* A small open space commands from the temple 
a view of the top of the Circus. There stands a little 
pillar of no httle note. From it the custom is to hurl 

terms of peace : but Appius Claudius the Blind had himself 
carried into the Senate, and persuaded them to refuse. 



hinc solet hasta manu belli praenuntia mitti, 
in regem et gentes cum placet arma capi. 

4. CG 

Altera pars Girci Gustode sub Hercule tuta est : 
210 quod deus Euboico carmine munus habet. 
muneris est tempus, qui Nonas Lucifer ante est 
si titulum quaeris, Sulla probavit opus. 

5. D NON 

Quaerebam, Nonas Sanco Fidione referrem, 
an tibi, Semo pater ; tum mihi Sancus ait : 
215 " cuicumque ex istis dederis, ego munus habebo 
nomina terna fero : sic voluere Cures." 

hunc igitur veteres donarunt aede Sabini 
inque Quirinali constituere iugo. 

6. EN 

Est mihi (sitque, precor, nostris diuturnior annis) 
220 filia, qua felix sospite semper ero. 

banc ego cum vellem genero dare, tempora taedis 

apta requirebam, quaeque cavenda forent : 
tum mihi post sacras monstratur Junius Idus 

utilis et nuptis, utilis esse viris, 

<* The fetialis, or sacred herald, advanced to the enemy 
boundary, and threw over it a spear with the solemn words 
of declaration. See Livy i. 32. When war was declared 
against Pyrrhus, a soldier of Pyrrhus was caught, and com- 
pelled to buy a patch of land, and there a pillar was set up 

FASTI, VI. 207-224 

by hand a spear, war's harbinger, when it has been 
resolved to take arms against a king and peoples .** 

Pr. Non. 4th 
^^ The other part of the Circus is protected by 
Guardian Hercules : the god holds office in virtue 
of the Euboean oracle.^ The time of his taking 
office is the day before the Nones. If you 
ask about the inscription, it was Sulla who approved 
the work. 

Non. 5th 

213 I inquired whether I should refer the Nones to 
Sancus, or to Fidius, or to thee, Father Semo ; then 
Sancus said to me : "To whomsoever of them thou 
mayest give it, the honour will still be mine : I bear 
the three names : so willed the people of Cures." 
Accordingly the Sabines of old bestowed on him 
a shrine, and estabhshed it on the Quirinal hill.* 

VIII. Id. 6th 

219 I have a daughter, and I pray she may outlive 
me ; I shall always be happy while she survives. 
When I would give her to a son-in-law, I inquired what 
times were suitable for weddings and what should 
be avoided. Then it was shown to me that June after 
the sacred Ides is good for brides and good for 
bridegrooms, but the first part of this month was 

before Bellona's temple. This was taken to represent the 
enemy territory in future declarations of war. 

^ The Sibylline Books; the Sibyl being of Cumae, 
founded by Euboea. 

* See App. p. 429. 



226 primaque pars huius thalamis aliena reperta est 

nam mihi sic coniunx sancta Dialis ait : 
** donee ab Iliaca placidus purgamina Vesta 

detulerit flavis in mare Thybris aquis, 
non mihi dentosa crinem depectere buxo, 
230 non ungues ferro subsecuisse licet, 

non tetigisse virum, quamvis lovis ille sacerdos, 

quamvis perpetua sit mihi lege datus. 
tu quoque ne propera. melius tua filia nubet, 

ignea cum pura Vesta nitebit humo," 

7. FN 

235 Tertia post Nonas removere Lycaona Phoebe 
fertur, et a tergo non habet Ursa metum. 
tunc ego me memini ludos in gramine Campi 

aspicere et dici, lubrice Thybri, tuos. 
festa dies illis, qui lina madentia ducunt, 
240 quique tegunt parvis aera recurva cibis. 


Mens quoque numen habet. Mentis delubra videmus 

vota metu belli, perfide Poene, tui. 
Poene rebellaras, et leto consulis omnes 

attoniti Mauras pertimuere manus. 
245 spem metus expulerat, cum Menti vota senatus 

suscipit, et melior protinus ilia venit. 

* See vi. 713 note. The Flamen Dialis and his wife were 
subjected to many strange taboos. 

'' Because Arctophylax, the Bearward, had set. Arcturus 
was identified with Areas, grandson of Lycaon, whose 
daughter was Callisto. Lycaon is here put for him. 

FASTI, VI. 225-246 

found to be unsuitable for marriages ; for the holy 
wife of the Flamen Dialis spoke thus to me : " Until 
the calm Tiber shall have carried down to the sea on 
its yellow current the filth from the temple of Ilian 
Vesta, it is not lawful for me to comb down my hair 
with a toothed comb, or cut my nails with iron, or 
touch my husband, though he is the priest of Jupiter, 
and though he was given to me for life. Thou, too, 
be in no hurry ; thy daughter will better wed when 
Vesta's fire shall shine on a clean floor." " 

VII. Id. 7th 

2^^ On the third morn after the Nones it is said that 
Phoebe chases away (the grandson of) Lycaon, and 
the Bear has none behind her to fear.^ Then I 
remember that I saw games held on the sward of 
the Field of Mars, and that they were named thine, 
O smooth Tiber. The day is a festival for those who 
draw their dripping lines and hide their bronze 
hooks under little baits. 

VI. Id. 8th 

241 The mind also has its divinity. We see that 
a sanctuary was vowed to Mind during the terror 
of thy war, thou treacherous Carthaginian. Thou 
didst renew the war, thou Carthaginian, and, thunder- 
struck by the consul's death, all dreaded the Moorish 
bands. Fear had driven out hope, when the Senate 
made vows to Mind,*' and straightway she came 
better disposed. The day on which the vows were 

' After the defeat at Lake Trasimene, 217 b.c. 



aspicit instantes mediis sex lucibus Idus 
ilia dies, qua sunt vota soluta deae. 


Vesta, fave ! tibi nunc operata resolvimus ora, 
260 ad tua si nobis sacra venire licet. 

in prece totus eram : caelestia numina sensi, 

laetaque purpurea luce refulsit humus, 
non equidem vidi (valeant mendacia vatum) 
te, dea, nee fueras aspicienda viro ; 
255 sed quae nescieram, quorumque errore tenebar, 
cognita sunt nullo praecipiente mihi. 
dena quater memorant habuisse Parilia Romam, 

cum flammae custos aede recepta dea est, 
regis opus placidi, quo non metuentius ullum 
260 numinis ingenium terra Sabina tulit. 

quae nunc acre vides, stipula tum tecta videres, 

et paries lento vimine textus erat. 
hie locus exiguus, qui sustinet atria Vestae, 
tunc erat intonsi regia magna Numae. 
265 forma tamen templi, quae nunc manet, ante fuisse 
dicitur, et formae causa probanda subest. 
Vesta eadem est et terra : subest vigil ignis utrique 

significant sedem terra focusque suam. 
terra pilae simiHs nullo fulcimine nixa, 
270 aere subiecto tam grave pendet onus, 
[ipsa volubilitas libratum sustinet orbem, 

quique premat partes, angulus omnis abest, 
cumque sit in media rerum regione locata 
et tangat nullum plusve minusve latus, 
275 ni convexa foret, parti vicinior esset, 

" See iv. 732, and Appendix, p. 430. 
* Numa. " See Appendix, p. 431. 


FASTI, VI. 247-275 

paid to the goddess is separated from the coming 
Ides by six intermediate days. 

V. Id. 9th 

249 Q Vesta, grant me thy favour ! In thy service 
now I ope my Hps, if it is lawful for me to come to 
thy sacred rites. I was wrapt up in prayer ; I felt 
the heavenly deity, and the glad ground gleamed with 
a purple light. Not indeed that I saw thee, O goddess 
(far from me be the lies of poets !), nor was it meet 
that a man should look upon thee ; but my ignorance 
was enlightened and my errors corrected without 
the help of an instructor. They say that Rome had 
forty times celebrated the PariHa ^ when the goddess. 
Guardian of Fire, was received in her temple ; it was 
the work of that peaceful king, than whom no man 
of more god-fearing temper was ever born in Sabine 
land.^ The buildings which now you see roofed 
with bronze you might then have seen roofed with 
thatch, and the walls were woven of tough osiers. 
This Httle spot, which now supports the Hall of 
Vesta, was then the great palace of unshorn Numa. 
Yet the shape of the temple, as it now exists, is 
said to have been its shape of old, and it is based 
on a sound reason .'^ Vesta is the same as the 
Earth ; under both of them is a perpetual fire ; the 
earth and the hearth are symbols of the home. The 
earth is like a ball, resting on no prop ; so great a 
weight hangs on the air beneath it. Its own power 
of rotation keeps its orb balanced ; it has no angle 
which could press on any part ; and since it is placed 
in the middle of the world and touches no side more 
or less, if it were not convex, it would be nearer to 



nee medium terram mundus habere t onus, 
arte Syracosia suspensus in aere clauso 

stat globus, immensi parva figura poli,] 
et quantum a summis, tantum secessit ab imis 
280 terra ; quod ut fiat, forma rotunda facit. 
par facies templi : nullus procurrit in illo 

angulus ; a pluvio vindicat imbre tholus. 
cur sit virginibus, quaeris, dea culta ministris ? 

inveniam causas hac quoque parte suas. 
285 ex Ope lunonem memorant Cereremque creatas 

semine Saturni, tertia Vesta fuit ; 
utraque nupserunt, ambae peperisse feruntur, 

de tribus impatiens restitit una viri. 
quid mirum, virgo si virgine laeta ministra 
290 admittit castas ad sua sacra manus ? 

nee tu aliud Vestam quam vivam intellege flammam, 

nataque de flamma corpora nulla vides. 
iure igitur virgo est, quae semina nulla remittit 

nee capit et comites virginitatis amat. 
295 esse diu stultus Vestae simulacra putavi, 

mox didici curvo nulla subesse tholo : 
ignis inextinctus templo celatur in illo, 

effigiem nullam Vesta nee ignis habet. 
stat vi terra sua : vi stando Vesta vocatur, 
300 causaque par Grai nominis esse potest. 

at focus a flammis et quod fovet omnia, dictus ; 

qui tamen in primis aedibus ante fuit. 
hinc quoque vestibulum dici reor : inde precando 

" The orrery of Archimedes, which Cicero tells us was 
brought to Rome by Marcellus, the conqueror of Syracuse, 
212 B.C. 

'' ta-TTjfii, earduai, confused with ecTla. 

* Ovid takes vestibulum as from Vesta, guessing that the 


FASTI, VI. 276-303 

some part than to another, and the universe would 
not have the earth as its central weight. There 
stands a globe hung by Syracusan art in closed air, 
a small image of the vast vault of heaven, and the 
earth is equally distant from the top and bottom.^ 
That is brought about by its round shape. The form 
of the temple is similar : there is no projecting angle 
in it ; a dome protects it from the showers of rain. 

2^^ You ask why the goddess is tended by virgin 
ministers. Of that also I will discover the true 
causes. They say that Juno and Ceres were born 
of Ops by Saturn's seed ; the third daughter was 
Vesta. The other two married ; both are reported 
to have had offspring ; of the three one remained, 
who refused to submit to a husband. What wonder 
if a virgin delights in a virgin minister and allows 
only chaste hands to touch her sacred things ? Con- 
ceive of Vesta as naught but the living flame, and 
you see that no bodies are born of flame. Rightly, 
therefore, is she a virgin who neither gives nor takes 
seeds, and she loves companions in her virginity. 

2^^ Long did I fooUshly think that there were images 
of Vesta : afterwards I learned that there are none 
under her curved dome. An undying fire is hidden 
in that temple ; but there is no efiigy of Vesta nor of 
the fire. The earth stands by its own power ; Vesta 
is so called from standing by power (vi stando) ; and 
the reason of her Greek name may be similar.^ But 
the hearth (focus) is so named from the flames, and 
because it fosters (fovet) all things ; yet formerly it 
stood in the first room of the house. Hence, too, I 
am of opinion that the vestibule took its name ; «' it 

hearth stood there, as it did not. But he goes on as if he 
took it from ve and stare ^ " to stand apart." 



praefamur Vestam, quae loca prima tenet. 
305 ante focos olim scamnis considere longis 

mos erat et mensae credere adesse deos ; 
nunc quoque, cum fiunt antiquae sacra Vacunae, 

ante Vacunales stantque sedentque focos. 
venit in hos annos aliquid de more vetusto : 
310 fert missos Vestae pura patella cibos. 
ecce coronatis panis dependet asellis, 

et velant scabras florida serta molas. 
sola prius furnis torrebant farra coloni 

(et Fornacali sunt sua sacra deae) : 
315 suppositum cineri panem focus ipse parabat, 

strataque erat tepido tegula quassa solo, 
inde focum observat pis tor dominamque focorum, 

et quae pumiceas versat asella molas. 
praeteream referamne tuum, rubicunde Priape, 
320 dedecus ? est multi fabula parva ioci. 
turrigera frontem Cybele redimita corona 

convocat aeternos ad sua festa deos. 
convocat et satyros et, rustica numina, nymphas ; 

Silenus, quamvis nemo vocarat, adest. 
326 nee licet et longum est epulas narrare deorum : 

in multo nox est pervigilata mero. 
hi temere errabant in opacae vallibus Idae, 

pars iacet et molli gramine membra levat, 
hi ludunt, hos somnus habet, pars brachia nectit 
330 et viridem celeri ter pede pulsat humum. 
Vesta iacet placidamque capit secura quietem, 

sicut erat, positum caespite fulta caput, 
at ruber hortorum custos nymphasque deasque 

captat et errantes fertque refertque pedes. 

« See Appendix, p. 432. '' See ii. 525. 

« Told already in i. 391-440. 



FASTI, VI. 304-334 

is from there that in praying we begin by addressing 
Vesta, who occupies the first place : it used to be 
the custom of old to sit on long benches in front of 
the hearth and to suppose that the gods were present 
at table ; even now, when sacrifices are offered to 
ancient Vacuna," they stand and sit in front of her 
hearths. Something of olden custom has come down 
to our time ; a clean platter contains the food offered 
to Vesta. Lo, loaves are hung on asses decked with 
wreaths, and flowery garlands veil the rough mill- 
stones. Husbandmen used formerly to toast only 
spelt in the ovens, and the goddess of ovens has 
her own sacred rites ^ : the hearth of itself baked the 
bread that was put under the ashes, and a broken 
tile was laid on the warm floor. Hence the baker 
honours the hearth and the mistress of hearths and 
the she-ass that turns the millstones of pumice. 

31^ Shall I pass over or relate thy disgrace, rubicund 
Priapus r It is a short story, but a very merry one.*' 
Cybele, whose brow is crowned with a coronet of 
towers, invited the eternal gods to her feast. She 
in\'ited also the satyrs and those rural divinities, the 
nymphs. Silenus came, though nobody had asked 
him. It is unlawful, and it would be tedious, to 
narrate the banquet of the gods : the livelong night 
was passed in deep potations. Some roamed at 
haphazard in the vales of shady Ida ; some lay and 
stretched their limbs at ease on the soft grass ; some 
played ; some slept ; some, arm linked in arm, thrice 
beat mth rapid foot the verdant ground. Vesta lay 
and careless took her peaceful rest, just as she was, 
her head low laid and propped upon a sod. But the 
ruddy guardian of gardens courted nymphs and 
goddesses, and to and fro he turned his roving 



335 aspicit et Vestam : dubium, nymphamne putarit 
an scierit Vestam, scisse sed ipse negat. 
spem capit obscenam furtimque accedere temptat 

et fert suspenses corde micante gradus. 
forte senex, quo vectus erat, Silenus asellum 
340 liquerat ad ripas lene sonantis aquae, 
ibat, ut inciperet, longi deus Hellesponti, 

intempestivo cum rudit ille sono. 
territa voce gravi surgit dea ; convolat omnis 
turba, per infestas efFugit ille manus. 
345 Lampsacus hoc animal solita est mactare Priapo 
fata : " asini flammis indicis exta damus. " 
quem tu, diva, memor de pane monilibus ornas ; 
cessat opus, vacuae conticuere molae. 

Nomine quam pretio celebratior arce Tonantis, 
360 dicam, Pistoris quid velit ara Io\is. 

cincta premebantur trucibus Capitolia Gallis : 

fecerat obsidio iam diuturna famem. 
luppiter ad solium superis regale vocatis 
" incipe ! " ait Marti, protinus ille refert : 
365 " scilicet ignotum est, quae sit fortuna meorum, 
et dolor hie animi voce querentis eget. 
si tamen, ut referam breviter mala iuncta pudori, 

exigis : Alpino Roma sub hoste iacet. 
haec est, cui fuerat promissa potentia rerum. 
360 luppiter ? hanc terris impositurus eras ? 

* This refers to the capture of Rome by the Gauls, 390 b.c, 
and the siege of the Capitol. The besieged threw out loaves 
of bread, to show they were not in want. 

FASTI, VI. 335-360 

steps. He spied Vesta too ; it is doubtful whether 
he took her for a nymph or knew her to be Vesta ; 
he himself said that he knew her not. He conceived 
a wanton hope, and tried to approach her furtively ; 
he walked on tiptoe with throbbing heart. It 
chanced that old Silenus had left the ass, on which 
he rode, on the banks of a babbling brook. The 
god of the long Hellespont was going to begin, 
when the ass uttered an ill-timed bray. Frightened 
by the deep voice, the goddess started up ; the 
whole troop flocked together; Priapus made his 
escape between hands that would have stopped 
him. Lampsacus is wont to sacrifice this animal to 
Priapus, saying : " We give to the flames the in- 
wards of the tell-tale ass." That animal, goddess, 
thou dost adorn with necklaces of loaves in memory 
of the event : work comes to a stop : the mills are 
empty and silent. 

^^ I will explain the meaning of an altar of Baker 
Jupiter, which stands on the citadel of the Thunderer 
and is more famous for its name than for its value. 
The Capitol was surrounded and hard pressed by 
the fierce Gauls : the long siege had already 
caused a famine. Having summoned the celestial 
gods to his royal throne, Jupiter said to Mars, 
** Begin." Straightway Mars made answer : " For- 
sooth, nobody knows the plight of my people, and 
this my sorrow needs to find utterance in complaint. 
But if thou dost require me to declare in brief the 
sad and shameful tale : Rome lies at the foot of the 
Alpine foe.** Is this that Rome, O Jupiter, to which 
was promised the domination of the world ? is this 
that Rome which thou didst purpose to make the 



iamque suburbanos Etruscaque contudit arma. 
spes erat in cursu : nunc lare pulsa suo est. 
vidimus ornatos aerata per atria picta 
veste triumphales occubuisse senes : 
365 vidimus Iliacae transferri pignora Vestae 
sede : putant aliquos scilicet esse deos. 
at si respicerent, qua vos habitatis in arce, 

totque domos vestras obsidione premi, 
nil opis in cura scirent superesse deorum 
370 et data sollicita tura perire manu. 

atque utinam pugnae pateat locus ! arma capessant 

et, si non poterunt exsuperare, cadant. 
nunc inopes victus ignavaque fata timentes 
monte suo clausos barbara turba premit." 
375 tunc Venus et lituo pulcher trabeaque Quirinus 
Vestaque pro Latio multa locuta suo est. 
" publica " respondit " cura est pro moenibus istis," 

luppiter " et poenas Gallia victa dabit. 
tu modo, quae desunt fruges, superesse putentur 
380 effice, nee sedes desere, Vesta, tuas. 

quodcumque est solidae Cereris, cava machina 
mollitamque manu duret in igne focus/* 
iusserat, et fratris virgo Saturnia iussis 
annuit. et mediae tempora noctis erant, 
385 iam ducibus somnum dederat labor : increpat illos 
luppiter et sacro, quid velit, ore docet : 
** surgite et in medios de summis arcibus hostes 

** The Vestals buried some of their sacred things, and 
carried away what they could : these included relics brought 
from Troy. See below, 1. 451, and Livy v. 4Q-41. 


FASTI, VI. 361-387 

mistress of the earth ? Already she had crushed 
her neighbours and the Etruscan hosts. Hope was 
in full career, but now she is driven from her own 
hearth and home. We have seen old men decked 
in embroidered robes — the symbol of the triumphs 
they had won — cut down within their bronze-lined 
halls. We have seen the pledges of Ilian Vesta 
removed from their proper seat " : plainly the Romans 
think that some gods exist. But if they were to 
look back to the citadel in which ye dwell, and to 
see so many of your homes beleaguered, they would 
know that the worship of the gods is of no avail, and 
that incense offered by an anxious hand is thrown 
away. And would that they could find a clear field 
of battle ! Let them take arms, and, if they cannot 
conquer, then let them fall ! As it is, starving and 
dreading a coward's death, they are shut up and 
pressed hard on their own hill by a barbarous mob." 
Then Venus and Quirinus, in the pomp of augur's 
staff and striped gown, and Vesta pleaded hard for 
their own Latium. Jupiter replied, " A general 
providence is charged with the defence of yonder 
walls. Gaul will be vanquished and will pay the 
penalty. Only do thou, Vesta, look to it that the 
com which is lacking may be thought to abound, 
and do not abandon thy proper seat. Let all the 
grain that is yet unground be crushed in the hollow 
mill, let it be kneaded by hand and roasted by fire in 
the oven." So Jupiter commanded, and the virgin 
daughter of Saturn assented to her brother's com- 
mand. It was the hour of midnight : now sleep 
had overcome the wearied leaders. Jupiter chode 
them, and with his sacred lips informed them of his 
will. ** Arise and from the topmost battlements cast 



mittite, quam minime tradere voltis,. opem ! " 
somnus abit, quaeruntque novis ambagibus acti, 
390 tradere quam nolint et iubeantur opem. 
esse Ceres visa est ; iaciunt Cerealia dona, 

iacta super galeas scutaque longa sonant, 
posse fame vinci spes excidit. hoste repulso 

Candida Pistori ponitur ara lovi. 

396 Forte revertebar festis Vestalibus ilia, 

qua Nova Romano nunc via iuncta foro est. 
hue pede matronam vidi descend ere nudo : 

obstipui tacitus sustinuique gradum. 

sensit anus vicina loci iussumque sedere 

400 alloquitur quatiens voce tremente caput : 

** hoc, ubi nunc fora sunt, udae tenuere paludes ; 

amne redundatis fossa madebat aquis. 
Curtius ille lacus, siccas qui sustinet aras, 
nunc solida est tellus, sed lacus ante fuit. 
405 qua Velabra solent in Circum ducere pompas, 
nil praeter salices cassaque canna fuit ; 
saepe suburbanas rediens conviva per undas 

cantat et ad nautas ebria verba iacit. 

nondum conveniens diversis iste figuris 

410 nomen ab averso ceperat amne deus. 

" The Via Nova was as old as the time of the kings. Like 
the Via Sacra (these were the only roads in Rome called via)^ 
it began from the Porta Mugonia, the old gate of the Palatine 
(near the arch of Titus), and ran along the N. slope of the 
Palatine, behind the House of the Vestals, and descended by 
a staircase to the Velabrum, lately made (nunc). 

^ See Appendix, p. 436. 

" A place in the Forum, then dry, where in ancient times a 
gulf had appeared, which could not be filled until the most 
precious thing of Rome should be cast in. Marcus Curtius 

FASTI, VI. 388-410 

into the midst of the foe the last resource which ye 
would wish to yield." Sleep left them, and moved 
by the strange riddle they inquired what resource 
they were bidden to yield against their will. They 
thought it must be corn. They threw down the 
gifts of the Corn-goddess, which, in falling, clattered 
upon the helmets and long shields of the foe. The 
hope that the citadel could be reduced by famine 
now vanished : the enemy was repulsed and a white 
altar set up to Baker Jupiter. 

^^^ It chanced that at the festival of Vesta I was 
returning by that way which now joins the New 
Way to the Roman Forum.<* Hither I saw a matron 
coming down barefoot : amazed I held my peace 
and halted. An old woman of the neighbourhood 
perceived me, and bidding me sit down she ad- 
dressed me in quavering tones, shaking her head. 
" This ground, where now are the forums,^ was once 
occupied by wet swamps : a ditch was drenched 
with the water that overflowed from the river. 
That Lake of Curtius,*' which supports dry altars, 
is now solid ground, but formerly it was a lake. 
Where now the processions are wont to defile through 
the Velabrum to the Circus, there was naught but 
willows and hollow canes ; often the roysterer, re- 
turning home over the waters of the suburb, used to 
tip a stave and rap out tipsy words at passing sailors. 
Yonder god (Vertumnus),*^ whose name is appropriate 
to various shapes, had not yet derived it from 

leapt in fully armed on horseback, crying that arms and 
valour were the most precious thing for Rome. The gulf 
then filled up (362 b.c). 
** See Appendix, p. 438. 



hie quoque lucus erat iuncis et harundine densus 

et pede velato non adeunda palus. 
stagna recesserunt et aquas sua ripa coercet, 

siccaque nunc tellus : mos tamen ille manet." 
415 reddiderat causam. ** valeas, anus optima ! " dixi 

" quod superest aevi, moUe sit omne, tui." 

Cetera iam pridem didici puerilibus annis, 

non tamen idcirco praetereunda mihi. 
moenia Dardanides nuper nova fecerat Ilus 
420 (Ilus adhue Asiae dives habebat opes) : 
creditur armiferae signum caeleste Minervae 

urbis in Iliacae desiluisse iuga. 
cura videre fuit, vidi templumque locumque : 
hoc superest illic, Pallada Roma tenet. 
426 consuhtur Smintheus lucoque obscurus opaco 
hos non mentito reddidit ore sonos : 
" aetheriam servate deam, servabitis urbem : 

imperium secum transferet ilia loci." 
servat et inclusam summa tenet Ilus in arce, 
430 curaque ad heredem Laomedonta redit. 
sub Priamo servata parum : sic ipsa volebat, 

ex quo iudicio forma revicta sua est. 
seu genus Adrasti, seu furtis aptus Ulixes, 
seu pius Aeneas eripuisset earn, 
435 auctor in incerto, res est Romana : tuetur 

« The famous Palladium, the Luck of Troy, which fell 
from heaven as described here, and so long as it was pre- 
served, Troy was safe. Ulysses and Diomedes stole it (see 
Ovid, Met. xiii. 335-356) ; but the Roman belief was, that it 
remained until Aeneas brought it to Italy, and that it was 
kept in the temple of Vesta at Rome. 

'' Apollo Smintheus, the Mouse Apollo, named for having 
destroyed a plague of mice. 

FASTI, VI. 411-435 

damming back the river {aver so amne). Here, too, 
there was a grove overgrown with bulrushes and 
reeds, and a marsh not to be trodden with booted 
feet. The pools have receded, and the river confines 
its water within its banks, and the ground is now 
dry ; but the old custom survives." The old woman 
thus explained the custom. " Farewell, good old 
dame," said I ; *' may what remains of life to thee 
be easy all ! " 

*^^ The rest of the tale I had learned long since 
in my boyish years ; yet not on that account may I 
pass it over in silence. Ilus, descendant of Dardanus, 
had lately founded a new city (Ilus was still rich and 
possessed the wealth of Asia) ; a celestial image of 
armed Minerva is believed to have leaped down on 
the hills of the Ilian city." (I was anxious to see it: 
I saw the temple and the place ; that is all that is 
left there ; the image of Pallas is in Rome.) Smin- 
theus ^ was consulted, and in the dim light of his 
shady grove he gave this answer with no lying lips : 
" Preserve the heavenly goddess, so shall ye pre- 
serve the city. She will transfer with herself the 
seat of empire." Ilus preserved the image of the 
goddess and kept it shut up on the top of the 
citadel ; the charge of it descended to his heir 
Laomedon. In Priam's reign the image was not 
well preserved. Such was the goddess's ovm. will 
ever since judgement was given against her in the 
contest of beauty. Whether it was the descendant 
of Adrastus,*' or the guileful Ulysses, or pious Aeneas 
who carried her off, the doer of the deed is un 
certain ; the thing is now at Rome : Vesta gur 
" Diomedes. 


Vesta, quod assiduo lumine cuncta videt. 
heu quantum timuere patres, quo tempore Vesta 

arsit et est tectis obruta paene suis ! 
flagrabant sancti sceleratis ignibus ignes, 
440 mixtaque erat flammae flamma prof ana piae. 
attonitae flebant demisso crine ministrae : 

abstulerat vires corporis ipse timor. 
provolat in medium, et magna " succurrite ! " voce 

" non est auxilium flere " Metellus ait. 
445 " pignora virgineis fatalia tollite palmis : 

non ea sunt voto, sed rapienda manu. 
me miserum ! dubitatis ? " ait. dubitare videbat 

et pavidas posito procubuisse genu, 
haurit aquas tollensque manus, '* ignoscite," dixit 
450 " sacra ! vir intrabo non adeunda viro. 
si scelus est, in me commissi poena redundet : 

sit capitis damno Roma soluta mei." 
dixit et irrupit. factum dea rapta probavit 

pontificisque sui munere tuta fuit. 
455 nunc bene lucetis sacrae sub Caesare flammae : 

ignis in Iliacis nunc erit usque focis, 
nuUaque dicetur vittas temerasse sacerdos 

hoc duce nee viva defodietur humo. 
sic incesta perit, quia quam violavit, in illam 
460 conditur, et Tellus Vestaque numen idem. 

« 241 B.C. 

" L. Caecilius Metellus, Pontifex Maximus. 

* The sacred things on which the safety of Rome depended : 
the Palladium, the conical image (acus) of the Mother of the 
Gods, the earthen chariot which had been brought from Veii, 
the ashes of Orestes, the sceptre of Priam, the veil of Iliona, 
and the sacred shields (ancilia). 

FASTI, VI. 436-460 

it, because she sees all things by her light that 
never fails. 

*3'' Alas, how alarmed the Senate was when the 
temple of Vesta caught fire, and the goddess 
was almost buried under her own roof " ! Holy fires 
blazed, fed by wicked fires, and a profane flame 
was blent with a pious flame. Amazed the 
priestesses wept with streaming hair ; fear had 
bereft them of bodily strength. Metellus^ rushed 
into their midst and in a loud voice cried, " Hasten 
ye to the rescue ! There is no help in weeping. Take 
up in your virgin hands the pledges given by fate ; 
it is not by prayers but by deed that they can be 
saved. Woe's me, do ye hesitate ? " said he. He saw 
that they hesitated and sank trembling on their knees. 
He took up water, and lifting up his hands, " Pardon 
me, ye sacred things, ** " said he, "I, a man, will 
enter a place where no man should set foot. If it 
is a crime, let the punishment of the deed fall on 
me ! May I pay with my head the penalty, so Rome 
go free ! " With these words he burst in. The 
goddess whom he carried off approved the deed and 
was saved by the devotion of her pontiff. 

455 Ye sacred flames, now ye shine bright under 
Caesar's rule ; the fire will now be for ever on the 
Ilian hearths, and it will not be on record that under 
his leadership any priestess defiled her sacred fillets, 
and none shall be buried in the hve ground.^ That is 
the doom of her who proves unchaste ; because she 
is put away in the earth which she contaminated, 
since Earth and Vesta are one and the same deity. 

^ The infula and vitta were torn from an unfaithful Vesta 
before she was buried alive. 

N 358 


Turn sibi Callaico Brutus cognomen ab hoste 

fecit et Hispanam sanguine tinxit humum. 
scilicet interdum miscentur tristia laetis, 

nee populum toto pectore festa iuvant : 
465 Crassus ad Euphraten aquilas natumque suosque 

perdidit et leto est ultimus ipse datus. 
*' Parthe, quid exultas ? " dixit dea " signa remittes, 

quique necem Crassi vindicet, ultor erit." 

10. AN 

At simul auritis violae demuntur asellis, 
470 et Cereris fruges aspera saxa terunt, 

navita puppe sedens " Delphina videbimus," inquit 
** humida cum pulso nox erit orta die." 

11. B MATRN 

lam, Phryx, a nupta quereris, Tithone, relinqui, 
et vigil Eois Lucifer exit aquis : 
476 ite, bonae matres (vestrum Matralia festum) 
flavaque Thebanae reddite liba deae. 
pontibus et magno iuncta est celeberrima Circo 

area, quae posito de bove nomen habet : 
hac ibi luce ferunt Matutae sacra parenti 
480 sceptriferas Servi templa dedisse manus. 
quae dea sit, quare famulas a limine templi 
arceat (arcet enim) libaque tosta petat, 

" A tribe of north-west Spain (Galicia) conquered by 
Dec. Junius Brutus, 138-137 b.c. 

" At Carrhae, 53 b.c. " See v. 580. 

<* Correct for true evening rising ; apparent, May 26. 

« Mater Matuta, wrongly identified with Ino. 

' Forum Boarium. 

FASTI, VI. 461-482 

*^i Then did Brutus win his surname from the 
Gallaecan" foe, and dyed the Spanish ground with 
blood. To be sure, sorrow is sometimes blent with 
joy, nor are festivals a source of unmingled gladness 
to the people : Crassus lost the eagles, his son, and 
his soldiers at the Euphrates, and perished last of all 
himself.'' " Why exult, thou Parthian ? " said the 
goddess ; " thou shalt send back the standards, and 
there will be an avenger who shall exact punishment 
for the slaughter of Crassus. ",<' 

IV. Id. 10th 

^®^ But as soon as the long-eared asses are stripped 
of their violets, and the rough millstones grind the 
fruits of Ceres, the sailor, sitting at the poop, says, 
" We shall see the Dolphin, when the day is put to 
flight and dank night has mounted up."** 

III. Id. 11th 

^'^ Now, Phrygian Tithonus, thou dost complain 
that thou art abandoned by thy spouse, and the 
watchful Morning Star comes forth from the eastern 
waters. Go, good mothers (the Matralia is your 
festival), and offer to the Theban goddess ^ the yellow 
cakes that are her due. Adjoining the bridges and 
the great Circus is an open space of far renown, 
which takes its name from the statue of an ox ^ : 
there, on this day, it is said, Servius consecrated 
with his own sceptered hands a temple to Mother 
Matuta. Who the goddess is, why she excludes (for 
exclude she does) female slaves from the threshold 
of her temple, and why she calls for toasted cakes, 



Bacche, racemiferos hedera redimite capillos, 

si domus ilia tua est, dirige vatis opus. 
485 arserat obsequio Semele lovis : accipit Ino 

te, puer, et summa sedula nutrit ope. 
intumuit luno, raptum quod paelice natum 

educet : at sanguis ille sororis erat. 
hinc agitur furiis Athairias et imagine falsa, 
490 tuque cadis patria, parve Learche, manu. 
maesta I^earcheas mater tumulaverat umbras 

et dederat miseris omnia iusta rogis. 
haec quoque, funestos ut erat laniata capillos, 

prosilit et cunis te, Melicerta, rapit. 
495 est spatio contracta brevi, freta bina repellit 

unaque pulsatur terra duabus aquis : 
hue venit insanis natum complexa lacertis 

et secum e celso mittit in alta iugo. 
excipit illaesos Panope centumque sorores, 
600 et placido lapsu per sua regna ferunt. 

nondum Leucothea, nondum puer ille Palaemon 

verticibus densi Thybridis ora tenent. 
lucus erat ; dubium Semelae Stimulaene vocetur : 

Maenadas Ausonias incoluisse ferunt. 
506 quaerit ab his Ino, quae gens foret : Arcadas esse 

audit et Evandrum sceptra tenere loci, 
dissimulata deam Latias Saturnia Bacchas 

instimulat fictis insidiosa sonis : 

<• See iii. 715, note. Ino is sister of Semele, and wife of 
Athamas. In consequence of Juno's resentment, Athamas 
went mad, and murdered his son Learchus ; upon which Ino 
cast herself into the sea, with her other son Mehcertes, from 
the Isthmus of Corinth. Panope and the other sea-nymphs 
caught her ; and the two became sea-divinities with the 
names of Leucothea and Palaemon. See Met. iv. 512-519. 

" See i. 469. 

FASTI, VI. 483-608 

do thou, O Bacchus, whose locks are twined with 
clustered grapes and ivy, (explain and) guide the 
poet's course, if the house of the goddess is also 
thine. Through the comphance of Jupiter with 
her request Semele was consumed with fire : " Ino 
received thee, young Bacchus, and zealously nursed 
thee with the utmost care. Juno swelled with 
rage that Ino should rear the son who had been 
snatched from his leman mother ; but that son was 
of the blood of Ino's sister. Hence Athamas was 
haunted by the furies and by a delusive vision, 
and, little Learchus, thou didst fall by thy father's 
hand.^ His sorrowful mother committed the shade 
of Learchus to the tomb and paid all the honours 
due to the mournful pyre. She, too, after tearing 
her rueful hair, leaped forth and snatched thee, 
MeHcertes, from thy cradle. A land there is, 
shrunk with narrow limits, which repels twin seas, 
and, single in itself, is lashed by twofold waters. 
Thither came Ino, clasping her son in her frenzied 
embrace, and hurled herself and him from a high 
ridge into the deep. Panope and her hundred sisters 
received them scatheless, and smoothly gliding bore 
them through their realms. They reached the mouth 
of thick-eddying Tiber before Ino had yet received 
the name of Leucothea and before her boy was 
called Palaemon. There was a sacred grove ; it 
is doubtful whether it should be called the grove 
of Semele or the grove of Stimula : they say that 
it was inhabited by Ausonian Maenads. Ino in- 
quired of them what was their nation ; she learned 
that they were Arcadians and that Evander was 
king of the place. ^ Dissembling her godhead, 
the daughter of Saturn shly incited the Latian 



*' o nimium faciles, o toto pectore captae ! 
510 non venit haec nostris hospes arnica choris. 
fraude petit sacrique parat cognoscere ritum ; 

quo possit poenas pendere, pignus habet." 
vix bene desierat, complent ululatibus auras 
Thyades efFusis per sua colla comis, 
515 iniciuntque manus puerumque revellere pugnant. 
quos ignorat adhuc, invoeat ilia deos : 
" dique virique loci, miserae succurrite matri ! " 

clamor Aventini saxa propinqua ferit. 
appulerat ripae vaccas Oetaeus Hiberas : 
520 audit et ad vocem concitus urget iter. 

Herculis adventu, quae vim modo ferre parabant, 

turpia femineae terga dedere fugae. 
" quid petis hinc " (cognorat enim) ** matertera 
Bacchi ? 
an numen, quod me, te quoque vexat ? " ait. 
625 ilia docet partim, partim praesentia nati 
continet, et furiis in scelus isse pudet. 
rumor, ut est velox, agitatis pervolat alis, 

estque frequens, Ino, nomen in ore tuum. 
hospita Carmentis fidos intrasse penates 
530 diceris et longam deposuisse famem ; 
liba sua properata manu Tegeaea sacerdos 

traditur in subito cocta dedisse foco. 
nunc quoque liba iuvant festis Matralibus illam : 
rustica sedulitas gratior arte fuit. 
635 " nunc," ait " o vates, venientia fata resigna, 

« Hercules, burnt on his pyre on Mount Oeta. 

* Ino. " Juno. 

<* See i. 461. Tegea is in Arcadia. 


FASTI, VI. 609-535 

Bacchanals by glozing words : " Too easy souls ! 
O blinded hearts ! This stranger comes no friend 
to our assemblies. Her aim is treacherous, she 
would learn our sacred rites. Yet she has a pledge 
by which we can ensure her punishment." Scarce 
had she ended, when the Thyads, with their locks 
streaming down their necks, filled the air with their 
howls, and laid hands on Ino, and strove to pluck 
the boy from her. She invoked the gods whom 
still she knew not : "Ye gods and men of the land, 
succour a wretched mother ! " The cry reached 
the neighbouring rocks of the Aventine. The 
Oetaean hero " had driven the Iberian kine to the 
river bank ; he heard and hurried at full speed 
towards the voice. At the approach of Hercules 
the women, who but a moment before had been 
ready to use violence, turned their backs shamefully 
in womanish flight. " What would 'st thou here, O 
sister of Bacchus' mother ^ ? " quoth Hercules, for 
he recognized her ; " doth the same deity ^ who 
harasses me harass thee also ? " She told him her 
story in part, but part the presence of her son 
induced her to suppress ; for she was ashamed to 
have been goaded into crime by the furies. Rumour 
— for she is fleet — flew far on pulsing wings, and thy 
name, Ino, was on many lips. It is said that as a 
guest thou didst enter the home of loyal Carmentis 
and there didst stay thy long hunger .'^ The Tegean 
priestess is reported to have made cakes in haste 
with her own hand and to have quickly baked them 
on the hearth. Even to this day she loves cakes 
at the festival of the Matralia. Rustic civility was 
dearer to her than the refinements of art. " Now," 
said Ino, *' reveal to me, O prophetess, my future 



qua licet, hospitiis hoc, precor, adde meis." 
parva mora est, caelum vates ac numina sumit 

fitque sui toto pectore plena dei ; 
vix illam subito posses cognoscere, tanto 
540 sanctior et tanto, quam modo, maior erat. 
** laeta canam. gaude, defuncta laboribus Ino," 

dixit " et huic populo prospera semper ades. 
numen eris pelagi, natum quoque pontus habebit. 

in vestris aliud sumite nomen aquis : 
545 Leucothea Grais, Matuta vocabere nostris ; 

in portus nato ius erit omne tuo, 
quem nos Portunum, sua lingua Palaemona dicet. 

ite, precor, nostris aequus uterque locis ! " 
annuerat, promissa fides, posuere labores, 
560 nomina mutarunt : hie deus, ilia dea est. 
cur vetet ancillas accedere, quaeritis ? odit, 

principiumque odii, si sinat ilia, canam. 
una ministrarum solita est, Cadmei, tuarum 

saepe sub amplexus coniugis ire tui. 
555 improbus hanc Athamas furtim dilexit ; ab ilia 

comperit agricolis semina tosta dari. 
ipsa quidem fecisse negat, sed fama recepit. 

hoc est, cur odio sit sibi serva manus. 
non tamen hanc pro stirpe sua pia mater adoret : 
560 ipsa parum felix visa fuisse parens, 
alterius prolem meHus mandabitis illi : 

utilior Baccho quam fuit ipsa suis. 

" See Appendix, p. 440. 
" Ino. Compare ii. 628, iii. 853. 

FASTI, VI. 636-562 

fate, so far as it is lawful ; I pray thee, add this 
favour to the hospitality I have already received." 
A brief pause ensued, and then the prophetess 
assumed her heavenly powers, and all her bosom 
swelled with majesty divine. Of a sudden you could 
hardly know her again ; so hoher, so taller far was 
she than she had been but now. " Glad tidings I 
will sing : rejoice, Ino, thy labours are over," said 
she. " O come propitious to this people ever- 
more ! Thou shalt be a divinity of the sea : thy son, 
too, shall have his home in ocean. Take ye both 
different names in your own waters. Thou shalt be 
called Leucothea by the Greeks and Matuta by 
our people : thy son will have all authority over 
harbours ; he whom we name Portunus " will be 
named Palaemon in his own tongue. Go, I pray 
ye, be friendly, both of ye, to our country ! " Ino 
bowed assent, she gave her promise. Their troubles 
ceased : they changed their names : he is a god and 
she a goddess. 

^51 You ask why she forbids female slaves to 
approach her ? She hates them, and the source of 
her hatred, with her leave, I will tell in verse. One 
of thy handmaids, daughter of Cadmus,^ used often to 
submit to the embraces of thy husband. The caitiff 
Athamas loved her secretly, and from her he learned 
that his wife gave toasted seed-corn to the husband- 
men. She herself, indeed, denied it, but rumour 
affirmed it. That is why she hates the service of a 
woman slave. Nevertheless let not an affectionate 
mother pray to her on behalf of her own offspring : 
she herself proved to be no lucky parent. You 
will do better to commend to her care the progeny 
of another ; she was more serviceable to Bacchus 



banc tibi, ** quo properas ? " memorant dixisse, 
" luce mea Marso consul ab hoste cades." 
565 exitus accessit verbis, flumenque Toleni 

purpureum mixtis sanguine fluxit aquis. 
proximus annus erat : Pallantide caesus eadem 
Didius hostiles ingeminavit opes. 

Lux eadem, Fortuna, tua est auctorque locusque ; 
670 sed superiniectis quis latet iste togis ? 

Servius est, hoc constat enim, sed causa latendi 
discrepat et dubium me quoque mentis habet. 
dum dea furtivos timide profitetur amores, 
caelestemque homini concubuisse pudet 
675 (arsit enim magno correpta cupidine regis 
caecaque in hoc uno non fuit ilia viro), 
nocte domum parva solita est intrare fenestra ; 

unde Fenestellae nomina porta tenet, 
nunc pudet, et voltus velamine celat amatos, 
580 oraque sunt multa regia tecta toga. 

an magis est verum post Tulli funera plebem 

confusam placidi morte fuisse ducis, 
nee modus ullus erat, crescebat imagine luctus, 
donee eum positis occuluere togis ? 
685 tertia causa mihi spatio maiore canenda est, 
nos tamen adductos intus agemus equos. 
Tullia coniugio sceleris mercede parato 
his solita est dictis extimulare virum : 

" P. Rutilius Lupus, slain by the Marsians at the river 
Tolenus, 90 b.c. In 89 b.c. L. Porcius Cato was slain by 
the same tribe. T. Didius served in the Marsic war. 

^ Pallantis, for Aurora. 

* King Servius Tullius dedicated a temple to Fortune and 
one to Matuta on the same day and place. The muffled 
image was probably Fortune herself. ^ Unknown. 


FASTI, VI. 663-588 

than to her own children. They relate that she said 
to thee, Rutilius, " Whither dost thou hasten ? On 
my day in thy consulship thou shalt fall by the hand 
of a Marsian foe." Her words were fulfilled, and 
the stream of the Tolenus flowed purple, its water 
mingled with blood. ° When the next year was come, 
Didius, slain on the same day,^ doubled the forces 
of the foe. 

^^® The same day. Fortune, is thine, and the same 
founder, and the same place." But who is yonder 
figure that is hidden in robes thrown one upon the 
other ? It is Servius : so much is certain, but 
different causes are assigned for his concealment, 
and my mind, too, is haunted by a ddubt. While 
the goddess timidly confessed her furtive love, and 
blushed to think that as a celestial being she should 
mate with a mere man (for she burned with a deep, 
an overmastering passion for the king, and he was 
the only man for whom she was not blind), she was 
wont to enter his house by a small window (^fenestra) ; 
hence the gate^ bears the name of Fenestella (" the 
Little Window "). To this day she is ashamed and 
hides the loved features beneath a veil, and the 
king's face is covered by many a robe. Or is the 
truth rather that after the murder of TulUus the 
common folk were bewildered by the death of the 
gentle chief, there were no bounds to their grief, 
and their sorrow increased with the sight of his 
statue, until they hid him by putting robes on him ? 

^®^ A third reason must be expounded in my 
verse at greater length, though I will rein in my 
steeds. Having purchased her marriage at the 
price of crime, Tullia used to incite her husband 



" quid iuvat esse pares, te nostrae caede sororis 
590 meque tui fratris, si pia vita placet ? 

vivere debuerant et vir meus et tua coniunx, 

si nullum ausuri maius eramus opus, 
et caput et regnum facio dot ale parentis : 
si vir es, i, dictas exige dotis opes. 
595 regia res scelus est. socero cape regna necato, 
et nostras patrio sanguine tingue manus." 
talibus instinctus solio privatus in alto 

sederat : attonitum volgus ad arma ruit. 
hinc cruor et caedes, infirmaque vincitur aetas : 
600 sceptra gener socero rapta Superbus habet. 
ipse sub Esquiliis, ubi erat sua regia, caesus 

concidit in dura sanguinulentus humo. 
filia carpento patrios initura penates 
ibat per medias alta feroxque vias. 
605 corpus ut aspexit, lacrimis auriga profusis 
restitit. hunc tali corripit ilia sono : 
** vadis, an expectas pretium pietatis amarum ? 

due, inquam, invitas ipsa per ora rotas." 
certa fides facti : dictus Sceleratus ab ilia 
610 vicus, et aeterna res ea pressa nota. 

post tamen hoc ausa est templum, monumentri 
tangere : mira quidem, sed tamen acta loquar. 
signum erat in solio residens sub imagine Tulli ; 
dicitur hoc oculis opposuisse manum, 
616 et vox audita est " voltus abscondite nostros, 
ne natae videant ora nefanda meae." 


FASTI, VI. 589-616 

by these words : " What boots it that we are well 
matched, thou by my sister's murder, and I by thy 
brother's, if we are content to lead a life of virtue ? 
Better that my husband and thy wife had lived, if 
we do not dare attempt some greater enterprise. 
I offer as my dower the head and kingdom of my 
father : if thou art a man, go to, exact the promised 
dower. Crime is a thing for kings. Kill thy wife's 
father and seize the kingdom, and dye our hands in 
my sire's blood." Instigated by such words, he, 
private man though he was, took his seat upon the 
lofty throne ; the mob, astounded, rushed to arms. 
Hence blood and slaughter, and the weak old man 
was overpowered: his son-in-law (Tarquin) the 
Proud snatched the sceptre from his father-in-law. 
Servius himself, at the foot of the Esquiline hill, 
where was his palace, fell murdered and bleeding 
on the hard ground. Driving in a coach to her 
father's home, his daughter passed along the middle 
of the streets, erect and haughty. When he saw 
her father's corpse, the driver burst into tears and 
drew up. She chode him in these terms : " Wilt 
thou go on, or dost thou wait to reap the bitter 
fruit of this thy loyalty f Drive, I say, the reluctant 
wheels across his very face ! " A sure proof of 
the deed is the name of the street called Wicked 
after her ; the event is branded with eternal infamy. 
Yet after that she dared to touch the temple, her 
father's monument : strange but true the tale I'll 
tell. There was a statue seated on a throne in 
the likeness of Tullius : it is said to have put its 
hand to its eyes, and a voice was heard, " Hide my 
face, lest it should see the execrable visage of my 
own daughter." The statue was covered by a robe 



veste data tegitur, vetat hanc Fort una moveri 

et sic e templo est ipsa locuta suo : 
** ore revelato qua primum luce patebit 
620 Servius, haec positi prima pudoris erit." 
parcite, matronae, vetitas attingere vestes : 

sollemni satis est voce movere preces, 
sitque caput semper Romano tectus amictu, 

qui rex in nostra septimus urbe fuit. 
625 arserat hoc templum, signo tamen ille pepercit 

ignis : opem nato Mulciber ipse tulit. 
namque pater Tulli Volcanus, Ocresia mater 

praesignis facie Corniculana fuit. 
hanc secum Tanaquil sacris de more peractis 
630 iussit in ornatum fundere vina focum : 
hie inter cin^res obsceni forma virihs 

aut fuit aut visa est, sed fuit ilia magis. 
iussa foco captiva sedet : conceptus ab ilia 

Servius a caelo semina gentis habet. 
636 signa dedit genitor tunc cum caput igne corusco 

contigit, inque comis flammeus arsit apex. 

Te quoque magnifica, Concordia, dedicat aede 

Livia, quam caro praestitit ipsa viro, 
disce tamen, veniens aetas, ubi Livia nunc est 
640 porticus, immensae tecta fuisse domus ; 

<* Ovid seems to allude to the opinion that this was a 
statue of Chastity or Modesty. 

^ In the great conflagration of 213 b.c. 

** Ocresia, or Ocrisia, was the wife of a prince of Corniculum 
named Tullius. When Tarquin took that city, the wife was 
given as a handmaid to Tanaquil. She was with child and 
Servius was her son. But his great fortunes suggested the 
magical story here told. When the boy was young, his head 
was once seen to be aflame, and this was taken for an omen 
(Livy, i. 39). 


FASTI, VI. 617-640 

lent for the purpose : Fortune forbade the garment 
to be moved, and thus she spoke from her own 
temple : " That day on which the statue of Servius 
shall be laid bare by unmuffling his face will be 
the first day of modesty cast to the winds."" Ye 
matrons, refrain from touching the forbidden 
garments ; enough it is to utter prayers in solemn 
tones. Let him who was the seventh king in our 
city always keep his head covered with Roman 
drapery. This temple was once burnt,'' yet the fire 
spared the statue : Mulciber himself rescued his 
son. For the father of TulUus was Vulcan, his 
mother was the beautiful Ocresia of Corniculum.^ 
After performing with her the sacred rites in due 
form, Tanaquil ordered Ocresia to pour wine on the 
hearth, which had been adorned. There among 
the ashes there was, or seemed to be, the shape of 
the male organ ; but rather the shape was really 
there. Ordered by her mistress, the captive Ocresia 
sat down at the hearth. She conceived Servius, 
who thus was begotten of seed from heaven. His 
begetter gave a token of his paternity when he 
touched the head of Servius with gleaming fire, and 
when on the king's hair there blazed a cap of flame. 

^3'' To thee, too, Concordia, Livia dedicated a 
magnificent shrine, which she presented to her dear 
husband. But learn, thou age to come, that where 
Livia 's colonnade now stands, there once stood a 
palace huge.'^ The single house was like the fabric 

•* Bequeathed by Vedius Pollio to Augustus, who de- 
stroyed it and built this colonnade on the site, and named 
it after Livia, 7 b.c. 



urbis opus domus una fait, spatiumque tenebat, 

quo brevius muris oppida multa tenent. 
haec aequata solo est, nullo sub crimine regni, 

sed quia luxuria visa nocere sua. 
645 sustinuit tantas operum subvertere moles 

totque suas heres perdere Caesar opes, 
sic agitur censura et sic exempla parantur, 

cum iudex, alios quod monet, ipse facit. 

12. CN 13. D EID • N 

Nulla not a est veniente die, quam dicer e possis. 
650 Idibus Invicto sunt data templa lovi. 

et iam Quinquatrus iubeor narrare minores. 
nunc ades o coeptis, flava Minerva, meis. 
** cur vagus incedit tota tibicen in urbe ? 

quid sibi personae, quid stola longa volunt ? ** 
655 sic ego. sic posita Tritonia cuspide dixit : 

(possim utinam doctae verba referre deae !) 
** temporibus veterum tibicinis usus avorum 
magnus et in magno semper honore fuit. 
cantabat fanis, cantabat tibia ludis, 
660 cantabat maestis tibia funeribus : 

dulcis erat mercede labor, tempusque secutum, 
quod subito gratae frangeret artis opus . . . ^ 
adde quod aedilis, pompam qui funeris irent, 
artifices solos iusserat esse decem. 
665 exilio mutant urbem Tiburque recedunt. 

^ There seems to he a lacuna here. 

<* See iii. 809 for the greater Quinquatrus. 

"» Athena, who by one account was a daughter of Poseidon 
and the Tritonian lake in Libya. 

FASTI, VI. 641-666 

of a city ; it occupied a space larger than that 
occupied by the walls of many a town. It was 
levelled with the ground, not on a charge of treason, 
but because its luxury was deemed harmful. Caesar 
brooked to overthrow so vast a structure, and to 
destroy so much wealth, to which he was himself 
the heir. That is the way to exercise the censor- 
ship ; that is the way to set an example, when the 
judge does himself what he warns others to do. 

Pr. Id. 12th. Id. ISth 

^'*^ The next day has no mark attached to it which 
you can note On the Ides a temple was dedicated 
to Unconquered Jupiter. And now I am bidden to 
tell of the Lesser Quinquatrus.** Now favour my 
undertaking, thou yellow-haired Minerva. " Why 
does the flute-player march at large through the 
whole city ? What mean the masks ? What means 
the long gown ? " So did I speak, and thus did 
Tritonia ^ answer me, when she had laid aside her 
spear — would that I could report the very words of 
the learned goddess ! "In the times of your 
ancestors of yore the flute-player was much employed 
and was always held in great honour. The flute 
played in temples, it played at games, it played at 
mournful funerals. The labour was sweetened by 
its reward ; but a time followed which of a sudden 
broke the practice of the pleasing art. . . . More- 
over, the aedile had ordered that the musicians 
who accompanied funeral processions should be ten, 
no more. The flute-players went into exile from 



exilium quodam tempore Tibur erat ! 
quaeritur in scaena cava tibia, quaeritur aris ; 

ducit supremos naenia nulla toros. 
servierat quidam. quantolibet ordine dignus, 
670 Tibure, sed longo tempore liber erat. 

rare dapes parat ille suo turbamque canoram 

convocat ; ad festas convenit ilia dapes. 
nox erat, et vinis oculique animique natabant, 

€um praecomposito nuntius ore venit, 
675 atque ita ' quid cessas convivia solvere ? * dixit 

* auctor vindictae nam venit ecce tuae.' 
nee mora, convivae valido titubantia vino 

membra movent : dubii stantque labantque pedes, 
at dominus * discedite ' ait plaustroque morantes 
680 sustulit : in plaustro scirpea lata fuit. 

alliciunt somnos tempus motusque merumque, 

potaque se Tibur turba redire putat. 
iamque per Esquilias Romanam intraverat urbem. 

et mane in medio plaustra fuere foro. 
685 PlautiuSj ut posset specie numeroque senatum 

fallere, personis imperat ora tegi, 
admiscetque alios et, ut hunc tibicina coetum 

augeat, in longis vestibus esse iubet ; 
sic reduces bene posse tegi, ne forte notentur 

" The flute-players, enraged at some ordinance of the Twelve 
Tables, seceded to Tibur, and refused to return. Livy says 
that the magistrates made them drunk, and got them back 
to Rome in wagons (ix. 30. 5-10) ; Ovid and Plutarch 
ascribe the feat to a freedman (Plutarch, Quaest. Rom. 55). 

'' The vindicta was the rod with which the freedman had 
been touched in the ceremony of manumission. The 
messenger pretends that the freedman's old master is coming, 
possibly to reclaim him as a slave. 

" Censor 312 b.c, his colleague being Appius Claudius, 

FASTI, VI, 690-712 

c^^noc nlc (1. lost they should be censured for having 
i\Miu baok {ijrainst the orders of his colleague.* The 

plan was a}^pvovcHl. nnd now they are rtllo>ved to 
ui\ir tlunr now i:aib ou the Ides and to sing merry 
\\orils to the M tunes." 

^'^■"' \Mu i\ she h{\d thus instructed me, " It only 
rtn\aii\< Km- mo to Uarn,** said I, ** why that day 
is oalloa (>uiiu|iiatrus>** "A festival of mine, 
quoth slu\ IS n Ulnatnl under that name in the 
nuM\th o( M;u\h, ami amonw my inventions is 
also the i^mUl ot" tluti- i^layrrs. 1 was the first, by 

piiM-oiui:- boxwoinl \\\i\\ hi^los wiilc apart, to produce 
tiio uui^u- ot" tho lono- tluto. The sound was 
l^loasino-; but in tho watcn- that voHoeted my face 
I saw n\y virgin oht^>ks putVoJ up. " I value not 
tho art si> ]n>rh ; t'an^woll, my tiutC ! ' Said I, and 

throw it away ; it toll on tlu> turf of the river-bank. 

A sat_M- '■ t"ounJ it aiul at tu'st bolu^liHt with WOndcr J 

l\o knoN\ not its u<o. but ptrocMvod that, when he 

Mow into it. tho tlati^ >:a\t> t\n-th a notv\ and with 
tho holp ot" his tinuors ho altornatc-ly bh^w out and 
ilrow in liis brt\ith. Ami now ho biM^^wl ot* his 
skill ainon«i- tlu" m mphs aiul I'halK-n^Oil riioc^biis : 
but. \aiunn^liOil b\ rhv>i>bus. \\c was«;oil aiul his 
boi.l\ tlayoil oi' its skin. Vet uju 1 tlio invcMitn^ss 
an^l t"v>o.iulii-^s ot" this music J that is why tho \no 
tV\s.vion keeps n»v days holy.** 

XVII. Kal. IvL. 15th 

^^ The third day will come, on which thou, O 
Thyone * of Dodona, wilt stand visible on the brow of 



690 contra collegae iussa redisse sui. 

res placuit, cultuque novo licet Idibus uti 

et canere ad veteres verba iocosa modos." 
haec ubi perdocuit, " superest mihi discere " dixi 
" cur sit Quinquatrus ilia vocata dies." 
695 ** Martius " inquit " agit tali mea nomine festa, 
estque sub inventis haec quoque turba meis. 
prima, terebrato per rara foramina buxo 

ut daret, efFeci, tibia longa sonos. 
vox placuit : faciem liquidis referentibus undis 
700 vidi virgineas intumuisse genas. 

* ars mihi non tanti est ; valeas, mea tibia ' dixi : 

excipit abiectam caespite ripa suo. 
inventam satyrus primum miratur et usum 
nescit ; at inflatam sensit habere sonum 
705 et modo dimittit digitis, modo concipit auras, 
iamque inter nymphas arte superbus erat : 
provocat et Phoebum. Phoebo superante pependit 

caesa recesserunt a cute membra sua. 
sum tamen inventrix auctorque ego carminis huius. 
710 hoc est, cur nostros ars colat ista dies." 

14. E E[N] 15. F Q • ST • D • F 

Tertia lux veniet, qua tu, Dodoni Thyone, 
stabis Agenorei fronte videnda bovis. 

" Appius Claudius. 

" Ovid thought this implied five days ; see iii. 809. 

* Marsyas. 

<* One of the Hyades, also called nymphs of Dodona. 
Their true morning rising was on May 6 ; apparent, June 9, 

FASTI, VI. 690-712 

concealed, lest they should be censured for having 
come back against the orders of his colleague." The 
plan was approved, and now they are allowed to 
wear their new garb on the Ides and to sing merry 
words to the old tunes." 

693 When she had thus instructed me, " It only 
remains for me to learn," said I, " why that day 
is called Quinquatrus.^ " "A festival of mine," 
quoth she, "is celebrated under that name in the 
month of March, and among my inventions is 
also the guild of flute-players. I was the first, by 
piercing boxwood with holes wide apart, to produce 
the music of the long flute. The sound was 
pleasing ; but in the water that reflected my face 
I saw my virgin cheeks puffed up. ' I value not 
the art so high ; farewell, my flute ! ' said I, and 
threw it away ; it fell on the turf of the river-bank. 
A satyr ^ found it and at first beheld it with wonder ; 
he knew not its use, but perceived that, when he 
blew into it, the flute gave forth a note, and with 
the help of his fingers he alternately blew out and 
drew in his breath. And now he bragged of his 
skill among the nymphs and challenged Phoebus ; 
but, vanquished by Phoebus, he was hanged and his 
body flayed of its skin. Yet am I the inventress 
and foundress of this music ; that is why the pro- 
fession keeps my days holy." 

XVII. Kal. Ivl. 15th 

'11 The third day will come, on which thou, O 
Thyone ^ of Dodona, wilt stand visible on the brow of 



haec est ilia dies, qua tu purgamina Vestae, 
Thybri, per Etruscas in mare mittis aquas. 

715 Si qua fides ventis, Zephyro date carbasa, nautae. 
eras veniet vestris ille secundus aquis. 

16. GC 17. HC 18. AC 

At pater Heliadum radios ubi tinxerit undis, 
et cinget geminos stella serena polos, 

toilet humo validos proles Hyriea lacertos : 
720 continua Delphin nocte videndus erit. 

scilicet hie olim Volscos Aequosque fugatos 
viderat in campis, Algida terra, tuis ; 

unde suburbano clarus, Tuberte, triumpho 
vectus es in niveis, Postume, victor equis. 

19. BC 

725 lam sex et totidem luces de mense supersunt, 
huic unum numero tu tamen adde diem : 
sol abit a Geminis, et Cancri signa rubescunt ; 
coepit Aventina Pallas in arce coli. 

20. CC 

lam tua, Laomedon, oritur nurus ortaque noctem 
730 pellit, et e pratis uda pruina fugit : 

" Father of Europa. 

" Swept out yearly on this day. See App. p. 425. 

" Helios, TjXiosy " the Sun." 

* Orion. See v. 493-536. Ovid is right for one star of 
Orion as to the day, but wrong in placing it at evening 
instead of morning. 

* In 431 B.C., A. Postumius Tubertus, dictator, defeated 
the Aequians and Volscians at Mount Algidus. 

' Father of Tithonus. 

FASTI, VI. 713-730 

Agenor's** bull. It is the day on which thou, O 
Tiber, dost send the filth of Vesta's temple down the 
Etruscan water to the sea.* 

XVI. Kal. 16th 

'1^ If any trust can be put in the winds, spread your 
canvas to the West Wind, ye mariners ; to-morrow it 
will blow fair upon your waters. 

XV. Kal. 17th. XIV. Kal. 18th 

'1' But when the father of the Heliades ^ shall have 
dipped his rays in the billows, and heaven's twin 
poles are girdled by the stars serene, the offspring 
of Hyrieus ^ shall lift his mighty shoulders above the 
earth : on the next night the Dolphin will be visible. 
That constellation once indeed beheld the Volscians 
and the Aequians put to flight upon thy plains, O 
land of Algidus ; whence thou, Postumius Tubertus,* 
didst win a famous triumph over the neighbouring 
folks and didst ride victorious in a car drawn by 
snow-white horses. 

XIII. Kal. 19th 

725 Now twice six days of the month are left, but to 
that number add one day ; the sun departs from the 
Twins, and the constellation of the Crab flames red ; 
Pallas begins to be worshipped on the Aventine hill. 

XII. Kal. 20th 

729 Now, Laomedon,^ thy son's wife rises, and 
having risen she dispels the night, and the dank 



reddita, quisquis is est, Summano templa feruntur, 
turn, cum Romanis, Pyrrhe, timendus eras. 

Hanc quoque cum patriis Galatea receperit undis, 

plenaque securae terra quietis erit, 
735 surgit humo iuvenis telis afflatus avitis 

et gemino nexas porrigit angue manus. 
notus amor Phaedrae, nota est iniuria Thesei : 

devovit natum credulus ille suum. 
non impune plus iuvenis Troezena petebat ; 
740 dividit obstantes pectore taurus aquas, 
solliciti terrentur equi frustraque retenti 

per scopulos dominum duraque saxa trahunt. 
exciderat curru lorisque morantibus artus 

Hippolytus lacero corpore raptus erat 
745 reddideratque animam, multum indignante Diana. 

" nulla " Coronides ** causa doloris " ait ; 
** namque pio iuveni vitam sine volnere reddam, 

et cedent arti tristia fata meae." 
gramina continue loculis depromit eburnis 
750 (profuerant Glauci manibus ilia prius, 

tunc cum observatas augur descendit in herbas, 

usus et auxilio est anguis ab angue dato), 

" A sort of nocturnal Jupiter, god of the nightly sky, 
especially in his capacity of a hurler of lightning. 

* Probably 278 b.c. 

* Anguitenens (Ophiuchus). Evening rising, April 19 ; 
but this is within a few days of its true morning setting at 

<^ See Met. xv. 497-529. Phaedra, wife of Theseus, made 
advances to his son Hippolytus, which were repulsed. She 
accused him of having made advances to her, and he prayed 
to his father Poseidon, to punish Hippolytus. Poseidon sent 
a bull out of the sea to frighten Hippolytus's horses, and the 
young man was killed. " Aesculapius. 


FASTI, VI. 731-752 

hoar-frost flees from the meadows. The temple is 
said to have been dedicated to Summanus," whoever 
he may be, at the time when thou, Pyrrhus, wast 
a terror to the Romans.^ 

XI. Kal. 21st 

733 When that day also has been received by 
Galateain her father's waters, and all the world is sunk 
in untroubled sleep, there rises above the horizon the 
young man blasted by the bolts of his grandsire and 
stretches out his hands, entwined with twin snakes.*' 
Familiar is the tale of Phaedra's love, familiar, too, 
the wrong that Theseus did, when, too confiding, he 
did curse his son to death.** Doomed by his piety, 
the youth was journeying to Troezen, when a bull 
cleft with his breast the waters in his path. Fear 
seized the startled steeds ; in vain their master held 
them back, they dragged him along the crags and 
flinty rocks. Hippolytus fell from the car, and, his 
limbs entangled by the reins, his mangled body 
was whirled along, till he gave up the ghost, much 
to Diana's rage. " There is no need for grief," 
said the son of Coronis,* " for I \\dll restore the 
pious youth to life all unscathed, and to my leech- 
craft gloomy fate shall yield." Straightway he 
drew from an ivory casket simples that before had 
stood Glaucus' ghost ^ in good stead, what time 
the seer went down to pluck the herbs he had 
remarked, and the snake was succoured by a snake. 

^ The story is told by Apollodorus, iii. 3. 1 (see the Loeb 
edition by J. G. Frazer, vol. i. p. 311). Glaucus, as a boy, 
was drowned in a jar of honey ; and his father restored him 
by using a herb which he saw a serpent use for a fellow- 



pectora ter tetigit, ter verba salubria dixit : 
depositum terra sustulit ille caput. 
755 lucus eum nemorisque sui Dictynna recessu 
celat : Aricino Virbius ille lacu. 
at Clymenus Clothoque dolent : haec, fila reneri, 

hie, fieri regni iura minora sui. 
luppiter exemplum veritus direxit in ipsum 
760 fulmina, qui nimiae noverat artis opem. 

Phoebe, querebaris : deus est, placare parenti : 
propter te, fieri quod vetat, ipse facit. 

21. DC 

Non ego te, quamvis properabis vincere, Caesar, 
si vetet auspicium, signa movere vehm. 
765 sint tibi Flaminius Trasimenaque Utora testes 
per volucres aequos multa monere deos. 

tempora si veteris quaeris temeraria damni, 
quintus ab extremo mense bis ille dies. 

22. EC 

Postera lux melior : superat Masinissa Syphaeem, 
770 et cecidit telis Hasdrubal ipse suis. 

23. FC. 24. GC 

Tempora labuntur, tacitisque senescimus annis, 
et fugiunt freno non remorante dies. 

« See ill. 263. ^ Pluto. 

* One of the three Fates. 

<* 217 B.C. Flaminius set the omens at defiance. 

* Hasdrubal, son of Gisco, and Syphax were defeated by 
Masinissa and Scipio, 203 b.c. 

^ Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal, fell fighting at the 


FASTI, VI. 753-772 

Thrice he touched the youth's breast, thrice he 
spoke healing words ; then Hippolytus Ufted his 
head, low laid upon the ground. He found a 
hiding-place in a sacred grove and in the depths of 
Dictynna's own woodland ; he became Virbius of the 
Arician Lake.** But Cly menus ^ and Clotho <' grieved, 
she that hfe's broken thread should be respun, he 
that his kingdom's rights should be infringed. 
Fearing the example thus set, Jupiter aimed a 
thunderbolt at him who knew the resources of a 
too potent art. Phoebus, thou didst complain. But 
Aesculapius is a god, be reconciled to thy parent : 
he did himself for thy sake what he forbids others 
to do. 

X. Kal. 22nd 

'•3 However great thy haste to conquer, O Caesar, 
I would not have thee march, if the auspices for- 
bade. Be Flaminius and the Trasimenian shores 
thy witnesses that the kind gods give many warnings 
by means of birds. If you ask the date of that 
ancient disaster, incurred through recklessness, it 
was the tenth day from the end of the month.** 

IX. Kal. 23rd 

'** The next day is luckier : on it Masinissa de- 
feated Syphax,* and Hasdrubal fell by his own sword .^ 

VIII. Kal. 24th 

'''^ Time slips away, and we grow old with silent 
lapse of years ; there is no bridle that can curb the 

Metaurus, 207 b.c. ; perhaps this refers to the son of Gisco, 
who took poison after the defeat of Syphax. 



quam cito venerunt Fortunae Fortis honores ! 

post septem luces lunius actus erit. 
776 ite, deam laeti Fortem celebrate, Quirites : 

in Tiberis ripa munera regis habet. 
pars pede, pars etiam celeri decurrite cumba, 

nee pudeat potos inde redire domum. 
ferte coronatae iuvenum convivia lintres, 
780 multaque per medias vina bibantur aquas, 
plebs colit banc, quia qui posuit, de plebe fuisse 

fertur et ex humili sceptra tulisse loco, 
convenit et servis, serva quia Tullius ortus 

constituit dubiae templa propinqua deae. 

25. HC 26. AC 

785 Ecce suburbana rediens male sobrius aede 
ad Stellas aliquis talia verba iacit : 
" zona latet tua nunc, et eras fortasse latebit : 

dehinc erit, Orion, aspicienda mihi." 
at si non esset potus, dixisset eadem 
790 venturum tempus solstitiale die. 

27. BC 28. CF 

Lucifero subeunte Lares delubra tulerunt 
hie, ubi fit docta multa corona manu. 

tempus idem Stator aedis habet, quam Romulus olim 
ante Palatini condidit ora iugi. 

" True morning rising of middle star was on June 21 ; 
apparent, July 13. The summer solstice was on June 24. 

*» In a battle between Romans and Sabines, the Romans 
were driven back ; but Romulus prayed Jupiter to stay their 
flight, and vowed a temple in case of success to Jupiter the 
Stayer, which he afterwards built on the spot (Livy i. 12). 


FASTI, VI. 773-794 

flying days. How quickly has come round the festival 
of Fors Fortuna ! Yet seven days and June will be 
over. Come, Quirites, celebrate with joy the 
goddess Fors ! On Tiber's bank she has her 
royal foundations. Speed some of you on foot, 
and some in the swift boat, and think no shame to 
return tipsy home from your ramble. Ye flower- 
crowned skiffs, bear bands of youthful revellers, 
and let them quaff deep draughts of wine on the 
bosom of the stream. The common folk worship 
this goddess because the founder of her temple is 
said to have been of their number and to have risen 
to the crown from humble rank. Her worship is 
also appropriate for slaves, because Tullius, who 
instituted the neighbouring temples of the fickle 
goddess, was born of a slave woman. 

Vn. Kal. 25th. VI. Kal. 26th 

^^^ Lo, returning from the suburban shrine, a 
maudlin worshipper thus hails the stars : " Orion, thy 
belt is now invisible, and perhaps it will be invisible 
to-morrow : after that it will be within my ken." 
But if he had not been tipsy, he would have said 
that the solstice would fall on the same day.** 

V. Kal. 27th 

'^^ Next morn the Lares were given a sanctuary on 
the spot where many a» wreath is twined by deft 
hands. At the same time was built the temple of 
Jupiter Stator, which Romulus of old founded in 
front of the Palatine hill.'' 



29. DF 

795 Tot restant de mense dies, quot nomina Parcis, 
cum data sunt trabeae templa, Quirine, tuae. 

80. EC 

Tempus luleis eras est natale Kalendis : 

Pierides, coeptis addite summa meis. 

dicite, Pierides, quis vos adiunxerit isti, 

800 cui dedit in vitas victa noverca manus. 

sic ego. sic Clio : " clari monument a Philippi 

aspicis, unde trahit Marcia casta genus, 
Marcia, sacrifico deductum nomen ab Anco, 

in qua par facies nobilitate sua est. 
805 [par animo quoque forma suo respondet ; in ilia 

et genus et facies ingeniumque simul.] 
nee quod laudamus formam, tu turpe putaris : 

laudamus magnas hac quoque parte deas. 
nupta fuit quondam matertera Caesaris illi. 
810 o decus, o sacra femina digna domo ! " 
sic cecinit Clio, doctae assensere sorores; 

annuit Alcides increpuitque lyram. 

<• See ii. 511, February 17. There appears to have been 
only one temple, dedicated by L. Papirius Cursor in 293 B.C., 
rebuilt by Augustus 16 b.c. ; but on which day does not 

^ Juno, who reluctantly gave Hercules a place in the 
temple of the Muses. 

" L. Marcius Philippus restored the temple of Hercules 
Musarum, in the time of Augustus. His daughter Marcia 
was wife of P. Fabius Maximus. Compare Ovid, Ex Ponto^ 
i. 127-142, iii. 1. 75-78. The Marcian family claimed to be 


FASTI, VI. 795 812 

III. Kal. 29th 

795 When as many days of the month remain as the 
Fates have names, a temple was dedicated to thee, 
Quirinus, god of the striped gown." 

Pr. Kal. 30th 

797 To-morrow is the birthday of the Kalends of July. 
Pierides , put the last touches to my undertaking . Tell 
me, Pierides, who associated you with him to whom 
his stepmother was forced to yield reluctantly.^ So 
I spoke, and Clio answered me thus : " Thou dost 
behold the monument of that famous Philip from 
whom the chaste Marcia is descended, Marcia who 
derives her name from sacrificial Ancus, and whose 
beauty matches her noble birth. <' In her the figure 
answers to the soul ; in her we find lineage and 
beauty and genius all at once. Nor deem our praise 
of figure base ; on the same ground we praise great 
goddesses. The mother's sister of Caesar was once 
married to that Phihp.^ O glorious dame ! Olady 
worthy of that sacred house ! " So Clio sang. Her 
learned sisters chimed in ; Alcides bowed assent 
and twanged his lyre. 

descended from King Ancus Marcius, and added the sur- 
name Rex to their family name. 

** Atia, mother of Augustus, appears to have married 
Marcius Philippus after the death of C. Octavius. Atia was 
niece of Julius Caesar. Some think that Atia had a younger 
sister, also Atia, who was confused with the elder. 



The year of ten months (i. 28). — According to Roman 
tradition, Romulus instituted a year of ten months, with 
a total of 304 days ; the months began with March and 
ended with December. Afterwards two months, January 
and February, were added, making a total of 355 days, ap- 
proximately a lunar year. O. E. Hartmann thought that 
in the old days the time from mid-winter to spring, during 
which the labours of the husbandmen were for the most 
part suspended, and nature herself appeared to be dormant, 
if not dead, was looked on as a period of rest, and was there- 
fore excluded from the calendar, the object of which was to 
regulate the activities of the people during the remainder 
of the year. This explanation I regard as probably the 
true one. Analogies had suggested the explanation to me, 
before I learnt that it had been anticipated. The calendar 
in that form must date from a prehistoric age, when the 
Latins were still a rude people, subsisting mainly by agri- 
culture. To all appearances our remote ancestors re- 
cognized only lunar months, which they allowed to run on 
without attempting to fit them into the solar year. 

Take the Negro tribes of S. Nigeria, described by Mr. 
P. Amaury Talbot. " Time was measured by the moon. 
. . . This lunar month was divided into weeks of four or 
eight days in the west. . . . The subdivisions into weeks 
in all likelihood originated chiefly from the necessity of 
differentiating between the days on which the various 
markets were held. . . . The fitting of the weeks into 
months is by no means perfect. ... As a rule, those 
months from about Nov.-Dec. to Jan.-Feb., when no 

o 385 


work was being done, were thought negligible and hardly- 
included. In fact, the word translated by our * year ' 
more often meant the season. . . . There was usually no 
thought about the number of months in the year." 
Among the Yoruba of this region the three months 
February, March, April, are generally given no specific 

The African calendar resembles the old Roman in its 
system of an eight-day week based on the recurrence of 
markets ; these market-days correspond exactly to the 
nundinae. On Roman market-days, as on the Jewish 
Sabbath, all ordinary work in the fields was strictly for- 
bidden : the same rule is observed on the market-days in 
S. Nigeria. 

The parallel with Rome is not confined to Africa. We 
may follow it, for example, to New Zealand. An English 
missionary (Rev. W. Yate) in the early part of the nine- 
teenth century, described their customs from personal 
observation. " Nine months of the year, a great portion of 
the natives are employed on their grounds ; and there are 
only two months in which they can say they have nothing to 
do. . . . These two months are not in the calendar : they 
do not reckon them : nor are they in any way accounted 
of. * It is a time,' the natives say, ' not worthy to be 
reckoned : as it is only spent in visiting, feasting, talking, 
playing and sleeping.' " In the Triobrand Islands, to the 
east of New Guinea, most mature men can count up to 
eight months and sometimes up to ten, only a few speci- 
ally trained can enumerate correctly twelve months. The 
period of nameless months is the time when work in the 
gardens is finished. There are some indications that in 
other parts of the world the original calendar reckoned 
only ten months in the year. Such a system is found 
among the Chams of Indo-China, and in some islands of 
the Indian Archipelago. A division of the year into ten 
parts, we can hardly call them months, is found also among 
peoples who earn a precarious subsistence by hunting, 
fishing, and collecting wild fruits and roots. 



There is some ground for thinking that the Anglo- 
Saxons at one time recognized, or at least named, only ten 
months of the year : for according to Bede they had only 
one name for December and January, and only one name 
for June and July. 

Janus (i. 89).— Some of the most eminent authorities 
have agreed in deriving the name from ianua, " a door." 
But there are difficulties in the way. In the first place, so 
far from Janus being called after ianua, " a door," it 
appears probable, if not certain, that ianua was called after 
him ; and if that was so, it seems to follow that Janus led a 
separate and independent life before he came to be especi- 
ally associated with doors. The reason for thinking so 
is this. The word ianua as applied to a door has nothing 
to correspond to it in any Indo-European language : but 
the regular word for door is the same in all the languages 
of the Aryan family from India to Ireland. Why, when 
the Romans were in possession of this good old name for a 
door, did they invent another and call it ianua } The 
word has the appearance of being an adjectival form de- 
rived from the noun lanus. I conjecture that it may have 
been customary to set up an image or symbol of Janus at 
the principal door of the house in order to place the 
entrance under the protection of the great god that, as 
we shall see immediately, Janus appears originally to have 
been. A door thus guarded might be known as the ianua 
/oris, that is a Januan door, and the phrase might in time 
be abridged into ianua, the noun /oris being understood 
but not expressed. 

There seems to be good reason to think that the original 
form of the god's name was Dianus, the initial DI having 
been corrupted into J, just as the original Diovis and 
Diespiter were corrupted into Jovis and Jupiter. Similarly 
the name of Diana, which is the feminine form of Dianus, 
appears to have been corrupted in vulgar pronunciation 
into Jana : for Varro tells us that in reference to the days 
of the month country people spoke of the waxing and 
waning Jana, where educated folk would seemingly have 



said Diana, meaning the moon. In Greek it is certain 
that the original DI was similarly corrupted into Z, as is 
proved by the name of Zeus, for the original DI reappears 
in the genitive, dative, and accusative DIOS, DII, DIA. 
Similarly ZAN, an old form of Zeus, stands for an 
original DIAN, which answers exactly to the Latin 
DIANUS, JANUS. Further, at Dodona, his most ancient 
sanctuary, Zeus shared his temple with Dione, in whom 
the learned mythologist Apollodorus discerned the first 
wife of Zeus, the wife whom that fickle and faithless god 
afterwards exchanged for Hera. His Italian counterpart 
gave proof of much greater conjugal fidelity by always 
keeping to his first wife, Juno, whose old name, to judge by 
that of her Greek counterpart Dione, must have been 
Diono. Compared with the kindred Sanscrit name Dyaus, 
the old German Zio, and so forth, all these names are ulti- 
mately derived from an Indo-European root DI, meaning 
" bright " ; and as the Sanscrit Dyaus, the Greek Zeus, 
and the Latin Jupiter were undoubtedly personifications 
of the sky, a very strong presumption is raised that Janus 
also, whose name cannot without violence be separated 
from theirs, was in origin also a god of the sky, a simple 
duplicate of Dyaus, Zeus, and Jupiter. The ancients 
themselves seem to have been sensible of the kinship, not 
to say identity, of Janus and Jupiter. An inscription 
records the dedication of an offering to Jupiter Dianus, 
as if Jupiter and Dianus (Janus) were one and the same. 
And we know from the good testimony of Varro that 
some of the ancients identified Janus with the sky ; in 
the fourteenth book of his Divine Antiquities that most 
learned of Roman antiquaries affirmed that among the 
Etruscans in particular the name Janus was used as 
equivalent to the sky. We shall do well to acquiesce in 
this opinion of some ancient authorities, strongly supported 
as it is by the conclusions of modern philology. 

But why was Janus regularly represented with two 
heads ? The question is perhaps even more difficult to 
answer than that of the original nature of the deity. 



Elsewhere I have conjectured that this curious mode of 
representation originated in a custom of placing an image 
of the god at gates and doors as a sort of divine sentinel to 
guard them from the passage of evil powers, and in support 
of this conjecture I have cited the double-headed idol 
which the Bush negroes of Surinam regularly set up as a 
guardian at the entrance of a village. The idol consists 
of a block of wood with a human face rudely carved on 
each side ; it stands under a gateway composed of two 
uprights and a cross-bar. Beside the idol generally lies 
a white rag intended to keep off the devil ; and sometimes 
there is also a stick which seems to represent a bludgeon 
or weapon of some sort. Further, from the cross-bar 
dangles a small log which serves the useful purpose of 
knocking on the head any evil spirit who might attempt to 
pass through the gateway. Clearly this double-headed 
fetish at the gateway of negro villages in Surinam bears 
a close resemblance to the double-headed images of 
Janus, which, grasping a staff in his right hand and a 
key in his left, stood sentinel at Roman archways (iani 
i. 95, 99), and it seems reasonable to suppose that in 
both cases the heads facing two ways are to be similarly 
explained as expressive of the vigilance of the guardian 
god, who kept his eye on spiritual foes both before and 
behind, and stood ready to bludgeon them on the spot. 

Lupercalia (ii. 267). — The priesthood of the Luperci 
included two colleges, the Quinctiales or Quinctilii, and 
the Fabiani or Fabii. In 44 b.c. a third college, called the 
Julii, was established by Julius Caesar. The sanctuary 
which was the centre of the sacred functions of the Luperci 
was known as the Lupercal ; it appears to have been 
situated at the south-west foot of the Palatine hill. It 
was traditionally said to have been a great cave at the foot 
of the hill, with springs of water welling up under the 
rocks, and overarched by a thick grove of oaks. In that 
sylvan scene the she- wolf is said to have suckled Romulus 
and Remus. In the Lupercal there formerly grew a 
fig-tree called the Ficus Ruminalis. 



According to the testimony of the ancients the Lnper- 
calia was essentially a purificatory rite. In particular it 
was a purification of the ancient city on the Palatine, of 
which the boundary, as it was believed to have been fixed 
by Romulus, continued to be marked out by stones down 
to Imperial times. At their annual festival the Luperci 
appear to have run round the boundary of the ancient 
city. Certainly they started from the Lupercal and made 
a circuit, in the course of which they ran up the Sacred 
Way and down again, which Christians in the time of 
Augustine absurdly interpreted as a reminiscence of the 
Deluge, the Luperci representing the sinners who on that 
occasion ran up and down the mountains as the waters 
of the Flood rose or fell. Moreover, Dionysius of HaH- 
carnassus expressly afiirms that in the time of Romulus 
the Lupercalia were celebrated by young men, who, 
starting from the Lupercal (which he calls the Lyceum), 
ran round the village on the Palatine, clad only in girdles 
made from the skins of the sacrificial victims ; and he 
adds that the rite was a traditional purification observed 
by the villagers in the time of Romulus and continued 
down to the writer's own day. The skins of which the 
girdles were made were those of goats which had been 
sacrificed. At the festival the Luperci also sacrificed a 
dog, which was deemed a purificatory rite. With strips 
of the skins of the sacrificed goats the Luperci struck at all 
whom they met, but especially at women, who held out 
both hands to receive the blows, persuaded that this was 
a safe mode of securing offspring and an easy delivery. 
The goatskin with which they were struck was called 
Juno's cloak, a name which becomes intelligible when we 
remember that in her great temple at Lanuviumthe 
goddess was represented clad in a goatskin as in a cloak. 
Hence it is not surprising to read, that according to a 
certain Anysius in his treatise on the months, the rites 
performed by the Luperci in February aimed at promoting 
the growth of the crops ; for in the minds of many people 
at an early stage of cidture the fertility of women is closely 



bound up with the fertility of the earth, and the same 
causes which promote or hinder the one are thought to pro- 
mote or hinder the other, a vital connexion being supposed 
to subsist between the union of the human sexes on the 
one hand and the fruitfulness of the ground on the other. 
A hint of this connexion is perhaps given by the part which 
the Vestal Virgins played at the Lupercalia. Between the 
7th and 14th of May, on alternate days, the three eldest 
Vestals collected ears of spelt in reapers' baskets, and 
with their own hands roasted and ground them. From 
this spelt, mixed with salt, they provided the sacrificial 
meal on three days of the year, namely at the Lupercalia 
on January 15, at the festival of Vesta (the Vestalia) on 
June 9, and on the Ides (13th) of September. The name 
of Creppi or Crepi popularly applied to the Luperci appears 
to be an old form of capri, " he-goats," and to have been 
suggested by the goatskins which they wore and which 
they carried in their hands. 

By far the most famous celebration of the Lupercalia 
was that which fell on the 15th of February, 44 B.C., 
exactly one month before the assassination of Caesar. 
The dictator was then at the height of his power and at 
the summit of human glory. A golden throne had been 
set for him on the Rostra, and there, clad in the gorgeous 
costume of a general at his triumph, he sat watching the 
antics of the Luperci in the Forum below. It chanced 
that his friend Mark Antony was his colleague in the 
consulship and also Master of the new college of Julian 
Luperci. In that capacity Antony, naked and glistening 
with oil after the fashion of the Luperci, came running into 
the Forum, the crowd opening to let him pass. He 
made straight for the Rostra, and being hoisted on to the 
platform by his colleagues, he advanced to Caesar, and 
offered to place on the dictator's head a diadem twined with 
laurel. In the crowd there was some slight applause but 
more hissing. When Caesar pushed the bauble away, the 
crowd applauded. Again Antony presented the crown, 
and again Caesar refused it, whereupon the whole multitude 



broke into a tumult of applause. Caesar frowned, and 
standing up from his golden chair he pulled his robe from 
his neck and offered his throat to anyone who pleased to 
cut it. His friends placed the crown on one of his 
statues, but when the tribunes tore it down, the spectators 
cheered them. According to Cicero, who may have 
witnessed the scene, Antony was drunk as well as naked 
when he attempted to crown Caesar king of Rome. 

According to Ovid, the god whom the Luperci sei-ved 
was Faunus, a deity of the woodlands and of cattle, whose 
festival fell on the 5th of December, when the flocks and 
herds skipped in his honour on the greensward, and in the 
forest the fallen leaves " yellow, and black, and pale, and 
hectic red," made a soft carpet for the light footsteps of 
the amorous god as he pursued the nymphs among the 
trees. He was thought to keep the wolves from the lambs, 
a function appropriate to the Lupercalia, if, as some have 
thought, the prime aim of that festival was to guard the 
flocks and herds from the prowling wolf. But according 
to Livy the god whom the Luperci honoured was named 
Inuus. The ancients identified this Inuus with the Greek 
god Pan, and both of them with Faunus ; otherwise little 
or nothing is known about him, except that in Italy he 
was honoured, sometimes with yearly, sometimes with 
monthly festivals. An image of the supposed god, what- 
ever he may have been called, stood in the Lupercal ; it 
represented the deity in the costume of the Luperci, that 
is, naked with a girdle of goatskin about his loins. 

The primitive character of the ritual and of the ideas 
implied in it suggests that originally the Lupercalia was 
rather a magical than a religious rite, and hence that it 
did not involve a reference to any particular deity, but 
was simply one of those innumerable ceremonies whereby 
men have attempted, in all ages and in all countries, by 
their own efforts, without divine assistance, to repel the 
powers of evil and so to liberate the powers of good, thus 
promoting the fertility at once of man, of beast, and of 
the earth. These ceremonies commonly take the form of 



a periodic, generally of an annual, expulsion of evils, which 
are usually conceived in the form of demons or ghosts ; 
having forcibly driven out these dangerous intruders, the 
community fancies itself safe and happy for the time 
being, till the recurrence of the old troubles seems to 
require a fresh application of the old remedy. Viewed in 
their essential character as a riddance of evil, such cere- 
monies are properly called purifications ; and the ancients, 
as we have seen, commonly explained the Lupercalia as a 
purification, in which they appear to have been sub- 
stantially right. The late W. Warde Fowler, our genial 
and learned interpreter of Roman religion, happily com- 
pared the Lupercalia to the annual custom of ** beating 
the bounds," which is still kept up in some parts of 
England ; and he suggested that the peeled wands carried 
by the bound-beaters at Oxford on Ascension Day may 
once have been used in the same way as the thongs of 
goatskin wielded by the Luperci on their rounds. The 
theory has much to commend it, and its author may have 
been quite right in describing the Lupercalia as "at the 
same time a beating of the bounds and a rite of purifica- 
tion and fertilization." 

Mannhardt proposed to explain the title lupercus, " wolf- 
goat," as signifying the union of two priestly colleges, 
of which the one personated wolves and the other goats, 
and of which the members called themselves accordingly 
Wolves and Goats respectively. Under these two names, 
according to him, the priests represented the Spirit of 
Vegetation in animal form, for down to this day in Euro- 
pean folk-lore both wolves and goats are very often con- 
ceived to be embodiments of the Corn-spirit. In point 
of fact, as we have seen, the Luperci were divided into 
two colleges, the Quinctiales and the Fabii, of which the 
Quinctiales were associated with Romulus and the Fabii 
with Remus. 

This ingenious theory, though it is not free from 
difficulties, seems open to less serious objections than 
either of its rivals, and we may provisionally acquiesce 



in it till a better has been suggested. It has, indeed, been 
objected to it that the festival appears to have been a 
purely pastoral one, and that it was recognized as such 
by the ancients ; for Cicero refers contemptuously to the 
college of the Luperci as " a sort of wil 1 and thoroughly 
pastoral and rustic brotherhood of regular Wolves 
{germanorum Lupercorum), which was formed in the woods 
before the institution of civilized life and law " ; and 
Plutarch, speaking of the Lupercalia, observes that " many 
write that it was of old a festival of shepherds, and it some- 
what resembles the Arcadian Lycaea." To this it may 
be retorted that in the ancient accounts of the festival 
which have come down to us there are references to the 
crops but none to the flocks and herds. Therefore, so 
far as the balance of evidence is concerned, it inclines 
rather against than in favour of the pastoral theory of the 
Lupercalia. However, the two apparently inconsistent 
theories are reconciled by the view that the festival was 
one of purification, which, by ridding the community of 
the evil powers of barrenness and disease that had infested 
it in the past year, set free the kindly powers of nature 
to perform their genial task of promoting the fertility 
alike of women, of cattle, and of the fields. 

Eegifugium (ii. 685). — ^The ceremony called the Flight 
of the King is marked on February 24. All that we know 
about the ritual is contained in a statement of Plutarch, 
who says that after offering an ancient sacrifice in the 
Gomitium, the King of the Sacred Rites fled hastily from 
the Forum. The ancients appear to have generally 
interpreted the ceremony as an annual celebration of the 
flight of Tarquin the Proud. In modern times, scholars 
are generally agreed in rejecting the old explanation, but 
they are by no means agreed as to what to substitute for 
it. On the analogy of certain Greek rites, in which the 
sacrificer fled after the sacrifice, it has been suggested that 
the animal sacrificed by the king in the Gomitium was 
a holy animal, and that his flight was a sort of apology 
for the sacrilegious sacrifice which he had offered. This 



theory was first proposed tentatively by Lobeck. An- 
other suggestion is that the sacrifice was a sin-offering, 
and that the victim, regarded as a scapegoat to which 
the sin had been transferred, became an object of fear 
and abhorrence from which the sacrificer sought to save 
himself by flight. On this theory the sacrifice was one of 
the purificatory rites from which the month of February 
took its name. 

I formerly conjectured that the rite may have been a 
survival of a race which in ancient times the real king of 
Rome had annually to run for the purpose of proving his 
physical fitness to discharge the duties of his office. But 
since the Flight of the King on February 24 always 
followed after the intercalary month, which was regularly in- 
serted after February 23, 1 have been led, in the course of 
this work, to suggest a somewhat different explanation of 
the rite in question, namely, that the king who fled from 
the Comitium may originally have been a temporary king 
who was invested with a nominal authority during the 
intercalary period, whether of a month or of eleven or 
twelve days, while the power of the real king was in 
abeyance ; and that at the end of his brief and more or 
less farcical reign he was obliged to take to his heels lest 
a worse thing should befall him. The theory fits in with 
the view, which seems to be widespread, that an intercalary 
period is an abnormal time during which ordinary rules 
do not hold and consequently the ordinary government 
is suspended and replaced by the temporary sway of a 
mock king, who at the end of his nominal reign has some- 
times to pay with his life for his brief tenure of a crown. 
On this view the king who fled from the Comitium on 
February 24 may be compared with the mock King of the 
Saturnalia who held sway during the festival of Saturn in 
December ; and the analogy between the two would be 
still closer if we suppose that the mock King of the 
Saturnalia originally personated Saturn himself and was 
put to death in the character of the god at the end of a 
month's reign of revelry and licence ; for we are expressly 



informed that such a mode of celebrating the Saturnalia 
was actually observed by the Roman soldiers at Duros- 
torum in Lower Moesia in the early years of the fourth 
century of our era, before the establishment of Christianity 
by Constantine. If that was so, we must apparently 
conclude that the rude soldiers on the frontiers of the 
empire retained or revived, in all their crude barbarity, 
the original features of the festival which had long been 
effaced in the civilized society of the capital, leaving 
behind them only a tradition of Saturn's earthly reign and of 
the human victims that had been immolated on his altars. 
But if the representative of Saturn was formerly put to 
death at the Saturnalia, it may well be that the Flight of 
the mock King on February 24 was a mitigation of an 
older custom which compelled him to end his life with his 
reign. If the analogy here suggested between the King 
of the Saturnalia and the King of the Sacred Rites (the 
Sacrificial King) should prove to be well founded, we should 
be confronted with the curious coincidence of the reign 
of a mock king at the end both of the old and of the new 
Roman year, the King of the Sacred Rites reigning at the 
end of the old Roman year in February and the King of 
the Saturnalia reigning at the end of the new Roman year 
in December. How this duplication, if such indeed it 
was, is to be explained, it would be premature to speculate. 
As both ceremonies probably had their root in the necessity 
of regulating the course of the agricultural year for the 
benefit of farmers, we might suppose that the duplication 
either sprang from the union of two peoples with two 
different calendars, which were combined in the new 
system, or that it originated in successive attempts to 
bring the calendar more into accord with the conflicting 
claims of science and religion. As any systematic attempt 
to harmonize the solar and lunar years by intercalation 
betokens a fairly advanced state of culture, we must 
apparently conclude that an Intercalary King, who 
mediated, as it were, between Sun and Moon, was a later 
invention than a human Saturn who gave his life to 



quicken the crops. But these are hardly more than idle 

Mars (iii. 1). — Though Mars has been most commonly- 
conceived both in antiquity and in modern times as a god 
of war, there are good grounds for thinking that originally 
this was not his only nor even his principal function. In 
his treatise on farming, Cato the Elder, a pattern Roman 
of the olden time, puts into the mouth of the farmer a 
prayer to Father Mars that he would ward off disease, bad 
weather, and other calamities from the farm ; that he 
would cause the fruits of the earth, the corn, the vines, 
and the copses to grow and prosper ; that he would keep 
the shepherds and the cattle safe ; and that he would 
bestow health and strength on the farmer himself, his 
family and household ; and in order to induce the deity 
to grant his prayer, the farmer begged Father Mars to 
accept the sacrifice of a pig, a sheep and a bull, which 
were first led in procession round the fields. Further, Cato 
instructed the farmer how to make a vow and an offering 
to Mars Silvanus for the cattle, in order that the animals 
should be well and strong. Thus we may safely conclude 
that Mars was the god to whom above all others the 
Roman farmer looked for help in promoting the growth 
of the crops and preserving the health of man and beast. 
We can therefore understand why the Arval Brethren, 
whose special function was " to make the fields bear 
fruit," should have addressed their solemn prayers 
principally to Mars. Scholars differ as to the exact 
way in which this side of his nature is to be reconciled 
with his warlike character. Perhaps the view of William 
Ramsay comes as near the truth as any. He wrote : " We 
must bear in mind that when Italy was portioned out 
among a multitude of small independent tribes, many of 
them differing from each other in origin and language, 
forays must have been as common among neighbouring 
states as they were in the days of our ancestors on the 
English border and the Highland frontier. The husband- 
man would be compelled to grasp the sword with one hand 



while he guided the plough with the other, and would be 
often forced to peril life and limb to save the produce of 
his toil from the spoiler. In such a state of society it is 
little wonderful that the Deity of the rustic should have 
presented a mixed character, and have been worshipped as 
one who could protect his votaries from every form of 
danger to which they were exposed." 

Ovid was unquestionably right in believing that the 
worship of Mars had been common to the Latin and 
other Italian peoples before the foundation of Rome. 

Under the month of March the rustic calendars record 
" a sacred rite in honour of Mamurius " {Sacrum Ma- 
murio), and under March 14 the calendar of Philocalus 
records the Mamuralia, that is, the festival of Mamurius. 
In their songs the Salii, that is, the Leapers or Dancers 
(from salire, " to leap," " to dance "), made mention of a 
certain Mamurius Veturius, which Varro interpreted to 
mean memoria vetus, " old memory." But a legendary 
or mythical explanation of the words was given by Ovid 
himself later on in this book. To this tale a remarkable 
addition is made by Joannes Lydus, a writer of the sixth 
century a.d. He tells us that, lest the shields {ancilia) 
which had fallen from heaven should be worn out by 
constant use, the craftsman Mamurius made other shields 
in their likeness, and that misfortunes followed the disuse 
of the ancient shields ; so Mamurius was beaten with rods 
and driven out of the city, in memory whereof on the 
Ides of March (March 15) a man, wrapped up in goatskins, 
was led about and beaten with long slender rods. From 
this account, combined with the mention of Mamurius 
Veturius in the Song of the Salii, we may infer, with some 
probability, that every year, in the month of March, a man 
wrapped up in goatskins and called Mamurius Veturius 
was beaten with rods by the Salii and driven out of the 
city. The day appears from the entry in the calendar of 
Philocalus to have been the fourteenth, which went by the 
name of Mamuralia, and not the fifteenth, as stated by 
Joannes Lydus. Now Mamurius was associated with the 




Oscan land ; perhaps he was thought to be driven away 
to the Oscan land to die, for Propertius prayed that the 
Oscan earth might lie light on the cunning hands of 
Mamurius, who wrought in bronze, and Mamers was the 
Oscan form of Mars. Further, as we have seen, Varro 
explained the name Veturius as equivalent to vetus, 
" old." Hence it is a plausible conjecture that Mamurius 
Veturius means " the Old Mars," and that the ceremony 
of driving his personal representative out of Rome on the 
14th of March, that is on the eve of the full moon (the 
Ides) of the first month, was intended to assist the growth 
of vegetation in the new year, at the commencement of 
spring, by getting rid of the withered vegetation of the 
old year ; for Mars, as we have seen, was originally a 
deity of vegetation as well as of war. Thus interpreted 
the ceremony is analogous to the Slavonic ceremony of 
" Carrying out Death " in spring. 

The original twelve Salii or dancing priests are said to 
have been instituted by Numa to minister to Mars 
Gradivus, the Marching Mars. Afterwards twelve more 
Salii were appointed by King Tullus Hostilius. The 
original twelve Salii were called the Palatine Salii, because 
their chapel was on the Palatine hill. The later twelve 
Salii were called the Colline or Agonalian or Agonensian 
Salii ; their chapel was on the Quirinal hill ; hence they 
were also known as the Quirinal Salii. All the Salii wore 
embroidered tunics, girt with bronze belts, purple-edged 
cloaks, and high conical caps ; they had swords girt at 
their sides, and each man bore in his right hand a spear, 
or rather staff or truncheon, and in his left hand one of 
the sacred shields {ancilia). Thus arrayed they used to 
go through the city for many days in the month of March, 
visiting the Forum, the Capitol, and many other places 
both public and private, dancing solemnly in measured 
time, chanting their ancient hymns, and clashing their 
staves against their shields. In March the festival lasted 
for thirty days. In the city there were stations {man- 
siones), where the Salii halted on their march, probably 



for the night, and stored their arms. At these stations 
the Salii refreshed themselves after their labours by 
banqueting in a style of magnificence which became 
proverbial. In ordinary times, when the shields were not 
in use, they were kept in the sacristry (sacrarium) of Mars ; 
when war was declared, the general in command entered 
the sacristry, moved the shields, and said, " Mars, awake ! " 
It is said that before the Cimbrian war, when for the second 
time in her history Rome was put in deadly peril by the 
Gauls, the shields in the sacristry were heard to stir and 
clang, as if impatient for the signal to march. However, 
it does not appear that the shields were ever carried with 
the army to battle, though the Salii themselves were free 
to perform military service abroad. 

The Salii were not peculiar to Rome. Similar colleges 
of dancing priests bearing the same name were found in 
other Italian cities, for example, at Tibur, where they 
served Hercules instead of Mars, at Anagnia, and in 
cities beyond the Po, such as Patavium (Padua) and 

I have suggested that the dancing procession of the 
armed Salii in March may have been intended to rout 
out and expel the demons that had accumulated in the 
city during the past year, especially the demons of 
blight and infertility, who might otherwise check the 
growth of the crops in spring. At the time of sowing 
the seed the Khonds, a wild tribe of India, drive out 
the " evil spirits, spoilers of the seed," from every house 
in the village ; the expulsion is effected by young men, 
who beat each other and strike the air violently with 
long sticks. At Whydah in West Africa, when the 
king's lands were to be hoed and sowed, the people went 
to the fields singing and dancing, half of them carrying 
their farm-tools and half of them " armed as in a day of 
battle." Arrived at the scene of their labours they 
worked to the sound of musical instruments, and returning 
at evening danced before the king's palace. A French 
traveller has described how at Timbo in Guinea men hoed 



the ground for sowing to the chant of women, while 
between the diggers and the singers a man armed with a 
musket danced, brandishing his weapon, and two others 
danced pirouetting and smiting the earth with their hoes ; 
and we are told that " aU that is necessary for exorcizing 
the spirits and causing the grain to grow." On the first 
day when the Barundi of East Africa begin to hoe the 
fields, a sorcerer dances in front of them with cries and 
gesticulations " to ban the spirits and bless the sowing." 

If this interpretation of the Salii is correct, their dances 
were not war-dances in the ordinary sense of the word, 
and their weapons were not directed against any human 
foes. They waged war on demons : it was against these 
invisible enemies that they carried their arms : it was 
these dreadful beings that they essayed to terrify by the 
clash of their batons on their shields. The skin-clad man 
whom they beat and probably drove out of the city was, 
on this hypothesis, only an embodiment of the legion of 
spirits swarming in the air, especially the outworn spirit 
of vegetation of the past year, who was driven away that 
he might make room for a youthful and vigorous successor, 
the new Mars, who was thought to be born on the 1st 
of March. The view that the weapons they carried and 
the clangour they made were directed against spiritual, 
not human foes, can be supported by analogies in many 
parts of the world, where swords are brandished, guns 
fired, metal clashed, and drums beaten for the purpose of 
expelling evil spirits. To take a single example, the 
Eghap, a tribe of the Central Cameroons in West Africa, 
believe that illness is caused by the ghosts of persons who 
have left no relatives behind them. Hence during a time 
of sickness these troublesome spirits are driven away ; 
and as it is believed that the only people whom the spirits 
fear are the old men who play the sacred instruments, the 
operation of banishing ghosts falls to the lot of these 
venerable musicians. " When all the preparations have been 
made, the sacred instrument men gather in the head-chief's 
compound. Here three of them play lustily on drums 



for about fifteen minutes. At a given signal all of them 
spring into the air and rush through the narrow opening 
of the mat fence surrounding the head-chief's compound, 
bellowing like cattle. They beat the fencing, stamp on 
the ground, and strike the drums with great vigour. All 
those people in the town who are supposed to be controlled 
by evil spirits rush about in great agitation, foaming at 
the mouth, with their eyes wide open and staring. In 
the market-place the men who are supposed to drive the 
evil ghosts away divide into five sections. At the head of 
each is a drummer, followed first by a man with a whisk, 
and then by a number of men armed with spears. A 
dance is then held, in which the performers spring high 
into the air, some of them with stalks of elephant-grass 
(mbere) in their hands to drive the ghosts away. No one 
is allowed to leave his compound whUe this is going on, 
and complete silence reigns over the town. Whatever 
appears, whether human beings or animals, will be at 
once caught by the evil ghosts." 

In harmony with this theory of the Salii we may con- 
jecture that the leaps from which the Salii took their 
name were supposed to promote the growth of the crops 
by sympathetic magic ; it cannot be without significance 
that in their hymns these dancing priests named, and 
probably invoked, Saturn, the god of sowing. We may 
surmise that the people in the streets, and especially 
farmers from the country, watched their dances with eager 
curiosity and prognosticated the height of the corn at 
the next harvest from the height of their leaps into the 
air. In some parts of Europe, especially in Germany and 
Austria, it is or was till lately customary to dance or leap 
high for the express purpose of making the crops grow 
correspondingly tall ; the leaps are executed sometimes 
by the sower on the field, sometimes by other persons, 
at certain seasons, such as Candlemas and Walpurgis 
Night (the eve of May Day), but especially on Shrove 
Tuesday. Indeed in some places men used to assemble 
in bands for the purpose of thus fostering the growth of 



the crops by their leaps and antics. This was the case, 
for example, at Grub in the Swiss canton of the Grisons. 
The peasants there " assembled in some years, mostly at 
the time of the summer solstice, disguised themselves 
as maskers so as to be unrecognizable, armed themselves 
with weapons defensive and offensive, took every man a 
great club or cudgel, marched in a troop from one village 
to another, and executed high leaps and strange antics. 
They ran full tilt at each other, struck every man his fellow 
with all his might, so that the blow resounded, and clashed 
their great staves and cudgels. These foolish pranks they 
played from a superstitious notion, that their corn would 
thrive the better." These Swiss Stopfer correspond 
exactly to the Roman Salii, if my view of that ancient 
Italian priesthood is correct. 

Nemi (iii. 271). — ^The priest of Diana in her sacred grove 
{nemus) at Nemi bore the title of King of the Grove {Rex 
Nemorensis). He had to be a runaway slave ; he suc- 
ceeded to the dignity by slaying his predecessor in single 
combat ; and he held office till he was himself slain by his 
successor. But before he fought the priestly king in office, 
a candidate for the priesthood had to break a branch from 
a tree in the sacred precinct, and public opinion in antiquity 
identified this branch with the Golden Bough, which, at 
the Sibyl's bidding, Aeneas plucked and carried with him 
as a sort of passport on his journey to the world of the dead. 
Once when the King of the Grove had occupied his un- 
enviable throne for many years, the ferocious madman 
Caligula sent a stronger man to attack him, professing that 
the king's reign had lasted too long. The strange rule of 
this priestly kingdom naturally attracted the attention 
of the Greek writers. 

This is all we know about the priesthood of Diana at 
Nemi. The only hope of explaining both the title and 
the rule seems to lie in the discovery of analogous customs 
elsewhere, which, being better known and more fully 
reported, may throw a light on the mysterious priesthood 
of Nemi. Now it has been the belief of peoples in many 



parts of the world, that kings are possessed of a divine 
or magical character, in virtue of which not only the 
welfare of their subjects, but the course of nature, includ- 
ing particularly the fertility of the ground, of cattle, and 
of women, are bound up with the life of the ruler and will 
suffer serious damage, or even perish, if his strength fails 
through illness or old age, and that the most fatal con- 
sequences would surely follow if he were allowed to die 
a natural death. To avert these dangers various measures 
are adopted. Sometimes the king's reign is limited to a 
period during which he may reasonably be expected to 
retain his bodily and mental vigour, at the end of which 
he is put to death in order to avert the disasters which are 
expected to ensue from the failure of his natural powers. 
Sometimes without putting a fixed term to his reign and 
his life, his people allow him to reign till symptoms of old 
age or serious illness warn them of his threatened dissolu- 
tion, which accordingly he is obliged to anticipate either 
by suicide or by submitting to execution. Sometimes, 
again, he is suffered to reign and to live so long as he can 
give proof of undiminished health and strength by re- 
pelling any armed attacks made upon him by candidates 
for the throne ; but should ^/e succumb in the combat, 
he is immediately succeeded in office by his slayer, who 
reigns in his stead until he is in his turn slain by his 
successor. I have suggested that the King of the Grove 
at Nemi was a king of this sort and held office under this 
last tenure, and in support of this suggestion I have adduced 
a number of parallels drawn from various parts of the 
world, particularly India and Africa. The evidence has 
been set forth in the Golden Bough and I need not repeat 
or recapitulate it here. 

But here I may be allowed to cite some confirmatory 
evidence which has come to my knowledge since the Golden 
Bough was published. The custom of killing divine or 
semi-divine kings to prevent them from dying a natural 
death is particularly common in Africa. Thus in the Jukun 
kingdom of Kororofa, a pagan state of Northern Nigeria, 



" the most striking thing is the semi-divine character of 
the Jukun king. His person is charged with a spiritual 
force which makes it dangerous for anyone to be touched 
by him. If he even touched the ground with his hands 
or uncovered foot the crops would be ruined, and it was 
no doubt due to this blasting power of his mana that in 
former times the chief spoke to his subjects from behind 
a screen, a custom which Ibn Batuta records was also 
followed by the early kings of Bornu. The Jukun king 
is indeed a demi-god, and with a view to the transmission 
of his divine spirit unimpaired he was ceremonially slain 
at the end of seven years." However, the king was by 
no means always permitted to live out the full term of 
seven years. " The king of the Jukun was only allowed 
to rule for seven years, and if during that period he fell 
ill, or even sneezed or coughed, or fell off his horse, he 
might be put to death, the duty of slaying him devolving 
on the head councillor." 

According to Mr. H. R. Palmer, " There was a king made 
every two years. When a king had reigned two years it 
was considered that he had enjoyed power long enough, 
and he was compelled to fight with the senior member of 
the royal family, who came forward and challenged him 
to fight until one of them was killed. The descent of the 
kingship did not go from the reigning king to one of his 
sons, but to any of the children of any deceased king. 
The would-be successor, at about the season of the great 
feast, used to come into the king's mess suddenly and 
walk round and then go out. Of course under ordinary 
circumstances this would have been a great affront, but 
the king understood from this that from that time forward 
he must guard himself. At the first opportunity after 
this the successor attacked the king. If he killed him, the 
fight was over for a time ; if he did not kill him, another of 
his relations came forward and challenged the king in the 
same way. This went on until someone did kill the 

Armfl. Perenna (iii. 623). — The feast of Anna Perenna 



was celebrated at the first milestone on the Flaminian 
Way. Hence the place would seem to have been near the 
site of the present Porta del Popolo, the northern gate of 
Rome, and not far from the river. Here, apparently be- 
tween the Flaminian and the Salarian roads, the goddess 
had a fruitful grove which was visible from the Janiculum. 
Martial, who mentions this, says that the grove " delights 
in virgin blood," an obscure allusion which has hitherto 
not been explained. Macrobius tells us that in the month 
of March people went to Anna Perenna to sacrifice both 
publicly and privately in order that they might pass the 
year and many other years in prosperity ; and to the 
same effect Joannes Lydus says that on the Ides (the 
15th) of March public prayers were offered that the year 
might be healthy. Taken in conjunction with the custom, 
mentioned by Ovid (lines 531-534), of praying that the 
wassailers might live as many years as they had quaffed 
cups of wine, these statements furnish a clue to the nature 
of the festival and of the goddess herself. As Anna she 
is a feminine personification of the year (annus) ; as 
Perenna she is a personification of the endless procession 
of the years ; hence we need not wonder that she is con- 
ceived as an old, old woman. The festival was a New 
Year festival ; for March was the first month of the old 
Roman year, and the Ides of March was the first full moon 
of the New Year, a very appropriate day for good wishes 
and prayers for that and for many years to follow. The 
celebration of the festival, as described by Ovid, was a 
thoroughly popular one. The pairing of sweethearts, 
lying on the grass, trolling out ribald staves, and drinking 
themselves drunk, points to customs like those formerly 
observed on May Day and Midsummer Eve in many parts 
of Europe, when the licence accorded to the sexes was a 
relic of magical rites performed for the purpose of main- 
taining the fertility of nature alike in the greenwoods and 
the fields, in man and beast. In this licence we may 
perhaps detect the true explanation of Martial's allusions 
to " the virgin blood " in which the grove of the goddess 



delighted. It was a day of Valentines, and into the tents 
and leafy huts on the greensward of the grove many a 
girl may have gone in a maid who came out a maid no 

Nerio (iii. 675). — This custom Ovid explains by a story 
of the love of Mars for Minerva. According to the tale 
which he now unfolds, the god fell in love with Minerva 
and desired to marry her. So he begged the aged Anna 
Perenna, now raised to the godhead, to persuade the coy 
goddess to crown his wishes. Anna promised her help 
and professed to have elicited a promise of marriage from 
Minerva. But this was only a sham ; for when all the 
preparations for the wedding had been made, and the 
bride was conducted to the bridal chamber, the bride- 
groom lifted the veil to salute her, but discovered, to his 
chagrin, that she was not Minerva but the old crone Anna 

In this story Minerva has probably taken the place of 
Nerio, an old goddess, whom ancient Roman writers, 
quoted by Aulus Gellius, explicitly described as the wife 
of Mars. The first author cited by Gellius is Plautus, who 
wrote either at the end of the third century or at the 
beginning of the second century b.c. Plautus wrote 
{True. 515) : " Mars arriving from abroad salutes his wife 
Nerio." Plautus could hardly have used this language if 
the belief that Nerio was the wife of Mars had not been 
familiar to his audience. Again, the old comic dramatist 
Licinius Imbrex, quoted by Aulus Gellius, wrote : "I 
would not have you called Neaera but Nerio, since you 
have been given in marriage to Mars." Once more Aulus 
Gellius quotes from the third book of the Annals of his 
namesake Cnaeus Gellius a passage in which Neria 
(another form of Nerio) is plainly mentioned as the wife 
of Mars. Cnaeus Gellius wrote in the second century b.c. 
The passage in question contains a prayer to Mars sup- 
posed to have been uttered by Hersilia, the wife of Romulus, 
on the occasion when she was inte.'ceding with the Sabine 
king Tatius to pardon the Romans for having carried off 



the Sabine women, of whom she herself was one. The 
prayer runs thus : " Neria (wife) of Mars, I beseech thee, 
grant us peace, that we may enjoy true and happy mar- 
riages, because it fell out by the advice of thy husband 
that they (the Romans) should carry off us virgins, for 
the purpose of getting children for themselves and their 
people, and posterity for the fatherland." In this prayer 
for marriage, appropriately addressed by a human to a 
divine wife, the words " thy husband " {tuus coniux) refer, 
of course, to Mars, as Aulus Gellius observes, adding very 
justly, " whereby it appears that the expression of Plautus 
was not a poetical flourish, but that it was a tradition 
that Nerio was by some said to be the wife of Mars." It 
is true that Aulus Gellius himself, writing in the second 
century a.d., preferred to explain Nerio, not as the wife, 
but merely as " the force, power, majesty " of Mars ; but 
no weight can be attached to this explanation, since it is 
merely an etymological guess based on a fanciful deriva- 
tion of Nerio from the Greek neuron through the Latin 
nervus. Further, in a passage of Martianus Capella on 
the uxoriousness of the gods the love of Mars for his wife 
Nerio is mentioned in terms which agree so closely with 
those in which Ovid describes the passion of Mars for 
Minerva that both authors would seem to have drawn on 
the same source, in which Nerio, not Minerva, was repre- 
sented as the wife of Mars. Lastly, the assumed sub- 
stitution of Minerva for Nerio in the story of Mars's 
wooing is confirmed by a note of the old scholiast Por- 
phyrion on Horace, which runs thus : " There is a religious 
scrujle about marrying in the month of May and also in 
March, in which a contest concerning marriage was held 
wherein Mars was vanquished by Minerva, and having 
maintained her virginity she was called Neriene." Here, 
as Warde Fowler observed, Neriene is clearly equivalent 
to Nerio, and " this looks much like an attempt to explain 
the occurrence of two female names, Minerva and Nerio, 
in the same story ; the original heroine Nerio having 
been supplanted by the later Minerva." Varro also coupled 



Minerva and Nerienes, which Aulus Gellius tells us was 
a vocative form of Neiio, though in the old books the 
nominative of the name was Nerio. Now from the work 
of Joannes Lydus on the Roman calendar we know that 
on the twenty-third of March there was a festival of 
Mars and Nerine, and that Nerine was no other than 
Nerio is put beyond a doubt by the explanation of the 
author, who says that Nerine was the Sabine name of 
a goddess whom people identified with Athena (Minerva) 
or Aphrodite (Venus), " for Nerine is manliness and the 
Sabines call manly men Nerones." This ceremony in 
honour of Mars and Nerine (Nerio) on the twenty-third 
of March is in all probability the " contest concerning 
marriage " in the month of March which is mentioned 
by Porphyrion ; and taken in conjunction with the present 
passage of Ovid we may conclude that it represented a 
marriage of Mars to Nerio, in which the god was beguiled 
by the substitution of a withered hag for a young and 
blooming bride. From a variety of indications H. Usener 
ingeniously argued that the marriage of Mars and Nerio 
was celebrated at Rome in March in the New Year, while 
Anna represented the old wife of the god in the Old Year 
which had just run its course. 

Mr. Warde Fowler rejected the marriage of Mars and 
Nerio, together with the marriage of all the genuine old 
Roman gods, believing that the view of their conjugal 
relations was a later interpretation created by the influence 
of Greek mythology, in which the marriage of the deities 
was a commonplace. But in arriving at this conclusion 
he was obliged to set aside a considerable body of ancient 
evidence to the contrary, including the direct and explicit 
testimony of the greatest of Roman antiquaries, Varro 
himself, who, as quoted by St. Augustine, declared that 
" in the matter of the generations of the gods the peoples 
lean to the opinion of the poets rather than to that of 
natural philosophers ; and therefore his ancestors, that is, 
the old Romans, believed in the sex and generations of 
the gods and established their marriages." For my part 



1 think it safer to accept than to reject the testimony of 
the ancients on a point concerning which they were 
necessarily much better informed than we are. 

This incident in the loves of Mars and Minerva (or 
rather Nerio) strikingly resembles a wide-spread practice 
which is known to students of folk-lore by the name of 
" the False Bride." It is a common custom among 
Slavonic, Teutonic, and Romance peoples, as also among 
the Esthonians, that when a bridegroom or his repre- 
sentative comes to fetch the bride from her home, a false 
bride is substituted for the real one, another woman, 
frequently an ugly old one, or a little girl, or even a man 
being palmed off on him as the bride. In Brittany the 
substitutes are first a little girl, then the mistress of the 
house, and lastly the grandmother. In the Samerberg 
district of Bavaria, a bearded man in woman's clothes 
personates the bride ; in Esthonia, the bride's brother or 
some other young man. Sometimes the substitution 
takes place already at the betrothal, and sometimes only 
at the wedding - feast. The custom is not restricted to 
Europe. Among the Beni-Amer in North-East Africa, 
when women with a camel are sent to fetch the bride, her 
people often substitute a false bride for the true one, 
and it is only when the procession is well outside the 
village that the substitute reveals herself and runs back 

The most probable explanation of the custom seems to 
be that it is an attempt to protect the bride against the 
evil eye and evil spirits by substituting a dummy on 
which they can safely wreak their spite. This explanation 
is confirmed by a custom said to be observed at a marriage 
in Java. A traveller in that island tells us that " among 
other apartments we saw the ' family bridal chamber,' in 
which we noticed two painted wooden figures, one of a 
man and the other of a woman, standing at the foot of 
the * family nuptial couch.' These figures, as we were 
told, are called Lorobonyhoyo, or the youth and maiden, 
and are placed there to cheat the devil, who, according to 



their belief, during the wedding night hovers round the 
bed, with the view of carrying off one of the happy pair. 
These figures, however, are their protection, for, deceived 
by their resemblance, he carries them off instead of the 
sleeping lovers." In harmony with this view the Germans 
of Western Bohemia, in whose marriage customs the False 
Bride figures prominently, believe that the " Old Bride " 
will always carry away the bad luck from the true bride 
out of the house. 

The Parilia (iv. 721). — The festival of the Parilia on 
the 21st of April is marked PAR in the Caeretan, Maffeian, 
and Praenestine calendars. The name is derived from 
that of the divinity Pales, in whose honour the festival 
was celebrated. Hence the more correct, though less 
usual, form of the name of the festival was Palilia. Ovid 
treats Pales as a goddess, and so did Festus, Virgil, Ti- 
bullus, the author of the Culex^ Florus, and Probus. But 
according to others, including Varro, Pales was male, and 
as a male he is noticed by Arnobius and Martianus CapeUa. 
Connected with Pales was probably the goddess Palatua, 
the guardian of the Palatine hUl, whose worship was con- 
ducted by a special flamen of her own {flamen Palatualis), 
and must, therefore, have been of great antiquity, since 
none but the genuine old Roman deities could boast of 
the services of a flamen. At the festival of the Septi- 
montium or the Seven HiUs a sacrifice called Palatuar 
was offered to her. If Pales was originally a male 
deity, Palatua may have been his female counterpart or 

As Ovid relates a little further on (lines 807 sqq.), the 
festival of the Parilia or Palilia was believed to be older 
than the foundation of Rome, and it was supposed that 
the first foundations of the city were laid on the very day 
of the festival, so that the 21st of April was henceforth 
celebrated as the birthday of Rome. The day was natur- 
ally a popular holiday, especially for the young. Athenaeus 
describes how a learned discussion was suddenly inter- 
rupted by a great uproar, in which the shrill music of 



fifes, the clash of cymbals, and the rub-a-dub of drums 
were blent with singing into a confused hubbub of sound ; 
it was the people in the street rejoicing at the coming of 
the Parilia, though by that time, in the third century a.d., 
the old name Parilia had been changed to Romaea, that 
is, the Roman Festival, on account of its association with 
the birth of Rome. It was not lawful to sacrifice any 
animal at the Parilia : no blood might be shed on that 
happy day. 

Numa is said to have been born, by some divine chance, 
on the very day on which Rome was founded. 

The festival was essentially a rustic rite observed by 
shepherds and husbandmen for the good of their flocks 
and herds. This is well brought out by Ovid in the 
following account which he gives of the ritual and the 
prayers that accompanied it ; and the same truth was 
recognized by Varro and other ancient writers. In 
Eastern Europe many analogous rites have been performed 
down to recent times, and probably still are performed, 
for the same purpose, by shepherds and herdsmen on St. 
George's Day, the 23rd of April, only two days after 
the Parilia, with which they may well be connected by 
descent from a common festival observed by pastoral 
Aryan peoples in spring. The ceremonies appear to be 
mainly designed to guard the flocks and herds against 
wolves and witches, the two great foes of whom the herds- 
man stands most in dread, and of the two the witches are 
perhaps even more dreaded than the wolves. Many 
peoples of Eastern Europe, including the Esthonians, 
Russians, and Ruthenians, drive their cattle out to pasture 
for the first time on St. George's Day after their long 
confinement during the winter : on the eve of that day, 
witches resort to many tricks to steal the milk of the 
cattle ; and many accordingly are the precautions which 
the herdsman takes to defeat their infernal machinations. 
Among these precautions are the kindling of bonfires at 
cross-roads, and the fumigating of the cattle with sulphur 
or asafoetida. Even in England it seems to have been 



formerly the custom to kindle bonfires on St. George's 
Day, as we gather from Shakespeare : 

Bonfires in France I am forthwith to make^ 
To keep our great St. George'' s feast withall. 

St. George is regarded as the patron of wolves as well 
as of cattle ; hence it is naturally held that he can protect 
the flocks and herds against the ravages of wolves, his 
creatures. He has probably displaced an old pastoral 
deity or deities, of whom Pales may have been one. 
Another may possibly have been Pergrubius, to whom the 
heathen Prussians and Lithuanians used to sacrifice on St. 
George's Day. He appears to have been a Lithuanian 
god of the spring, who caused the grass and the corn to 
grow and the trees to burst into leaf ; however, nothing is 
said of his relation to cattle, and so far his analogy to 
St. George breaks down, though his festival fell on the 
saint's day. In Russia St. George's Day is celebrated as 
a national as well as an ecclesiastical festival ; and the 
popular songs devoted to it serve to prove, by their 
mythical character, " that the Christian hero, St. George, 
has merely taken the place of some old deity, light-bringing 
or thunder-compelling, who used to be honoured at this 
time of the year in heathen days. It is not a slayer of 
dragons and protector of princesses who appears in these 
songs, but a patron of farmers and herdsmen, who pre- 
serves cattle from harm, and on whose day, therefore, the 
flocks and herds are, for the first time after the winter, 
sent out into the open fields." 

The October Horse (iv. 733).— Ovid means that the 
materials used in fumigation will be supplied by the Vestal 
Virgins; and of these materials he mentions three, the 
blood of a horse, the ashes of a calf, and beanstalks. The 
" ashes of a calf " are explained by the ritual observed at 
the Fordicidia on the 15th of April, which the poet has 
already described. On that day pregnant cows were 
sacrificed to Earth ; the unborn calves were torn from 
them and burned by the senior Vestal Virgin, and the ashes 
kept by her to be used for the purification of the people 



at the Parilia. It is these ashes which the worshipper is 
now bidden to procure from Vesta, that is, from the Vestal 
Virgins or from the senior member of the college. The 
reason why the ashes of unborn calves were employed in 
the ritual is not hard to divine. Since a principal object 
of the festival, as we learn from the shepherd's prayer 
(lines 771-772), was to ensure the fecundity of the flock, 
and since sheep were fumigated (lines 739-740) as well as 
the shepherds, it seems plain that the smoke from ashes 
of the calves was supposed to fertilize, by sympathetic 
magic, the ewes and doubtless the cows, though curiously 
enough Ovid speaks only of sheep. 

The blood of the horse, which was also employed in the 
fumigations at the Parilia, was procured in a curious 
fashion. On the 15th of October in every year a chariot- 
race was run in the Field of Mars {Campus Martins) at 
Rome. Stabbed with a spear, the right-hand horse of 
the victorious team was then sacrificed to Mars for the 
purpose of ensuring good crops, and its head was cut off 
and adorned with a string of loaves. Thereupon the 
inhabitants of two wards — the Sacred Way and the 
Subura — contended with each other who should get the 
head. If the people of the Sacred Way got it, it was 
fastened to a wall of the King's House {Regia), which 
stood on the Sacred Way ; if the people of the Subura got 
it, they fastened it to the Mamilian tower, which stood in 
the Suburan ward and took its name from the Mamilian 
family. The horse's tail was cut off and carried to the 
King's House with such speed that the blood dripped on 
the hearth of the house. This blood the King caught in 
a vessel and kept, or handed it over to the Vestal Virgins, 
whose house adjoined his own, to be burned, and fumigate 
by its smoke the sheep and shepherds at the Parilia. In 
this account the King is the Sacrificial King of republican 
times, though no doubt in the regal period it was the 
monarch himself who received the blood of the horse. 

The rite was intended to procure a good crop, as indeed 
was explicitly stated by Festus ; hence the decoration of the 



horse's head with a string of loaves, and hence the use of 
its blood at the Parilia, where its smoke, like that from 
the ashes of unborn calves, was probably regarded as a 
fertilizing agent to get the ewes and cows with young. It 
is true that, in its application to the blood of a horse and 
the ashes of calves, the conception involved a certain 
confusion of the processes of animal and vegetable 
fertilization, but such confusion is habitual, if not uni- 
versal, in ancient and primitive thought. 

The question why beanstalks formed the third in- 
gredient in the fuel kindled to make a smoke at the Parilia, 
is less easy to answer. In antiquity beans were the 
subject of such a tangle of superstitions that it is seldom 
or never possible to single out the separate threads and 
follow them up to their starting-point in the muzzy brain 
of primitive man. 

On St. George's Day (April 23), which is the modern 
equivalent of the Parilia, Southern Slavonian peasants 
crown their cows with wreaths of flowers to guard them 
against the witches ; in the evening the wreaths are taken 
from the cows and fastened to the door of the cattle-stall, 
where they remain throughout the year till the next St. 
George's Day. 

With the offerings (line 745) and the prayer that ac- 
companied them at the Parilia we may compare the ritual 
which herdsmen in the Highlands of Scotland used to 
observe, and the prayers which they used to utter at 
Beltane, the festival which is the Celtic analogue of the 
Italian Parilia. Thomas Pennant, who travelled in the 
Highlands in 1769, describes as foUows the ceremony of 
Beltane, or Bel-tien as he calls it. " On the first of May, 
the herdsmen of every village hold their Bel-tien, a rural 
sacrifice. They cut a square trench on the ground, leaving 
the turf in the middle : on that they make a fire of wood, 
on which they dress a large caudle of eggs, butter, oatmeal 
and milk ; and bring besides the ingredients of the caudle, 
plenty of beer and whisky : for each of the company must 
contribute something. The rites begin with spilling some 



of the caudle on the ground, by way of libation : on that 
every one takes a cake of oatmeal, upon which are raised 
nine square knobs, each dedicated to some particular 
being, the supposed preserver of their flocks and herds, 
or to some particular animal, the real destroyer of them : 
each person then turns his face to the fire, breaks off a 
knob, and flinging it over his shoulders, says, ' This I give 
to thee, preserve thou my horses ; this is to thee, preserve 
thou my sheep ; and so on.' After that they use the 
same ceremony to the noxious animals : * This I give to 
thee, O fox ! spare thou my lambs ; this to thee, O 
hooded crow ! this to thee, O eagle ! ' When the cere- 
mony is over, they dine on the caudle ; and after the feast 
is finished, what is left is hid by two persons deputed for 
that purpose ; but on the next Sunday they reassemble, 
and finish the reliques of the first entertainment." 

In this account of the Beltane festival the spilling of the 
caudle (composed partly of milk) on the ground answers 
to the oflFering of milk to Pales, and the Highland herds- 
man's prayer to the being who preserved his flocks and 
herds corresponds to the prayer which the Italian shepherd 
addressed to Pales, as we learn from the following verses 
of Ovid. Tibullus tells us that it was his wont to purify 
his shepherd every year and to sprinkle Pales with milk, 
referring no doubt to the libation of milk to the goddess 
at the Parilia. Perhaps Ovid's expression, " when the 
viands have been cut up," is explained by the Beltane 
custom, described by Pennant, of breaking a cake of oat- 
meal in pieces and throwing the bits over the shoulder as 
offerings to the preservers or destroyers of the flocks and 
herds. Among the viands so cut up at the Parilia were 
no doubt included the millet cakes mentioned by Ovid in 
a previous line. These the Italian shepherd, like the 
Highland herdsman, may have broken and thrown over 
his shoulder as an offering to Pales. Certainly the cakes 
were an important feature of the festival ; for the shepherd 
ends his prayer with a promise that next year he " will 
make great cakes for Pales, the shepherds' mistress " 



(lines 775-776). The oatmeal cakes with nine knobs offered 
by the Highland herdsmen at Beltane remind us of the 
cakes with twelve knobs which the Athenians, or some of 
them, sacrificed in different months to Apollo and Artemis, 
Zeus the Farmer (Zeus Georgos), Poseidon, Cronus, 
Hercules, and Theios, whoever Theios may have been. 

The Mundus (iv. 821). — Plutarch says that, under the 
direction of the wise men whom Romulus fetched from 
Etruria, a trench was dug round the place afterwards 
called the Comitium, and that first-fruits of all things 
which are deemed good and necessary were deposited in 
the trench ; and finally all the people brought small 
portions of soil from their old habitations, threw them 
into the trench, and mixed them up together. This con- 
cluding part of the ceremony was doubtless a symbolical 
way of transferring the old homes to the new, and of en- 
suring union and harmony among the citizens by mingling 
soil brought from all the places where they had dwelt before. 
It is to this part of the ceremony that Ovid alludes 
in the words " earth fetched from the neighbouring soil." 
It is said to be a Hindoo custom to bury earth from the 
pai;ental homestead in the foundations of a new house. 
We may also compare a custom observed by the natives 
of the Northern territories of the Gold Coast in West 
Africa. " The practice of nearly every family in this 
country is for the headman to hold a horn containing 
earth from the sacred place of his ancestors, no matter 
how far away that is. Thus the story of the family's 
original home is preserved with great truth. To it 
sacrifices are made, and thus the Earth-god of the home- 
land is appeased." 

The throwing of fruits of the earth and other useful 
objects into the trench at the foundation of the city was, 
we cannot doubt, a sacrifice intended to secure the stability 
of the walls and the prosperity of the city, either magically 
by the intrinsic virtue of the things themselves, or re- 
ligiously by appeasing the spirits of the earth, who were 
naturally disturbed by the digging of the trench. Sacri- 

P 417 


fices offered at the foundation of edifices, such as houses, 
bridges, and city gates, have been exceedingly common 
all over the world ; the victims sacrificed have often been 
human beings. The sacrifices oflFered by the Romans at 
the laying of foundations would seem to have been 

It is to be remembered that the digging of the trench, 
here described by Ovid, was supposed (as the poet has just 
reminded us) to have taken place at the festival of the 
Parilia, which, as we have seen, has some points of analogy 
with Beltane, the festival formerly held by Scottish herds- 
men on May Day. It will be remembered that a feature 
of the Beltane celebration was the cutting of a square or 
round trench, in which the herdsmen sacrificed, prayed, 
and partook of a sacrificial meal. This trench seems to 
form another link between the Parilia and Beltane. Now 
the original trench dug at the foundation of the city, on 
the day of the Parilia appears to have been square, being 
in fact identical with what was called Square Rome 
{Quadrata Roma), which, as described by Festus, was a 
place " in front of the temple of Apollo on the Palatine, 
where are laid up the things which are wont to be employed 
for the sake of a good omen at the founding of a city ; it 
is so called because it was originally fortified with a stone 
wall in a square form." The description answers well to 
that which Ovid and Plutarch give of the trench dug by 
Romulus at the foundation of Rome to receive the founda- 
tion sacrifices, except that Plutarch describes the trench 
as carried in a circle round the Comitium ; but Plutarch 
was certainly wrong as to the situation of the trench, and 
he may have been equally wrong as to its shape. 

Perhaps we can explain Plutarch's mistake in regard to 
the shape. For he tells us that the trench was called the 
mundus or sky (Olympus is the word he uses to translate 
the Latin mundus), and that the furrow marking out the 
boundary of the new city was traced in a circle round the 
mundus, as centre. Yet in another passage Plutarch 
mentions Square Rome, but applies the name in a wider 



sense to the whole city founded by Romulus, and it was 
apparently in this wider sense that the term Square- Rome 
was generally employed, as by Dionysius of Halicarnassus 
and Solinus, who says that the city founded by Romulus 
" was first called Square Rome because it was laid out in 
a quadrangle. It begins at the wood which is in Apollo's 
area, and it ends on the brow of the hill at the staircase 
of Cacus, where was the hut of Faustulus. Romulus dwelt 
there. " Yet the use of the name Square Rome to designate 
a particular place on the Palatine persisted down to the 
year a.d. 204 at the least. We may perhaps reconcile 
the testimonies of Festus and Plutarch on this point by 
supposing that Square Rome was a square subterranean 
chamber supposed to represent the trench dug by Romulu« 
at the foundation of the city, while the mundus was a 
circular aperture in the middle of the floor, which gave 
access to a lower vault or crypt, and down which the 
offerings could be cast into the vault. This accords well 
with a statement of Festus, quoting Ateius Capito, that 
the mundus was opened only on three days in the year, 
namely, on the day after the festival of Vulcan (which fell 
on the 23rd of August), and again on the 5th of October 
and the 8th of November. The reason for keeping the 
mundus closed all the rest of the year, according to Festus, 
or rather his authority, Ateius Capito, was that the lower 
part of the structure (what I have called the vault or 
crypt) was sacred to the deified spirits of the dead {di 
manes), who would naturally be able to issue forth and 
roam about the city if the aperture were uncovered. 
Hence the three days on which the mundus stood open, 
and hell was let loose, were " religious " days : no public 
business might be transacted on them, and no battle 
fought with an enemy. 

In 1914 Giacomo Boni discovered on the Palatine a 
subterranean structure which he identified with the 
mundus, and the identification appears to be generally 
regarded as at least probable. The structure is situated 
under the north-eastern portion of the peristyle of the 



Flavian palace, and consists of " a chamber with a beehive 
roof, the sides of which are lined with cappellaccio (the soft 
dark tufa used in the earliest buildings of Rome) ; in the 
centre of it a circular shaft descends to two underground 
passages lined with cement : these diverge, but meet again 
in another chamber with a domed roof (cut in the rock), 
of which only half is preserved, the rest having been 
destroyed by Domitian's foundations." 

From Mr. Ashby's account it appears that the dis- 
coverer, Boni, identified the upper chamber with the 
mundus. But perhaps we should rather identify the 
upper chamber with Square Rome and the circular shaft 
with the mundus ; the lower chamber, to which the shaft 
gives access, would then be the abode of the dead, and 
we should have to suppose that the hatches were battened 
down on the ghosts by keeping the mouth of the shaft 
closed throughout the year, except on the three days 
when the hatches were unbarred and the unquiet spirits 
were let loose to squeak and gibber about the streets. 

W. Warde Fowler propounded a theory that the mundus 
was a receptacle in which the corn-seed was stowed at 
harvest, and from which it was brought out for the sowing, 
but in support of this view, which has no ancient auth- 
ority, he adduced only somewhat vague analogies. On the 
other hand he may well have been right in his assumption 
(equally destitute, however, of ancient authority), that the 
mundus was closed by the stone called lapis manalis, which 
may mean " the ghost stone " ; for we are told by Festus 
that the stone " was esteemed the Gate of Hell (Ostium 
Orci) through which the souls of the underground folk, 
who are called ghosts (manes), pass to the folk above." 
Such a stone would be admirably fitted to bottle up the 
ghosts at the bottom of the mundus by inserting it, like 
a stopper, in the mouth of the shaft. 

Robigalia (iv. 907). — The festival of the Robigalia in 
honour of the god or goddess Mildew (Robigus or Robigo), 
for there was some difference of opinion as to the sex 
of the deity, is recorded under the twenty-fifth of April 



in the Esquiline, Caeretan, MaflFeian, and Praenestine 
calendars ; and the date of the festival is further con- 
firmed by the testimony of Festus, Pliny, and Servius. A 
note in the Praenestine calendar, probably indited by 
Verrius Flaccus, gives some additional information : " The 
festival of Robigiis takes place at the fifth milestone on 
the Claudian Way, lest mildew (robigo) should harm the 
corn. A sacrifice is offered and games are held by runners 
both men and boys." According to Pliny, the festival 
was instituted by Numa in the eleventh year of his reign, 
and the reason for holding it on the twenty-fifth of April 
was because at that season the crops were attacked by 
mildew. That Mildew, whether you call him Robigus or 
her Robigo, was a deity, and that he or she could protect 
the crops against the mildew from which he or she took 
his or her name, of that no reasonable man appears to have 
entertained a doubt. " The Robigalia," says the grave 
Varro, " is named after Robigus ; while the crops are in 
the field sacrifices are offered to this god, lest mildew 
should attack the crops." To the same effect Festus, or 
rather his late epitomizer Paulus, says that " the Robigalia 
is a festival on the twenty-fifth day of April, on which they 
sacrificed to their god Robigus, who, they thought, could 
ward off mildew." The only question that could fairly be 
asked was whether the deity was male or female, a god 
(Robigus) or a goddess (Robigo). Ovid makes a goddess 
of Mildew (Robigo), and in this he is supported by 
Columella, and followed by the Christian Fathers Ter- 
tuUian, Lactantius, and Augustine. But the weight of 
ancient authority is in favour of the view that Mildew 
was really a god (Robigus) rather than a goddess (Robigo) ; 
so at least thought, or reported, Varro, Verrius Flaccus, 
Festus, Aulus Gellius, and Servius. 

We learn from Ovid that the victims sacrificed to Mildew 
(Robigus or Robigo) at the Robigalia were a dog and a 
sheep (lines 908, 935-936). Columella describes the canine 
victim more exactly as a sucking puppy, whose blood and 
bowels served to propitiate the malignant goddess Mildew 



(Robigo), in order that she might not blight the green 

But the god or goddess Mildew was not by any means 
the only enemy with whom the crops had to wrestle, and 
whose favour was sought by the sacrifice of a dog. Another 
formidable foe of the farmer was Sirius or the Dog-star, 
and what could be more natural than to appease the wrath 
of the Dog-star by the sacrifice of a dog ? And this in 
fact was done. Every year a sacrifice, called the Doggy 
Sacrifice {sacrum canarium), was offered at Rome by the 

Eublic priests, because at the rising of the Dog-star the 
eat of the summer was most intense and sickness was rife. 
However, it would seem that the sacrifice was not oflFered 
at the moment of the rising of the Dog-star, which, as 
we have seen, took place on the second of August ; for 
in the books of the pontiffs it was laid down as a rule that 
the days for taking the omens from dogs {augurio canario 
agendo), which presumably coincided with the days on 
which the dogs were sacrificed, " should be fixed before 
the corn has sprouted from the sheath, but not before it 
is in the sheath." This points to a day in spring, and 
certainly not in the torrid heat of an Italian August. If, 
as Warde Fowler says, this stage in the growth of the 
corn takes place in Italy at the end of April or the begin- 
ning of May, the Doggy Sacrifice must have been oflFered 
about the same time as the Robigalia, but it need not have 
coincided with it, except by accident ; for whereas the 
Doggy Sacrifice was clearly a movable feast, the date 
of which was determined by the pontiflFs from year to 
year according to the state of the crops, the Robigalia 
was always nailed down to the twenty-fifth of April. The 
Doggy Sacrifice was offered not far from a gate at Rome 
which was called in consequence the Puppy's Gate {Porta 
Catularia), because there " red bitches were sacrificed to 
appease the Dog-star, which is hostile to the corn, in order 
that the yellowing corn may reach maturity." 

The situation of the Puppy's Gate at Rome is otherwise 
unknown ; it appears to be mentioned by no other ancient 



writer. The same may be said of the grove of Mildew 
mentioned by Ovid, where he saw the rites of the Robigalia 

The Good Goddess (v. 148). — ^The nature of the Good 
Goddess appears to have been a matter of some uncertainty 
both in ancient and modern times. Cornelius Labeo re- 
garded her as an Earth-goddess, identical with Maia, 
Fauna, Ops, and Fatua ; he affirmed that her character 
as an Earth-goddess was proved by the secret rites ob- 
served in her honour, and that she was invoked in the 
books of the pontiffs under the titles Good, Fauna, Ops, 
and Fatua. On the whole, this view of the Good Goddess 
as an Earth-goddess, invoked by women for the sake of 
procuring offspring and ensuring the fertility of the 
ground, has been adopted by modern writers on Roman 
religion. Her identification with the old Roman goddess 
Maia, who gave her name to the month of May, may have 
arisen from the accident that both were worshipped on 
May Day. According to Festus, the Good Goddess was 
also called Damia, her priestess bore the title of Damiatrix, 
and a secret sacrifice in her honour was known as Damium. 
This points to an identification or confusion of the Good 
Goddess with the Greek goddess Damia, a divinity of 
growth and fertility akin to Demeter. The affinity of the 
Good Goddess to Demeter comes out in other ways. The 
victim offered to the Good Goddess was a sow, and tame 
serpents seem to have been kept in her ternple. Similarly, 
pigs were the victims regularly offered to Demeter, and in 
her sacred vaults or chasms there were serpents which 
consumed the pigs thrown into them at the women's 
festival of the Thesmophoria. Once a year the Roman 
women celebrated by night secret rites m honour of the 
Good Goddess ; the celebration took place in the house 
of the consul or praetor for the year, and all men had to 
quit the house for the occasion, because no male might be 
present at the rites ; the Vestal Virgins assisted at the 
ceremony. In the year 62 b.c, while the women were 
celebrating these mysteries in the house of Julius Caesar, 



who was then praetor, the notorious profligate Publiua 
Clodius made his way into their midst disguised as a lute- 
girl, but he was discovered and ejected. The affair 
created a great scandal, and Caesar in consequence 
divorced his wife Pompeia, with whom Clodius was in love. 

Lemuria (v. 421). — ^The Lemures were the wandering 
spirits of the dead, conceived especially as mischievous and 
dangerous to the living. In this sense, the word seems nearly 
equivalent to larvae, whereas manes is so far distinct that 
it seems generally to signify the benevolent and worshipful 
spirits of the dead. The ghosts who visited the houses on 
the three days of the festival (see 491-2) were the spirits 
of kinsfolk departed this life (443). From this it appears 
that the three days of the Lemuria were All Souls' Days, 
on which the spirits of the dead were supposed to revisit 
their old homes : they were received with a mixture of 
reverence and fear, and after they had picked up the 
black beans thrown to them, they were politely, but 
firmly, turned out of doors. The ghosts were supposed 
to accept the beans as a substitute for the living members 
of the family, whom otherwise they would have carried 
off, being either envious of the living or feeling lonesome 
in the other world. The Romans threw beans into graves 
" for the safety of men," probably in the hope that the 
dead would accept the offering and leave the living alone. 
The reason which induced ghosts to accept beans as 
substitutes is not manifest, but beans were supposed to 
belong in a special way to the dead, and for that reason 
the Flam en Dialis might not touch or name them, much 
less might he eat them : his sanctity would have been pro- 
faned by any contact, direct or indirect, with the dead. 

In many parts of the world it is a common notion that 
he spirits of the dead revisit the living on one day or on 
several days of the year ; they return in particular to 
their old homes, and are received with respect by their 
kinsfolk, who after entertaining them hospitably, dismiss 
them more or less forcibly to the Land of the Dead, where 
it is hoped they will remain peaceably till the same time 



next year. They are believed to be very touchy, and 
capable, if offended, of afflicting the living with all kinds 
of misfortune. The use of beans finds a curious parallel 
in the use of beans at the expulsion of demons in Japan. 
The head of the family, clad in his finest robes, goes 
through all the rooms at midnight, carrying a box of 
roasted beans. From time to time he scatters a handful 
on a mat, pronouncing a form of words which means " Go 
forth demons ! enter riches ! " 

The Argei (v. 621). — Dionysius of Halicarnassus (i. 38. 3) 
says, that down to his own time, on the Ides of May, " after 
offering the preliminary sacrifices according to the laws, 
the Pontiffs, and with them the Virgins who guard the 
eternal fire, and the praetors, and all the citizens who may 
lawfully attend the rites, fling effigies made in human form, 
thirty in number, from the sacred bridge into the stream 
of the Tiber, and the effigies they call Argei." Varro : 
" The Argei »re twenty-seven effigies of men made of 
rushes. ..." The name Argei or Argea was also applied to 
a number of chapels distributed over the four regions of 
Rome : twenty-seven, if we accept a probable emendation 
of Varro 's text. The number twenty-seven (thrice nine) 
had a mystic significance in Greek or Roman ritual. A 
procession went to the twenty-seven chapels on March 16 
and 17 (iii. 791) ; it is a plausible conjecture that on these 
days the puppets were carried to the chapels, and left 
there till May 14 or 15, when they were brought forth, 
carried again in solemn procession through the streets to 
the Sublician Bridge, and cast by the Vestals into the 
Tiber. With regard to the origin and signification of the 
custom, the ancients seem to have been as much in the 
dark as we are. Some believed the rite to have been a 
substitute for human sacrifices. Another theory was that 
in ancient times men over sixty years of age used to be 
thrown from the bridge into the river ; and in support 
of this view the proverb Sexagenarios de ponte was quoted. 
So rooted in the Roman mind was the association of 
sexagenarians with a bridge and a watery death, that an 



appropriate word was coined to describe them, Depontani ! 
— W. Mannhardt proposed to regard the puppets as 
representing the dying spirit of vegetation in the spring, 
who at the beginning of summer was carried out to burial 
and thrown into the river, in order that revived by the 
water, he might return in fresh vigour next year, to animate 
the crops and other fruits of the earth. This ingenious 
theory he supported by many parallel customs of modern 
European peasants, in which the outworn spirit of Vegeta- 
tion is certainly thus represented by puppets thrown 
into water. But he admitted that the date was not a 
very suitable one for the death and burial of the Spirit of 
Vegetation, who at that season might rather be thought 
to be in the very flower of his age. To meet this objection, 
he was driven to conjecture that the custom may originally 
have been celebrated in the height of summer, perhaps on 
Midsummer Day ; the shift of date he thought may have 
occurred under the old unreformed calendar, when the 
times were out of joint. But this is a mere conjecture, 
unsupported by evidence. The theory is open to other 
objections ; and so far as I can see, there is little or nothing 
to suggest that the ceremony had anything to do with 
vegetation. The puppets were made of rushes ; the case 
would have been different if they had been made of corn- 
stalks. There was little in the Vestals and Pontiffs to 
connect them with the Spirit of Vegetation. The old bridge 
over the Tiber is hardly a place where we should expect 
to meet the Spirit of Vegetation. On the whole then, I 
find no sufficient reason for regarding the ceremony as a 
fertility rite. 

But the description of Plutarch, " the greatest of 
purifications " {Q. Rom. 86), suggests an interpretation 
which can be supported by world-wide analogies. In many 
parts of the world it has been customary to set apart a day 
or several days every year for the public expulsion of all 
the evils which are supposed to have accumulated in the 
country and the town during the past year. Often these 
evils are personified as demons or ghosts; where the people 



dwell beside a river or sea, the demons are often sent away 
in boats which are allowed to drift down stream or out to 
sea. Sometimes they are supposed to be embodied in 
effigies, which are cast out with great ceremony. Here I 
will quote only a single example. 

" At Old Calabar, on the coast of Guinea, the devils and 
ghosts are, or used to be, publicly expelled once in two 
years. Among the spirits thus driven from their haunts 
are the souls of all the people who have died since the last 
lustration of the town. About three weeks or a month 
before the expulsion, which, according to one account, 
takes place in the month of November, rude effigies 
representing men and animals, such as crocodiles, leopards, 
elephants, bullocks and birds, are made of wicker-work 
or wood, and being hung with strips of cloth and bedizened 
with gewgaws, are set before the door of every house. 
About three o'clock in the morning of the day appointed 
for the ceremony the whole population turns out into the 
streets, and proceeds with a deafening uproar and in a state 
of the wildest excitement to drive all lurking devils and 
ghosts into the effigies, in order that they may be banished 
with them from the abodes of men. For this purpose bands 
of people roam through the streets knocking on doors, fir- 
ing guns, beating drums, blowing on horns, ringing bells, 
clattering pots and pans, shouting and hallooing with 
might and main ; in short, making all the noise it is possible 
for them to raise. The hubbub goes on till the approach 
of dawn, when it gradually subsides and ceases altogether 
at sunrise. By this time the houses have been thoroughly 
swept, and all the frightened spirits are supposed to have 
huddled into the effigies or their fluttering drapery. In 
these wicker figures are also deposited the sweepings of 
the houses and the ashes of yesterday's fires. Then the 
demon-laden images are hastily snatched up, and carried 
in tumultuous procession down to the brink of the river, 
and thrown into the water to the tuck of drums. The 
ebb-tide bears them away seaward, and thus the town is 
swept clean of ghosts and devils for another two years." 



Now if we could assume that the Argei represented the 
accumulated demons of the whole year, the resemblance 
between the Roman and African customs would be close, 
and Plutarch would be justified in describing the ceremony 
as " the greatest of purifications." The three days of the 
Lemuria ended on May 13, that is, on the very day before 
the Argei were thrown into the water. The immediate 
sequence suggests that while the Lemuria was the private 
expulsion of ghosts, the ceremony of the Argei was the 
public expulsion of the same uncanny visitors on the 
following day. 

But there is another and simpler explanation of the Argei 
which deserves to be considered. May they not have 
been offerings to the River-god, to pacify him, and to 
induce him to put up with the indignity of having a bridge 
built across his stream .'' There is much to be said for this 
explanation, which I suggested many years ago, and 
which I still incline to think the most probable. We can 
easily imagine the indignation which a river-god must 
feel at the sight of a bridge, and of people passing dry- 
shod across it, who in the course of nature would have 
been drowned at the ford. Thus the deity is robbed of 
his prey ; and he naturally puts in a claim for compensa- 
tion. That claim the Romans may have attempted to 
satisfy by throwing, once a year, the puppets in human 
shape from the offending bridge, one puppet for every 
ward in the city, trusting that the river-god would 
graciously accept them instead of live men and women, 
and that thus contented, he would not rise in flood, and 
come in person to snatch his prey from the streets and 
houses of Rome. On this hypothesis, nothing could be 
more fitting than that the offering should be under the 
auspices of the pontiffs, whose very name, signifying 
" bridge-makers," marked them out as the culprits 
responsible for the sacrilege, and therefore as the penitents 
bound to atone for it. The bridge which the pontiffs are 
traditionally said to have built was the very same Sublician 
Bridge from which the puppets were thrown ; the tradi- 



tion of the construction was presumed in the song of the 
Salii, one of the oldest documents of the Latin language. 
The bridge was the first ever built at Rome ; its custody 
and maintenance were committed to the pontiffs, who had 
to perform certain solemn rites and sacrifices whenever 
it stood in need of repairs. 

The belief that the spirit of a river demands a sacrifice 
of one or more human victims each year persists in some 
parts of Europe till this day. Similar conceptions meet 
us in many parts of the world ; to this day, or down at 
all events to recent times, bridges have been the object 
of superstitious fear, not only in Africa and India, but 
even in the more backward parts of Europe. 

Semo Sancus (vi. 213). — ^The worship of Semo Sancus 
Dius Fidius was cared for by a special company of priests, 
who bore the title of Bidental ; and as hidental was the name 
given to a place struck by lightning, at which an expiatory 
sacrifice of two-year-old sheep (bidentes) had been offered, 
we may infer that the Bidental priests were charged with 
the duty of offering such sacrifices. Semo is apparently 
the singular form of a noun which occurs in the plural 
form Semunis in the song of the Salii. The statue of 
Semo Sancus, which Justin Martyr and Tertuliian took 
for that of Simon the Magician, has been found at Rome, 
with the inscription which Tertuliian, or his informant, 
misread : Sanco sancto Semon. deo [sic, for Dio\ Fidio 
sacrum decuria sacerdotum hidentalium. Thus to make 
sure that the god received his full title, the priests called 
him sanctus as well as sancus. It was natural that he 
should be invoked in oaths or asseverations to attest the 
truth of the statement : Me Dius Fidius or Medius Fidius. 
It was a rule of domestic ritual, that he who would swear 
by Dius Fidius should go out into the compluvium, the 
unroofed place in the middle of the house, where he could 
swear under the open sky ; and the god's temple had a 
hole in the roof through which the sky could be seen. If 
Dius Fidius was a sky-god who wielded the lightning, it 
was very natural that those who took his name on their 



lips should do so in the open air, where the deity could see 
them and smite them to the ground with his thunderbolt 
if they took his name in vain. On the bronze tablets 
discovered at Gubbio (Iguvium) there is mention of a god 
Fisos Sansios or Fisouis Sansios, who was probably no 
other than Fidius Sancus in a dialectically different form. 
Dius is probably connected with the nouns Djovis and 
Jupiter : in other words, the people originally swore by 
the Sky-god under the special title of Fidius, as the 
guardian of good faith : but in time they came to look 
upon him as a distinct deity. Thus we seem bound to 
recognize a process of multiplying gods, by creating 
special gods for the discharge of special functions, which 
had previously been performed by a single god of all work. 
No people, perhaps, carried this principle further than the 
Romans ; and if only they had had time to apply it con- 
sistently to their chief god Jupiter, they might have ended 
by stripping him of his multifarious duties, and entrusting 
them to a number of deputy-deities, who, we cannot 
doubt, would have discharged them quite as efficiently. 
Thus, gradually retiring from the active control of affairs 
in this sublunary sphere, Jupiter might at last have become 
little more than a sleeping partner in a divine firm, whose 
august name might still be read on the golden plate of 
the celestial door, and whose existence everyone acknow- 
ledged in theory, though nobody troubled about him in 
practice. To this state of dignified and somnolent repose 
the great Sky-god has in fact been reduced almost 
all over Africa at the present day. 

The worship of Vesta (vi. 257). — There seems every 
reason to believe that the worship of Vesta, in other words, 
the institution of a Common Hearth Avith a sacred and 
perpetual fire burning on it, was very much older than the 
oldest of her temples in Rome. When we compare Vesta 
with the Greek Hestia, whose very name, etymologically 
linked with Vesta, means simply " Hearth," and who like 
Vesta was worshipped in the Prytaneum, that is, in the 
Prince's house, where a perpetual fire burned on the hearth, 



we can hardly doubt that the institution dates from a remote 
prehistoric period when the ancestors of the Greeks and 
Romans dwelt together and worshipped the fire which 
burned on the hearth of the King's house. For the temple 
of Vesta was situated beside the Regia or King's house, and 
was never a temple in the strict sense of the word, for it had 
never been consecrated by the augurs. So in Greece the 
Common Hearth appears never to have been placed in a 
temple, but regularly in a prytaneum, that is the house of 
the prytanis or prince. The maintenance of a perpetual fire 
in it was probably at first a matter rather of practical 
convenience than of religious ritual. When a fire has to 
be laboriously kindled by rubbing two sticks against each 
other, it is very convenient to keep a fire constantly burn- 
ing. That this mode of kindling fire by the friction of 
wood was formerly in vogue amongst the Romans, we 
know from the rule, that whenever the Vestal fire was 
accidentally extinguished, the Vestal Virgins were whipped 
by the Pontifex Maximus, and compelled to rub a board 
of lucky wood with a borer till it took fire. We may 
further suppose that the Vestal Virgins represented the 
King's unmarried daughters, who may have been charged 
with the duties of keeping the fire always alight on the 
hearth, fetching water, grinding corn, and baking cakes, 
to be eaten by the family as well as to be offered to the 
Goddess of the Hearth. 

The Pontifex Maximus seems to have possessed paternal 
power over them, and he appears in certain respects to 
have succeeded to the place and functions of the old King, 
though in other respects these were inherited by the Rex 

Among the Damaras or Hereros of S.W. Africa the 
sacred fire, which is kept constantly burning, is regularly 
tended by the King's eldest unmarried daughter. The 
round shape of the temple of Vesta is explained most 
naturally as the ancient form of house which the Italians 
are known to have inhabited in prehistoric ages. The 
prehistoric villages disinterred in North Italy show these 



round huts, which appear to have been constructed of 
wattle and daub, or branches. In the cemetery of Alba 
Longa, the ashes are deposited in urns which obviously 
represent round huts, constructed of clay, brushwood, or 
other perishable stuff. At Rome itself funeral urns of the 
same type were found. In view of all this evidence it is 
reasonable to assume that the first temple of Vesta at 
Rome was a round hut of the same sort. Two such huts 
were sedulously preserved at Rome itself. One of these 
was the hut of Romulus on the Palatine (iii. 183) ; the 
other was the hut of Faustulus, preserved in the temple of 
Jupiter (Mythographi Graeci, p. 149). 

Vaciina (vi. 307). — Writing from his home in the Sabme 
hiUs an immortal letter, instinct with love of the country, 
to a city friend who did not share his rural tastes, Horace 
concludes by saying that he had dictated the letter 
" behind Vacuna's mouldering fane." On this passage his 
old scholiast Porphyrion remarks that Vacuna was a 
Sabine goddess of uncertain form and nature ; some 
thought that she was Bellona, others Minerva, and others 
Diana. In the first book of his lost work, The Antiquities 
of Divine Things, Varro identified her with Victory. The 
statement that she was a Sabine goddess is confirmed by 
several inscriptions found in the Sabine country, for they 
contain dedications to her. One of them, found near 
Reate, records the vow of two persons to Vacuna for the 
return of a certain L. Acestus from Africa. Another, also 
found near Reate, records the vow of a certain Esuvius 
Modestus for the health of his father. The latter vow 
suggests that Vacuna was a medical goddess, endowed with 
healing power. 

Now we know from Pliny that Vacuna had a grove in 
the Sabine country near to the river Avens (the modern 
Velino) and to Reate, and that in the territory of Reate 
there was a lake called the lake of Cutilia or Cutiliae, 
which Varro regarded as the navel or central point of 
Italy, and in which there was a wood and a floating island. 
Seneca tells us that he had seen the island, and that. 



though it was clothed with grass and trees, it never re- 
mained stationary, but floated hither and thither with 
every breath of wind. This property he attributed in 
part to the weight of the water, which he describes as 
medicated. The lake of Cutilia, with its moving island, 
is mentioned by Varro, and is described by Dionysius 
of Halicarnassus and Macrobius, who confirm Seneca's 
account of the floating island, except that according to 
Dionysius only grass and some inconsiderable bushes 
grew on it, and the island stood not more than a foot 
above the level of the lake. Dionysius tells us further 
that the natives regarded the lake as bottomless and as 
sacred to Victory (Nike), and that in consequence they 
surrounded the water with fillets and allowed nobody to 
approach it except at certain times of the year, when 
religious rites were performed. At these times sacrifices 
were ofl:ered on the floating island by persons who might 
lawfully do so. Now since in this part of his work, which 
describes the first settlement of the aborigines in the heart 
of Italy, Dionysius is professedly following the Antiquities 
of Varro, it becomes highly probable that the goddess of 
the lake, whom Dionysius calls Victory, was no other than 
Vacuna, whom Varro, as we saw, identified with Victory. 

Strabo informs us that the water of Cutilia was cold, 
and that people drank it and sat in it for the healing of 
disease. He does not indeed mention the lake but only the 
waters at Cutiliae (Cutilia), which was a town on a hill 
near the lake. This water at Cutilia in the Sabine country 
is described by Pliny as so excessively cold that it almost 
seemed to bite the drinker, yet as extremely salubrious 
for the stomach, the sinews, and indeed the whole body ; 
further he says that it was of a nitrous quality and purga- 
tive in its effect. The same statement had previously 
been made by Vitruvius, from whom Pliny may have 
borrowed it. Celsius recommended standing " in cold 
medical springs like those at Cutiliae " as a remedy for 
looseness of the bowels. 

The purgative eff'ect of the water of Cutilia was ex- 



perienced with fatal results by the Emperor Vespasian. 
Being a native of the Sabine country, for he was born at 
a small village near Reate, it was his habit to pass the 
hot months of the Italian summer among his native 
mountains at Cutilia and in the country about Reate. In 
the last year of his life (a.d. 79), being troubled with a 
slight indisposition in Campania, he returned in haste to 
Rome, and from there rode or was carried up to the scenes 
of his youth at Cutilia and the neighbourhood. There, 
as a remedy for the sickness which increased upon him, 
he took frequent draughts of the ice-cold water, and though 
they had no eiFect in abating his malady, he continued 
to discharge his imperial duties lying in bed, where he 
gave audience to embassies. But at last he was seized 
with a fit of diarrhoea so violent that he almost swooned. 
Feeling the hand of death upon him, he said, " An emperor 
should die standing." So saying, he struggled to his feet 
and, with the support of his attendants, died standing like 
an emperor and a soldier. 

The Emperor was not the only victim of the cold water 
cure, which had been made fashionable by Antonius Musa, 
physician to Augustus. Having recalled his imperial 
master from the gates of death by cold baths and copious 
draughts of cold water in the style of Doctor Sagrando, 
the Roman doctor blossomed out into fame : the Emperor 
rewarded him liberally : the Senate showered money and 
honours on him : his admirers subscribed for a portrait- 
statue of the good physician, which was set up beside 
that of his divine prototype Aesculapius. Cold water 
now became the rage and the last word in medical science. 
The fashionable doctor compelled poor Horace, shivering 
and shuddering, to submit to cold douches in the depth 
of winter, when he longed for the sunshine and the myrtle- 
groves of Baiae. But Musa tried his nostrum once too 
often when he applied it to the youthful Marcellus, the 
hope of Rome and perhaps the destined heir of the empire ; 
for the young man succumbed to the cure. 

On the whole it appears that for a time the cold medicinal 



springs of Cutilia in the Sabine hills were resorted to by 
the sick, who both drank the water and bathed in it for 
the sake of their health. Perhaps, on the days when 
sacrifices were offered to the goddess on the island, and 
the holy lake was opened to the public, the patients were 
allowed to plunge into its healing water, like the impotent 
folk at the pool of Bethesda ; and as the curative property 
of the pool at Jerusalem was ascribed to an angel who 
went down at a certain season into the pool and troubled 
the water, so we may suppose that at Cutilia the sick who 
survived the cold plunge attributed their deliverance to 
the divine Lady of the Lake, the goddess Vacuna. From 
Ovid we learn that, when sacrifices were offered to Vacuna, 
people stood and sat in front of her sacred hearth. If 
the present view of Vacuna is correct, we may suppose 
that these worshippers were the visitors to the Spa who 
had benefited by the waters, and who testified their 
gratitude to the goddess for their cure by joining in a 
thanksgiving service. And when we remember the pur- 
gative effect of the water, and the melancholy fate of 
Vespasian, we shall perhaps not go far astray if we con- 
jecture that the name and the function of Vacuna, the 
goddess of the water, had reference ad evacuandum alvum. 
In that case we need not wonder that Horace, who had 
suffered from her, allowed her shrine at the back of his 
house in the country to fall into decay. Yet long after 
the poet's ashes had been laid beside those of his friend 
Maecenas on the Esquiline, the Emperor Vespasian, who 
had even less reason than Horace to be grateful to Vacuna, 
appears to have repaired the ruined shrine ; for in the 
valley of the Digentia, which flowed through or near 
Horace's farm, and at the village of Rocca Giovine, there 
was found an inscription recording that the Emperor 
Vespasian had restored at his own expense the temple of 
Victory, which had fallen into ruin through long lapse of 
time. When we bear in mind that Vacuna was identified 
with Victory by Varro, we need not hesitate to believe 
that this ruined temple of Victory was no other than 



" the mouldering fane of Vacuna " mentioned by Horace. 
In after ages, when the memory of Vacuna and her drastic 
water had faded from the minds even of the learned, the 
poet Ausonius used her name as a synonym for leisure, 
evidently deriving her name from vacare in the sense of 
" to be at leisure." 

Cloaca (vi. 401). — The low ground in the centre of Rome, 
surrounded by hills from which the water runs down into 
it, must have been very swampy in the old days before it 
was drained by the wonderful system of stone sewers, 
which dates from the regal period and has survived in 
part to the present time. Dionysius of Halicarnassus tells 
us that when the Sabine king Tatius first occupied the 
Capitoline and Quirinal hills, the valley at the foot of the 
Capitol was occupied partly by a wood and partly by a 
lake formed by the streams which poured down from the 
surrounding hills. The king cut down the wood and filled 
up a great part of the lake, and so formed the Roman 
Forum, which was probably in origin rather a market than 
a place of public assembly, like the Cattle Market (Formn 
Boarium or Bovarium), the Vegetable Market (Forum 
Holitorium), the Fish Market (Forum Piscariu7n), and so 
forth. Varro speaks of " the marshy place which was then 
in the Forum before the sewers were made." Even when 
Rome had risen to the height of her glory as mistress of 
the world, the extent and solidity of these vast drainage 
works, testifying to the engineering skill and enterprise 
of earlier ages, excited the wonder and admiration of 
Greeks and Romans alike. 

The existing remains of the ancient Roman sewers are 
of various dates and various styles. The sewers of Re- 
publican or regal date are built of squared blocks of tufa 
or peperino : the oldest of them are roofed over with 
triangular tops formed of courses of stones on level beds, 
each course projecting over the one below. This archaic 
mode of construction, which probably preceded the in- 
vention of the arch, is exemplified in the great beehive 
tombs of prehistoric Greece, and at Rome the lowest 



dungeon of the Mamertine prison, known as the Tullia- 
num, where the Catalinarian conspirators were strangled, 
is built in the same primitive style of masonry and in the 
same circular shape. But most, apparently, of the Re- 
publican or regal sewers are roofed with regular arches of 
solid masonry. Under the Empire great sewers were formed 
of concrete faced with bricks and covered with semicircular 
vaults also of concrete. Smaller drains were commonly 
roofed with large tiles set leaning together in a triangular 
form. The Great Sewer {Cloaca Maxima) starts in the 
valley of the Subura, at the foot of the Carinae, the ele- 
vated spur of the Esquiline, on which now stand the 
churches of S. Pietro in Vincoli and S. Francesco di Paolo. 
It then crosses the Forum, passing under the south end 
of the Basilica Julia. Thence it runs under the ancient 
Tuscan street {vicus Tuscus) and the valley of the Velabrum, 
till it reaches the Tiber near the little round temple in the 
Forum Boarium. In 1890 a piece of the sewer more than 
200 yards long was cleared out between the Forum of 
Augustus and the Roman Forum. It is here built of 
massive blocks of peperino {lapis Gabinus) ; it is 10 feet 
6 inches wide, and about 14 feet high to the crown of the 
vault. Its floor is paved with polygonal blocks of lava, 
like a Roman street. At its exit on the Tiber the arch of 
the sewer is nearly 11 feet wide and more than 12 feet high, 
and is formed of three rings of peperino blocks. A con- 
siderable piece of this great sewer is now to be seen near 
the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro. The larger part of 
this section belongs to the Republican period, but some of 
the restorations are of later date. 

As the original construction of these great arched 
sewers was unanimously referred by the Romans to their 
two Etruscan kings, the Tarquins, it is natural to suppose 
that the use of the arch in architecture was borrowed 
by the Romans from Etruria. Indeed, some good modern 
scholars have held that the invention of the true arch, 
built of wedge-shaped blocks of stone {voussoirs) fitted 
together in a segment of a circle, must be attributed to 



the Etruscans, who in that case proved themselves the 
masters both of the Greeks and the Romans in this im- 
portant branch of architecture. The Etruscan origin of 
the great Roman sewers is confirmed by the existence of 
an exactly similar sewer built of stone at the Etruscan 
city of Graviscae, by the sea near Tarquinii. It is 14 feet 
wide, and ends, like the Great Sewer at Rome, in a 
massive quay wall some 20 feet high. Other ancient 
sewers of the same sort exist in Etruria. In recent years 
the excavations conducted by Mr. WooUey for the British 
Museum at Ur of the Chaldees have proved that the 
principle of the arch was familiar to the ancient inhabitants 
of Mesopotamia at a time which long preceded, not only 
the foundation of Rome, but the settlement of the Etrus- 
cans in Italy. Hence it is probable that the Etruscans 
brought the knowledge of the arch with them from their 
old home in Asia, where they may have borrowed it, 
directly or indirectly, from Babylonia. 

Vertumnus or Vortumnus (vi. 409). — Some Roman 
antiquaries looked on Vortumnus as an Etruscan deity. 
Varro even affirmed that Vortumnus was the chief god of 
Etruria, and that at Rome his image was set up in the 
Tuscan Street on account of his Tuscan origin. Similarly 
Propertius represents the god as declaring in so many 
words that he was an Etruscan and came from Etruria, 
having deserted the Etruscan city of Volsinii during the 
wars. But we know that there was a temple of Vortumnus 
on the Aventine, which appears to have been dedicated on 
the 13th of August, and the temple contained a picture 
of M. Fulvius Flaccus in his triumphal robes. Since 
M, Fulvius Flaccus was consul in 264 b.c. and celebrated 
a triumph in the same year for his victory over the Vol- 
sinians, we may suppose with some degree of probability 
that the temple was erected by the victorious general, not 
only to commemorate his success, but also to secure the 
divine favour by transferring the chief god of the con- 
quered foe from Volsinii to Rome. Now in the days of 
the independence of Etruria, the federal council of the 



league regularly met at the shrine of a goddess named 
Voltumna, where measures of war and peace were con- 
certed. This shrine of Voltumna appears to have been 
at or near Volsinii, for down to the time of Constantine 
an annual assembly was held at Volsinii, accompanied by 
the celebration of theatrical performances and gladiatorial 
combats. This suggests that the goddess Voltumna was 
the wife, or, at all events, the female counterpart, of 
Vortumnus, and that the pair were the patron deities of 
Volsinii, from which they took their name and to which 
they stood in much the same relation in which Athena 
stood to Athens. If that was so, the proper form of the 
god's name would seem to have been Voltumnus rather 
than Vortumnus. 

If Vortumnus was indeed an Etruscan deity in name 
and origin, the similarity of his name, especially in the 
form Vertumnus, to Latin is deceptive, and the account 
which the Roman poets gave of his power of shape-shifting 
must be dismissed as based on nothing better than the 
false etymology which would explain the name Vertumnus 
as equivalent to Turner, from verier e, " to turn." We 
have seen that Propertius and Ovid proposed to derive 
the god's name from his exploit in turning back the flooded 
Tiber. But no sooner has he suggested this explanation 
than Propertius propounds another. Perhaps, says he, 
speaking in the god's name, " I am called Vertumnus 
because I receive the fruit of the turning year " {annus 
vertens). For it seems that the first fruits of the season were 
offered to Vertumnus. In the right hand of his image, 
or perhaps rather in a basket which he held out to his 
worshippers, might be seen the first purple grapes of the 
vintage, the first yellow ears of corn at harvest, sweet 
blushing cherries, autumn plums, apples and pears, and 
mulberries reddening in summer days ; there, too, in the 
basket lay the dark-green cucumber and swelling gourd, 
and there, or wreathed about his face, drooped every 
flower that bloomed in the meadows. This fancy Ovid 
took up and told, in charming verses worthy of Herrick, 



how Vertumnus, the god of the turning year, wooed and 
won the love of Pomona, the goddess of fruit, who dwelt 
demure in her loved orchard, barred against the wanton 
crew of amorous rural deities, till Vertumnus found his 
way into her heart. But the goddess was coy, and the 
god justified his name by turning into many shapes before 
she yielded. Now he presented himself to her in the 
guise of a reaper, with his basket of corn-ears on his arm ; 
now he was a haymaker, fresh from tossing the hay in 
the meadow, with a wisp of grass wound round his brows ; 
now he was a ploughman with an ox-goad in his hand, as 
if he had just unyoked the weary oxen on the furrowed 
field ; again he showed himself as a pruner of vines with his 
pruning-knife ; or he carried a ladder on which to climb the 
fruit-trees and pluck the ripening apples from the boughs ; 
he even took the shape of a fisherman with his rod and of a 
soldier with his sword. But all in vain ; the shy goddess 
still said no, till at last he doffed his disguises and appeared 
in his own proper form, as the sun breaks through clouds 
to shine in undimmed radiance. Thus Vertumnus won 
Pomona's love. In this description of the god's successive 
transformations Ovid clearly borrowed much of his 
imagery from Propertius, who enumerates an even greater 
variety of personages into which this Italian Proteus could 
convert himself at will, among them a girl in Coan silk, a 
tipsy reveller, a hunter, a fowler, a charioteer, a circus- 
rider, a pedlar, a shepherd, and one who carried baskets 
of roses on summer's dusty ways. More briefly, TibuUus 
alludes to the thousand varied garbs which Vertumnus 
could assume, and every one of which sat well on him. 
Thus, if we accept the evidence of the poets, Vertumnus 
was a sort of heavenly harlequin. 

Portunus (vi. 547). — Portunus was a genuine old Latin 
god ; Virgil calls him Father Portunus, and represents 
him as giving a shove to one of the galleys in the race 
instituted, with other games, by Aeneas in honour of his 
father Anchises. The antiquity of his worship is indicated 
by the circumstance that it was in charge of a special 



flamen {Flamen Portunalis), one of whose duties, oddly 
enough, was to anoint the arms of the god Quirinus with 
ointment drawn from a special vessel, coated with pitch, 
called a persillum. A festival called the Portunalia was 
held in his honour on the seventeenth of August ; it is 
mentioned in many ancient calendars, of which three (the 
Amiternine, the Valensian, and the Allifanine) add a note 
explaining that the Portunalia was a festival celebrated 
in honour of Portunus at the AemUian bridge. Hence, 
when Varro tells us that " the Portunalia is named after 
Portunus, to whom on that day a temple was dedicated 
in the port of Tiber {in portu Tiberino) and a festival 
instituted," we may assume that " the port of the Tiber," 
and with it the temple of Portunus, was at Rome near the 
Aemilian bridge, and not at the mouth of the Tiber, at 
Ostia, as Th. Mommsen supposed. 

As to the nature and functions of Portunus the ancients 
seem to have hesitated whether to derive his name from 
partus, " port," " harbour," or from porta, " gate," and 
consequently whether to regard him as the guardian deity 
of harbours or of gates. Ovid clearly takes the former view, 
for he says (line 546) that Portunus was given all authority 
over harbours. Cicero seems to have been of the same 
mind, for he derived the name of Portunus from partus, 
" port " ; and Virgil apparently adopted the same opinion, 
for in his description of the race between the galleys he 
makes Portunus help the winning galley " into port." 
Consistently with this etymology, Virgil's old commentator 
Servius, in a note on this passage, describes Portunus as 
" a marine god who presides over harbours." On the 
other hand, Festus, or rather his abbreviator Paulus, 
informs us that the guardianship of the key was thought 
to be with Portunus, who was supposed to hold a key in 
his hand and was thought to be ' the god of gates." A 
scholiast on Virgil says that Portunus was usually painted 
holding a key in his hand. Varro combined both etymo- 
logies and functions, for he described Portunus as " the 
guardian of harbours and gates." In favour of the con- 



nexion of Portunus with gates rather than with harbours 
it has been pointed out that the temple of Janus, who in 
one at least of his aspects was certainly a god of gates, 
was dedicated on the same day as the temple of Portunus, 
that is, on August 17. Taking this along with his emblem 
the key, which was also an emblem of Janus, we may 
perhaps conclude with Wissowa that Portunus was 
primarily a god of gates (portarum) and only secondarily 
a god of harbours (portuum). There seems to be reason 
to think that originally partus and porta differed only in 
sound, not in sense. 

The site of the Aemilian bridge, near which stood the 
temple of Portunus, is not certain, but it seems to have 
coincided roughly with that of the modern Ponte Rotto, 
now removed. In the flat ground on the left bank of the 
Tiber at this point there are two well-preserved ancient 
temples which have been converted into churches under 
the names of S. Maria Egiziaca and S. Maria del Sole, 
and the former has been conjecturally identified by Huelsen 
with the temple of Mother Matuta. The same eminent 
topographer would identify the church of S. Maria del 
Sole with the temple of Portunus. 



Acastus, cleansing of Peleus by, 
ii. 40 

Acca mourns Remus, iv. 854, v. 453 

Achates meets Anna, iii. 604 

Achelous, ii. 43 

Achilles, Homer's poems on, ii. 
119 ; and Chiron, v. 390 

Acmonides, one of the Cyclopes, 
iv. 288 

Actium, victory of, 31 b.c., i. 711 

Actorides cleansed by Peleus, 
ii. 39 

Adonis, red anemones from, v. 227 

Aegeus and Medea, ii. 41 

Aerailian Bridge, the, temple of 
Portunus at, p. 441 ; site of, 
p. 442 

Aeneas, Vestal fire brought to Rome 
by, 1. 527 ; introduces All Souls' 
Days, ii. 543 ; lands in Latium, 
ii. 680, iv. 251 ; Augustus' descent 
from, iii. 425 ; offers hospitality 
to Anna, iii. 601 ; born of Venus 
and Anchises, iv. 37 ; Greek 
beliefs brought to Italy by, iv. 
78 ; fire allows escape of, iv. 799 ; 
his war with Turnus, iv. 879, and 
his appeal to Jupiter, iv. 892 ; 
the Palladium brought to Rome 
by, vi. 434 ; and the Golden 
Bough, p. 403 ; games instituted 
by, p. 440 

Aesculapius, restores Hippolytus, 
vi. 746; Jupiter's thunderbolt 
at, vi. 759 ; reference, i. 291 

Aethra, mother of the Hyades, 
V. 171 

Africa, parallel to rites of Salii in, 
pp. 400-401 ; killing of divine 
kings in, pp. 404-405; expulsion 

of devils, p. 427; Sky -god of, 

p. 430 ; sacred flre in, p. 431 
African calendars, pp. 385-386 
Agamemnon, v. 307 
Aganippe, v. 7 

Agenor, father of Europa, vi. 712 
Agonal, derivation of, i. 318, v. 

Agrippa, son of Tiberinus, iv. 49 
-4i«ia (Callimachus) Fasti suggested 

by, p. xxiv 
Alba Longa, funeral urns at, p. 432 ; 

reference, iv. 43 
Albula, River (the Tiber), ii. 389, 

V. 646 
Alcides. See Hercules 
Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraus, 

ii. 43 
Alcyone of the Pleiades, iv. 173 
Algidus, Mt., Battle of, vi. 722 
All Souls' Days, introduction and 

rites of, ii. 548 ; the Lemuria 

as, p. 424 
Almo, God of the river, father of 

Lara, ii. 601 ; the river, iv. 337 
Amalthea the Naiad, hides Jupiter, 

v. 115 ; Horn of, v. 128 
Ampelus, legend of, iii. 409 
Amphitrite, v. 731 
Amulius, uncle of Silvia, Romulus 

and Remus ordered to be drowned 

by, iii. 35, 49, iv. 53 ; killed by 

Romulus, iii. 67, iv. 809 
Anchises, marries Venus, iv. 35, 

123 ; games in honour of, p. 440 
Ancilia, Numa receives, from 

Jupiter, iii. 377; Mamurius' copies 

of, p. 398 
Ancus Marcius, King, vi. 803 
Anglo-Saxon Calendar, the, p. 387 



Anguitenens (Ophiuchus), rising 

of, vi. 735 
Anna, sister of Dido, leaves home, 

iii. 559 ; reaches Melita, iii. 567 ; 

leaves for Camere, iii. 582 ; 

reaches Latium, iii. 599 ; meets 

Aeneas and Achates, iii. 601 ; 

Lavinia's plot against, iii. 629 ; 

is drowned and becomes a nymph, 

iii. 647. See Anna Perenna 
Anna Perenna, worship of, iii. 145 ; 

feast of, iii. 523; origin, iii. 543; 

other suggested origins, iii. 657 ; 

dupes Mars, iii. 677, p. 407 ; 

position of festival, p. 406 ; 

a personification of the year, 

p. 406; as the old wife of Mars, 

p. 409 
A nnales Maximi, a source for Fasti, 

p. xxii 
Antenor, iv. 75, 77 
Anteros, iii. 1 

Anysius on the Lupercalia, p. 890 
Aphrodite. See Venus 
Apollo of Claros, i. 20 
Apollo Smintheus, vi, 425 
ApoUodorus, on the wife of Zeus, 

p. 388 
Appius Claudius Caecus, 296 b.c., 

vows temple to Bellona, vi. 203 ; 

reference, vi. 690 
April, derivations, and claims of 

Venus to, iv. 85 
Apulian Daunus, iv. 76 
Aqua Virgo, the, i. 464 
Aquarius constellation, i. 662, ii. 

145, 457 
Arcadian Hill, the, 1. 542 
Arcadians, worship of Pan 

(Faunus) by, ii. 271, iii. 84; 

worship of Mercury, v. 89 
Areas, i. 470, vi. 235 
Arch, the, invention of, pp. 437-438 
Archimedes, orrery of, vi. 287 
Arctophylax. See Bear-Ward 
Arcturus, vi. 235 
Ardea, Tarquin's siege of, ii. 721 
Arethusa, Ceres at banquet of, iv. 

Argei, origins of, v. 621 ; procession, 

p. xxii, iii. 793 ; significance of, 

p. 425; term given to chapels, 

p. 425 
Ariadne, forsaken by Theseus, iii. 


460, and Bacchus, iii. 468 ; trans- 
ported to heaven by Bacchus as 
Libera, iii. 512, v. 346 
Arion and the Dolphin, ii. 83 
Aristaeus, loss of bees by, i. 363 
Art of Love, The (Ovid), p. xi 
Arval Brethren, prayers to Mars, 

p. 397 
As, the, meaning of inscriptions on, 

Ashby, Mr., account of Boni's dis- 
covery of the mundus by, p. 420 

Ass, origin of sacriQce of, i. 391, 
vi. 339 

Assaracus, iv. 34, 943 

Athamas, madness of, vi. 489 ; his 
love for a slave, vi. 555 

Athena. See Minerva 

Athenaeus on a Parilia festival, 
pp. 411-412 

Athenians, worship of Pallas by, 
iii. 80 ; sacrifices of cakes with 
twelve knobs by, p. 417 

Atia, mother of Augustus, vi. 809 

Atlas, burden of, ii. 490 ; father of 
the Pleiades, iv. 169, v. 83 ; 
brother of Hyas, v. 169, ISO 

Atreus, son of Tantalus, ii. 627 

Atrides, doom of, iv. 73 

Atrium Libertatis, iv. 624 

Attains refuses to give up Cybele, 
iv. 266 

Attica, Ceres in, iv. 502 

Attis, his vow to, and punish- 
ment by Cybele, iv. 223 ; violets 
from, V. 227 

Augur, the, origin of, i. 441 

Augustus Caesar, banishes Ovid, 
p. xi ; Ovid's poems to and on, 
pp. xiv et seq. ; dedication of Fasti 
to, pp. xvii, xviii, xix, ii. 15 ; title 
given to, i. 590, 607 ; contrasted 
with Romulus, ii. 127 ; toast to, 
at Caristia, ii. 637 ; his title ot 
Pontifex Maximus, iii. 422 ; 
descent from Venus and from 
Aeneas, iv. 20, 952 ; restores 
temple to Cybele, iv. 348; at 
Mutina, iv. 627, and title of Im- 
perutor given, iv. 676 ; temple 
to Mars Ultor built by, v. 557, 
577 ; avenges Crassus, vi. 468 ; 
destroys palace on site of Livia's 
colonnade, vi. 646 ; Musa's cold- 


water treatment to, p. 434 ; 

other references, i. 13, 531, iv, 

859, vi. 763 
Aurora, iiL 403, iv. 714 
Ausonius, derivation of Vacuna by, 

p. 436 
Aiispex, the, origin of, i. 441 
Autobiography, ancients' use of, 

p. vii 
Aventine Hill, worship of the Moon 

on, iii. 884 
Aventinus, iv. 51 

Bacchus and the Goat, i. 360 ; and 

Ampelus, iii. 410 ; weds Ariadne, 

iii. 461, and transports her to 

heaven, iii. 510 ; celebration of, 

iii. 713 ; birth of, iii. 715 ; in 

India, iii. 720, 729 ; rites of, iii. 

721 ; discovers honey, iii. 736 ; 

ivy dear to, iii. 767 ; "toga virilis 

given on day of, iii. 777 ; and the 

Hyades, v. 167; love of flowers 

by, v. 345 ; nursed by luo, vi. 

483, 486, 562 
Bailey, Cyril, edition of Fasti, Book 

III. by, p. xxvi 
Baker Jupiter, altar of, origin of, 

vi. 349 
Balance constellation, iv. 386 
Battus, king of Melite, entertains 

Anna, iii. 570 
Beans, use of, at the Lemuria, v. 

436, pp. 424-425 
Beanstalks used in fumigating fuel 

for Parilia, p. 415 
Bear constellation, the, origin of, 

ii. 183, iii. 793 ; reference, iii. 107 
Bear- Ward constellation, origin of, 

ii. 183; references, ii. 153, iii. 

405, vi. 235, 236 
Beating the bounds, compared with 

the Lupercalia, p. 393 
Bellona, temple to, founded by 

Appius Claudius, vi. 201 
Beltane festival in Scotland, rites 

of, pp. 415-417 ; and the Parilia, 

p. 418 
Bidental priests of Semo Sancus, 

p. 429 
Birds, the origin of the aiispex and 

augur, i. 441 
Boni, Giacomo, probable discovery 

of the miwuius by, pp. 419-420 

Bootes, setting of, iii. 405, v. 733. 

See also Bear-Ward 
Boreus carries ofif Oreithyia, v. 203 
Bovillae and Anna Perenna, iii. 667 
Bowl constellation, origin of, ii. 

Briareus sacrifices the Bull, iii. 805 
Bride, the False, explanation of 

custom, pp. 410-411 
Bridges, beliefs and rites connected 

with, pp. 428-429 
British Museum, mss. of Fasti in, 

p. xxvii 
Brontes, one of the Cyclopes, iv. 

Brussels manuscript of the Fasti, 

p. xxix 
Brutus, feigns idiocy, ii. 717; 

avenges Lucretia, ii. 837 
Brutus, Dec. Junius, defeats 

Gallaecans, vi. 461 
Bull constellation, origins, from the 

Bull of Europa, v. 605 ; from lo, 

V. 619; and the Hyades, v. 165, 

vi. 197 ; references, iv. 717, v. 

603, vi. 197, 712 
Burman, Pieter, Fasti edited by, 

p. xxiv 

Cacus, Hercules' fight with, i. 560, 
V. 648, vi. 82; staircase of, 
p. 419 

Cadmus, i. 490 

Caducifer, v. 449 

Caenina, ii. 135 

Calendar, the, order and names of 
the months in, i. 1 ; reformed by 
Julius Caesar, iii. 156; division 
by Romulus, iv. 23, vi. 84 ; 
ancient ten -month, p. 385; 
African, Maori and Anglo-Saxon, 
pp. 385-387 ; rites connected with 
intercalation, pp. 395-396 

Calendars, Italian, month named 
after Mars in, iii. 87 ; ten months 
in ancient, iii. 99, 120 

Calf, ashes of unborn, used in 
Parilia, iv. 634, 665, 733, p. 414 

Caligula and the Rex Nemorensis, 
p. 403 

Calliope explains May as from 
Maia of the Pleiades, v. 80 

Callisto breaks her vow, ii. 166; 
changed into a bear, ii. 177, and 



becomes the Bear constellation, 
ii. 188 

Calpetus, iv. 46 

Cambridge manuscript of the 
Fasti, p. xxxi 

Camenae, the, iii. 276 

Camere, Anna leaves for, iii. 582 

Camillus, temple of Juno Moneta 
founded by, vi. 184 

Candlemas, p. 402 

Capella constellation, origin of, 
V. 113 

Capella, Martianus, on Mars and 
Nerio, p. 408 

Capito, Ateius, on the opening of 
the mundus, p. 419 

Capitol, the, geese of, i. 454; building 
of new, ii. (567 ; temple to Jupiter, 
Juno and Miner\'a, vi. 18, 84, 52, 
78 ; siege of, by the Gauls, 390 
B.C., vi. 351 

Capricorn, the sun in, i. 651 

Capys, iv. 34, 45 

Caristia, derivation and rites of, 
ii. 617 

Carmentalia, the, origin of, i. 462 

Carmentalis, Porta, right - hand 
arch unlucky, ii. 202 

Carmentis, mother of Evander, 
banished from Arcadia, i. 463; 
and Hercules, i. 583 ; rites in 
honour of, i. 618 ; Ino entertained 
by, vi. 529 ; prophesies concern- 
ing Ino and Melicertes, vi. 541 

Carna, goddess of the hinge, origin 
of powers of, vi. 101 

Carpenta, derivation of, i. 120 

Carrhae, defeat at, 53 B.C., v. 583, 
vi. 465 

Carseoli, Ovid's visit to, iv. 683 

Carthage and Juno, vi. 45 

Castor carries off Phoebe, v. 699 ; 
wounded by Lynceus, v. 709; 
with Pollux becomes a constella- 
tion, V. 719 

Castor and Pollux, temple of, i. 706 

Cato the Elder, prayer to Mars, 
p. 397 

Celaeno of the Pleiades, iv. 173 

Celer, protects the walls of Rome, 
iv. 837 ; kills Remus, iv. 844, vi, 

Celeus, Ceres in the home of, iv. 


Celsius, reference to Lake Cutilia 
by, p. 433 

Centaur, the. See Chiron 

Cerealia, iii. 786, iv. 393 

Ceres, pig sacrificed to, i. 349, 671, 
iv. 414 ; function of, i. 673 ; and 
Peace, i. 704 ; spelt sacrificed to, 
ii. 520; festival of, iv. 393, v. 
355 ; home in Trinacria, iv. 420 ; 
visits Arethusa, iv. 423 ; searches 
for Persephone, iv. 446 ; in the 
house of Celeus, iv. 408 ; heals 
Triptolemus, iv. 540, and makes 
him the first ploughman, iv. 550 ; 
further travels of, iv. 561 ; ques- 
tions the Great Bear, iv. 577, and 
the Sun, iv. 581 ; appeals to 
Jupiter, iv. 585, and is soothed 
by his decree, iv. 613 ; loosing 
of foxes at games of, iv. 682 ; 
daughter of Ops and Saturn, 
vi. 285 

Chaos, Janus derived from, i. 104 ; 
reference, iv. 600 

Chiron, constellation of, v. 379, 
413 ; wounding and death of, 
V. 384 

Chloris, former name of Flora, 
V. 195 

Cicero on Mark Antony's offer of 
the crown to Caesar, p. 392 ; on 
the Luperci, p. 394 

Cincinnatus, 458 b.c., i. 207 

Circeium, iv. 70 

Claudia Quinta moves the ship 
bearing Cybele, iv. 305, 343 

Claudius, defeat of Syracuse by, 
iv. 873 

Claudius, Appius, 296 b.c, vows 
temple to Bellona, vi. 203 

Clausi, House of, iv. S05, v. 155 

Clausus, iv. 305 

Clio describes temple of Hercules 
Musarum, vi. 801 ; reference, v. 54 

Cloaca of Rome, construction of, 
vi. 401, pp. 436-438 

Clodius, Publius, at a Thesmo- 
phoria, p. 424 

Clotho, vi. 757 

Clusius, name for Janus, i. 130 

Clymenus, vi. 757 

Cnossian Crown, iii. 460 

Cold-water treatment, the, at 
Cutilia, pp. 434-436 


Columella on the Robigalia, p. 421 

Comitiales, the, i. 53 

Comitiurn, Flight of the King from, 

pp. 394, 395 ; references, pp. 

417, 418 
Concord, temple of, 1. 639 ; present 

at Caristia, ii. 631 ; explains 

origin of June, vl. 91 ; reference, 

iii. 881 
Concordia, shrine to, vi. 637 
Consus, festival of, iii. 199 
Coronis, the nymph, i. 291 
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, 

p. xxiii n. 
Corpus Siyriptorwm Latinorum Para- 

vianum, p. xxvi 
Corvus, M. Valerius, 349 B.C., i. 

Cow, sacrifice of, in Parilia, iv. 

634, 665, 733, p. 414 
Crab constellation, i. 313, vi. 727 
Crane, the nymph, in Helernus, 

vi. 107 ; Janus gives control 

of hinges to, vi. 127 ; restores 

Proca, vi. 151 ; food proper to, 

vi. 169 
Crassus, M. Licinius, killed at 

Carrhae, v. 583, vi. 465 
Cremera, River, ii. 205 
Creppi or Crepi (goatskin, q.v.), 

name for Luperci, p. 391 
Crete, worship of Diana in, iii. 81 
Crocus, V. 227 
Cupid, helped by the Fishes, ii. 

Cures, capital of the Sabines, ii. 

135 ; Romulus unites to Rome, 

ii. 480 ; rape of women from, iii. 

201 ; worship of Semo Sancus in, 

vi. 216 
Curius, altar to Lares vowed by, 

V. 131 
Curtius, Lake of, vi. 403 
Cutilia, Lake, Vacuna goddess of, 

pp. 433, 435 ; curative properties 

of, pp. 433 et seq. 
Cybele, feast of, rites and their 

origin, iv. 182 ; origin and name 

of her attendants, iv. 183, 221, 

361 ; noises connected with, iv. 

207 ; lion-drawn car, iv. 215 ; 

turreted crown worn by, iv. 

219, vi. 321 ; her joiiruey to 

Latium, iv. 247, from Mt. Ida, 

iv. 249, 264'; reaches Latium, iv. 

291 ; difficulties of landing, iv. 

298 ; ceremony of landing, iv. 

339; dedication of temple to, 

iv. 347 ; origin of collecting small 

coin, iv. 350 ; and hospitality, iv. 

354 ; and the Megalesia, iv. 357 ; 

food set before her, iv. 367 
Cyllene, Mt., ii. 276 
Cynosura, iii. 107 
Cynthia and Arion, ii. 91 
Cyrene advises Aristaeus, i. 365 
Cytherea. See Venus 

Damia, name for the Good Goddess, 

p. 423 
Dardanus, son of Electra and Zeus, 

iv. 31, vi. 42 
Darnel, effect on eyes, i. 691 
Demeter, aflSnity of the Good God- 
dess to, p. 423 
Depontani, p. 426 
Deucalion's flood, iv. 794 
Di, corruption of, into J or Z, pp. 

387-388, 430 
Diana, sacrifices to, i. 387; and 

Callisto, ii. 155; worshipped in 

Crete, iii. 81 ; and Actaeon, iv. 

761 ; and Hippolytus, vi. 745 ; 

priesthood of, at Nerai, pp. 403- 

Didius, T., killed in the Marsic War, 

vi. 564 
Dido, death of, iii. 545 
Dindymus, Mt., iv. 234, 249 
Diomedes the Oenid, iv. 76; and 

the Palladium, vi. 433 
Dione (Venus) helped by the Fishes, 

ii. 461 ; first wife of Zeus, p. 388 ; 

reference, v. 309 
Dionvsus of Halicarnassus, on the 

Lupercalia, p. 390 ; on Square 

Rome, p. 419; on the A.rgei, p. 

425 ; on Lake Cutilia, p. 433 ; on 

the site of the Forum, p. 436 
Dis carries off Persephone, iv. 445 
Dog constellation, rising, iv. 904 ; 

connexion with lites to Mildew, 

iv. 939, p. 422 
Doggy Sacrifice, the, p. 422 
Dolphin constellation, rising of, 

i. 457, vi. 471, 720 ; reason for 

translation to heaven, ii. 79 
Drusus, i. 12 



Drusus, died 9 b.c, i. 597 ; dedica- 
tion of temple of Castor and 
Pollux to, i. 707 
Dryads, danger of seeing, iv. 761 
Dyaus, the Sanscrit, p. 388 

Eagle constellation, the, v. 732, 

vi. 196 
Earth, partnership with Ceres, i. 

673 ; sacrifices of pregnant cows 

to, iv. 634, 665, p. 413 ; creation 

of, V. 17 
Eetion, iv. 280 
Bgeria, wife of Numa, iii. 154, 263, 

275, 289 ; explains Faunus' advice 

to Numa, iv. 669 
Ehwald, R., joint editor of Fasti, 

p. xxvi 
Electra, of the Pleiades, iv. 31, 

174, 177 ; mother of Dardanus, 

vi. 42 
Eleusis of Ceres, iv. 507 
Elicius, Jupiter celebrated as, 

iii. 328 
Elissa. See Dido 
Ennius, a source for Fasti, p. xxii 
Epeus, maker of the Wooden 

Horse, iii. 825 
Epytus, iv. 44 
Equirria (horse races), ii. 859, 

iii. 519 
Erato explains the rites of Cybele's 

feast, iv. 195 
Erichthonius, iv. 33 
Erigone, the dog of, v. 723 
Eros, iv. 1 
Erythean kine, the, Hercules and, 

i. 543, V. 649, vi. 80, 519 
Eryx, iv. 874 
Esquiline, Mt., Juno's grove, ii. 

435 ; temple to Juno, iii. 246 
Etna, Mt., iv. 491 
Etruscan architecture, pp. 437-438 
Euphrates, the, Venus and Cupid 

hide by, ii. 463 
Europa, Jupiter as the Bull and, 

V. 605 ; gives name to Europe, 

v. 617 
Europe, modern parallels to the 

Salii in, pp. 402-403 
Evander, king of Arcadia, i. 471, 

vi. 506 ; banishment of, i. 471 ; 

lands in Latium, i. 639, iv. 65, v. 

643; and Hercules, i. 643, 580, v. 


645 ; worship of Faunus (Pan) I 
and Mercury brought to Latium ,) 
by, ii. 279, v. 91 1 

Fabii, the destruction of, by the Veii, 
477 B.C., pp. XX, xxiii, ii. 196; 
College of the Luperci, ii. 377, 
p. 389 ; associated with Reraus, 
p. 393 

Fabius Maximus Cunctator, Q., 
origin of name, i. 606 ; descent of, 
ii. 241 ; temple to Jupiter vowed 
by, iv. 621 

Falerii, conquest of, iii. 843 

False Bride, explanation of custom, 
pp. 410-411 

Fasti, the design of, p. xvii ; lost 
books of, pp. xvii-xviii ; dedication 
to Augustus and Germanicus 
pp. xvii-xviii ; references to exile 
in, p. xix, iv. 81, vi. 666 ; dates of, 
p. xix ; division of matter of, pp. 
xix-xxi; authorities of, p. xxii; 
editions of, pp. xxiv-xxvii ; mss. 
of, pp. xxvii-xxxii 

Pastus, days thus marked, L 48 

Fatua, p. 423 

Fauna, p. 423 

Faunus (Pan), rites of, ii. 268, p. 
392; why naked, ii. 303, 361; 
temples and worship in Arcadia, 
ii. 424, iii. 84 ; teaches Numa to 
expiate fall of thunderbolt, iii. 
291, and advises him in time of 
famine, iv. 663 ; danger of seeing 
at mid-day, iv. 762 ; brought to 
Latium by Evander, v. 99 

Faustulus, nurse of Remus, iii. 56 ; 
mourns Remus, iv. 854, v. 453 ; 
hut of, pp. 419, 432 

Februa, derivation of, i. 19, v. 423 

February, last month of the year, 
ii. 49 ; follows January, ii. 53 ; 
added to ancient calendar, p. 385 

Fenestella, the, vi. 378 

Feralia, introduction and rites of 
11 533 

Festus, on the rite of procuring 
horses' blood for the Parilia, p. 
414 ; on the mundus, pp. 419, 
420 ; on the Robigalia, p. 421 ; 
on the Good Goddess, p. 423 ; 
on Portunus, p. 441 

Ficus Ruminalis, the, ii. 412, p. 889 



Fldius (see Semo Sancus) as the god 

of good faith, vi. 213, p. 430 
Field of Mars, games to Tiber on, 

vi. 237 ; rite of the October Horse 

on, p. 414 
Fire, leaping across In the Parilia, 

iv. 727, 782 ; origin of, iv. 783 
Fire and water, beliefs and customs 

connected with, iv, 785 
Fishes, the, constellation, origin, 

ii. 468 ; reference, iii. 400 
Fisos Sancios connected with Semo 

Sancus, p. 430 
Flaccus, M. Fulvius, Consul, 264 

B.C. ; defeat of Volsinians by, p. 

Flaccus, Verrius, a source for Fasti 

p. xxiii ; on the Robigalia, p. 421 
Plamen, ancient origin of, p. 411 
Flanien Dialis, ceremonial rules of, 

i. 587 ; and the Lupercalia, ii. 

282 ; and beans, p. 424 ; wife of, 

taboos connected with, iii. 397, 

vi. 226 
Flaminius, 217 bo., vi. 765 
Flight of the King. See Regifugiam 
Flora, from Chloris, v. 195 ; weds 

Zephyr, v. 201 ; garden of, v. 210 ; 

assists Juno Lucina in the birth 

of Mars, v. 229 ; is a deity of 

Rome, V, 260; functions of, v. 

262 ; origin of games at Floralia, 

V. 277, 329 ; results of senate's 

neglect, v, 312; senate votes 

annual festival, v. 328 ; character 

of games, v. 331 ; rites connected 

with festival, v. 355 
Floralia, in April and May, iv. 947, 

v. 185 ; games at, v. 277, 329 
Flute-players, leave Rome for Tibur, 

vi. 657 ; tricked into returning, 

vi. 674 
Fools, Feast of, reason for and origin 

of, ii. 513 
Fordicidia, the, iv. 634, 665, p. 413 
Fornacaiia or Feast of Ovens, ii. 

527, vi. 314 
Fornax, ii. 625 

Fors Fortuna, festival of, vi, 773 
Fortuna Virilis, worship of, iv. 145 
Fortune, temple of, founded by 

Servius TuUius, p. xx, vi. 569 ; 

statue of Servius in, vi. 517, 613 
Forum Boarium, vi. 478 

Forum Julium, 1. 258 

Forum Romanum, i. 258 

Forums, marshy site of, vL 401, p. 

Fowler, W. Warde, on the Luper- 
calia, p. 393; on Nerio and Minerva, 
pp. 408-409 ; on conjugal relations 
of the gods, p. 409 ; on the 
mundus, p. 420; on the times of 
growth of corn, p. 422 

Foxes, loosing of lighted, in the 
Cerealia, origin of, iv. 682 

Frazer, Sir James, edition of Fasti 
by, published by Macmillan, p 

Furies, the, iv. 236 

Furius Camillus, M., temple built 
by, i. 641 

Gabii, Sextus Tarquin takes by 

treachery, ii. 690 
Galatea, vi. 733 
Galli, attendants on Cybele, iv. 

183, 221, 361 
Gallus, River, iv. 364 
Ganymede, constellation, ii. 145 ; 

rape of, vi. 43 
Gauls besiege Rome, 390 a a, vi. 

Geese, defence of the Capitol by, 

i. 454 
Gellius, Aulus, on Nerio as the 

wife of Mars, pp. 407-408 
Gellius, Cnaeus, on Nerio, p. 407 
George, St., patron of farmers and 

herdsmen, p. 413 
Germanicus Caesar, Ovid's appeal 

to, p. xiv ; Fasti dedicated to, 

pp. xviii-xix, i. 3 ; triumph of, 

26th May a.d. 17, i. 285 ; Ovid 

addresses, on Sulrao, iv. 81 
Giants, the, fight against Jupiter, 

iii. 439, V. 35 
Gierig, G. B., edition of Fasti by, 

p. XXV 

Glaucus, healing of, vi. 750 

Goat, the, and the vine, i. 354 ; 

origin of connexion with the 

Lupercalia, ii. 441 
Goatskin used at the Lupercalia, 

V. 102, p. 390 
Gods, the, conjugal relations of, 

p. 409 
Golden Bough, the, at Nemi, p. 403 



Golden Bough (Frazer), reference to, 

on the King of the Grove, p. 404 
Golden Fleece, the, carried to 

C!olchis, iii. 876 
Good Goddess, the, temple to, 

V. 148, 153 ; identification with 

Maia and other goddesses, p. 

423 ; rites connected with, pp. 

Gottingen manuscript of the Fasti, 

p. xxxi 
Graces, the, v. 219 
Gradivus, the Marching God. See 

Grape - gatherer, constellation, 

origin of, iii. 407 
Graviscae, Etruscan sewer at, p. 

Greek culture and religion brought 

to Italy, iv. 63 
Gronovius on the last six books 

of the Fasti, p. xviii 
Gyges, iv. 593 

Haemus, Mt., i. 390 

Halesus, Faliscan land called after, 
iv. 73 

Hallam, G. H.. edition of Fasti 
by p. XX vi 

Hannibal, iii. 148 

Harpies, the, vi. 131 

Hartmann, O. E., on the ancient 
divisions of the calendar, p. 385 

Hasdrubal (brother of Hannibal), 
death of, vi. 770 

Elasdrubal (son of Gisco and 
Syphax), death of, vi. 770 

Hearth, the, worship of, institution 
of, pp. 430-431 

Hebe, wife of Hercules, vi. 65 

Hecate, faces of, i. 141 

Hector, v. 385 

Heinsius, Nicolaus, on the last six 
books of the Fasti, p. xviii ; com- 
mentary on Fasti by, p. xxiv 

Helernus, grove of, ii. 67 ; the 
nymph Crane in, vi. 105 

Helice, constellation, mariners' use 
of, iii. 108 ; advises Ceres regard- 
ing Persephone, iv. 580 

Helle, Ino's plot against, iii. 857 ; 
Hellespont named from, iii. 870 

Hellespont, origin of name, iii. 870, 
iv. 278 


Hercules, visits Evander, i. 543, v. 
645 ; fights Cacus, i. 550, vi. ^=0 
82; and Omphale, ii. 305; his 
encounter with Faunus, ii. 332; 
visits Chiron, v. 387 ; casting ol' 
the Argei by, v. 632 ; Juventas 
(Hebe), wife of, vi. 65; thf 
Guardian, vi. 209 ; saves Ino, vi. 
521 ; in the temple of the Muses, 
vi. 799; Salii serve at Tibur. 
p. 400 

Hersilia, wife of Romulus, prayer 
to Mars by, pp. 407-408 

Hesiod of Ascra, vi. 14 

Hestia, connexion with Vesta, 
p. 430 

Hilaira carried oflF by Pollux 
v. 699 

Hinges, the goddess of, vi. 101 127 

Hippocrene, iii. 456, v. 7 

Hippolytus, in Aricia, iii. 265; death 
of, V. 309, 744 ; becomes Virbius 
of the Arician Lake, vi. 756 

Honey discovered by Bacchus, 
iii. 736 

Horace, Ovid friend of, p. ix ; refer- 
ence to Vacuna by, pp. 432, 436 ; 
his treatment at the springs of 
Cutilia, pp. 434, 435 

Horn of Plenty, origin of, v. 127 

Horse, blood of, used in Parilia, 
iv. 733, p. 413 ; method of pro- 
curing, p. 414 

Hours, the, v. 217 

Huelsen, Christian, commentaries 
on Roman Calendars by, p. xxiii 
n. ; on site of temple of Mother 
Matuta, p. 442 

Hyades, constellation of, origin of, 
V. 166 ; references, iii. 105, iv. 
678, 679, V. 164, 605, vi. 197, 711 

Hyas, names the Hyades, v. 172 ; 
constellation, v. 734 

Hyginus, C. Julius, Ovid's friend- 
ship with, p. X n. 

Hyperion, sacrifice of horse to, 
i. 385 

Hyrieus, entertains Jupiter and 
Mereury, v. 499 ; Orion given to, 
v. 535 

lani, i. 257 

larba, the Moor and Dido, iii. 552 

Icarus, death of, iv. 284 


Ida, Mt., Cybele on, iv. 249, 264 
Idas fights rollux, v. 699, 713 
nia(see Silvia), mother of Romulus 

and Remus 
Ilus founds Troy, vi. 419 
Imbrex, Licinius, on Nerio, p. 407 
Inachian Cow (Isis) as Anna Peren- 

na, iii. 657 
India, Bacchus in, iii, 720, 729 ; 

parallel to Salii in, p. 400 
Ino, wife of Athamas, and tlie 

toasted seeds, ii. 623, vi. 553 ; 

plots against Phrixus and Helle, 

iii. 863 ; nurses Bacchus, vi. 485 ; 

Juno's resentment against, vi. 

487, 507 ; becomes Leucothea, 

vi. 501, 645 ; attacked by Thyads, 

vi. 514 ; saved by Hercules, vi. 

621 ; entertained by Carnibntis, 

vi. 629 ; becomes Matuta, vi. 

Inuus, god honoured by the 

Luperci, p. 392 
lo as the Bull constellation, v. 

Iris, purple, v. 223 
Isis, daughter of Inachus, goose 

sacrificed to, i. 454 
Ivy, its connexion with Bacchus, 

iii. 767 

Janiculum, i. 246 

January, added to ancient calendar, 
i. 33, p. 385 ; the first month in 
the year, ii. 48 

Janus, opener of the year, i. 64; 
form of, i. 69, pp. 388-389, and 
reason, i. 133 ; derivation from 
Chaos, i. 104 ; changing functions 
of, i. 116 ; omens connected with, 
i. 171 ; figured on the As, i. 231 ; 
repulses the Sabines, i. 268 ; the 
gate in peace and war, i. 277 ; 
gives the nymph Crane control 
of hinges, vi. 119 ; rod of, white- 
thorn, vi. 129, 165 ; derivation 
from door, p. 387 ; original form 
of name, p. 387 ; connexion with 
Jupiter, p. 388 ; similarity of 
function to Portunus, p. 442 ; 
references, iii. 881, v. 424 

Japan, use of beans for demons in, 
p. 425 

Jason, i. 491 

Jerome cited on death of Ovid,, 
p. xvii n. 

Jove. See Jupiter 

Juba, defeat of, by Caesar, iv. 

Jukun, King of the, magical char- 
acter of, pp. 404-405 

Julia Augusta, deification of, i. 

Julii, college of the Lupercii, p. 
389; Mark Antony Master of, 
p. 391 

Julius Caesar, Pontifex Maximus, 
i. 530 ; reform of calendar by, 
iii. 156 ; murder of, iii. 697 ; 
descent from Venus, iv. 124 ; 
defeats Juba, iv. 379 ; Augustus 
avenges death, v. 578 ; college of 
the Luperci founded by, p. 389 ; 
refuses the crown, pp. 391-392; 
the Thesmophoria held at house 
of, 62 B.C., p. 423; divorces 
Pompeia, p. 424 

Julus, sire of the Julian hou«e, 
iv. 39 

July, interpolation in Fasti to 
explain, p. xviii 

June, month of the young, i. 41, 
V. 73, vi. 88 ; derived from Juno, 
vi. 26 ; in calendars of neiglibour- 
ing towns, vi. 58 ; from Juventas, 
vi. 75; from junction of Sabines 
and Romans, vi. 96 ; weddings 
in, vi. 223 

Juno, guardian of the Calends, i. 
56 ; aids the Sabines, i, 265 ; 
punislies Callisto, ii. 177 ; Lara 
informs of Jupiter and Jutunia, 
ii. 605 : worshipped in Sparta 
and Mycenae, iii. 83; Sabine 
wives assemble in temple of, iii. 
205 ; temple to, on Mt. Esquiline, 
iii. 246; dislike of the Bull, iv. 
720 ; judgement of Paris, vi. 16, 
44, 99 ; claims June, vi. 26 ; in 
temple of Jupiter, vi. 18, 34, 52, 
73 ; sister and wife of Jupiter 
vi. 27 ; daughter of Saturn, vi. 
29, 285; worship of, by Rome, 
vi. 51, and other towns, vi. 58; 
resents Ino, vi. 487, 507 ; deriva- 
tion from Diono, p. 388 

Juno Luciua, origin of belief in her 
power to aid women in childbed, 



ii. 436; worship of, iii. 255, vi. 
39 ; Flora assists in the birth of 
Mars, V. 231 
Juno Moneta, temple of, founded 

by Camillus, i. 638, vi. 83 
Juno's cloak, name for goatskin 

used at Lupercalia, p. 390 
Jupiter, guardian of the Ides, i. 56 ; 
primitive shrines of, i. 201 ; drives 
Saturn from heaven, i. 236, iii, 
796; site of temple of, i. 293; 
Hercules sacrifices to, i. 579 ; 
receives the Dolphin, ii. 118 ; 
and Callisto, ii. 162; raises 
Romulus to heaven, ii. 433 ; loves 
Juturna, ii. 585 ; punishes Lara, 
ii. 607 ; Terminus shares temple 
with, ii. 068 ; thunderbolts of, 
iii. 285, 290 ; reveals himself to 
Numa, iii, 321, 330, and tells him 
how to expiate the thunderbolts, 
iii. 337; sends the ancilia, iii. 
877; temple to the Young, iii. 
430; fed by Anna Perenna, iii. 
660; father of Bacchus, iii, 716; 
rewards the Kite, iii. 808 ; and 
Blectra, iv. 32, 174 ; and Maia, 
iv, 174, V. 86 ; and Taygete, iv. 
174 ; birth and preservation of, 
iv. 204 ; Ceres appeals to, for 
Persephone, iv. 585 ; temple to, 
as Victor, iv. 621 ; at the found- 
ing of Rome, iv. 827, 834 ; origin 
of feast of Vinalia belonging to, 
iv. 877, 892, 899 ; fights against 
the Giants, v. 35 ; Majesty a 
guardian of, v, 43 ; suckled by 
Capella, v. 112 ; birth of Minerva 
to, V, 231; eff'ect of honour on, 
V. 301 ; at the house of Hyrieus, 
V. 495 ; orders the birth of Oiion, 
V. 531 ; as the Bull carries off 
Europa, v. 605 ; father of Mercury, 
vi. 664 ; Eagle the bird of, v. 732 ; 
temple to, on Capitol, vi. 18, 34, 
52, 73 ; as Baker Jupiter, vi. 358 ; 
and Semele, vi. 485 ; temple to 
the Unconquered, vi. 650 ; and 
Aesculapius, vi. 759 ; temple of, 
as Stator, vi. 793 ; derivation of 
name, p. 388 ; powers taken up 
by deputies, p. 430 ; hut of 
Faustulus in temple of, p. 432 
Justice, flight of, i. 249 


Justin Martyr and the statue of 

Semo Sancus, p. 429 
Juturna, sister of Turnus, i. 463 

708 ; Jupiter's love for, ii. 585 
Juventas (Hebe), wife of Hercules, 

June named from, vi. 65 

Keightly, Thomas, edition of Fasti 

by, p. XXV 
Keil, H., Vatican ms. of Fasti 

collated by, p. xxv 
King of the Grove, the, at Nemi, 

p. 403 
Kings, temporary, of Lake Nemi, 

iii. 271, pp. 395-397 
Kings, magical character of, pp. 

404-405 . 
Kite, star of the, origin of, p. xxi, 

iii. 794. 

Labeo, Cornelius, on the Good 
Goddess, p. 423 

Ladon, River, ii. 274, v. 89 

Laenas, consul 173 b c, v. 330 

Lampsacus, sacrifice of ass to 
Priapus by, vi. 345 

Landi, C, edition of Fasti by, p. 

Lanuvium, Juno's statue in temple 
at, p. 390 

Laomedon, father of Tithonus, vi. 
430, 729 

Lara, a naiad, Jupiter's punish- 
ment of, ii. 599 

Larentalia, iii. 57 

Larentia, iii. 55 

Lares, birth and duties of, IL 616 ; 
homage to, at Caristia, ii. 634 ; 
foundation of altar to, v. 129 ; as 
guardians, v. 133 ; and cross-roads 
(compitales), v. 141 ; Augustus" 
figure set up with, v. 147 ; sanc- 
tuary of, vi. 791 

Latinus, descent of, iv. 43 

Latium, derivation of, i. 238 ; con- 
quests of, vi. 47 

Latona, Orion protects, v. 537 

Laurentine fields, the, Aeneas and, 
ii. 679 ; Anna wrecked on shore 
of, iii. 599 

Lausus, iv. 55 

Lavinia, wife of Aeneas, war caused 
by, i. 520 ; plots against Anna, 
iii. 629 


Learchus killed by Athamas, vi. 

Leda, sons of, i. 706 

Lemuos, worship of Vulcan in, iii. 82 

Lemures and manes, p. 424 

Lemuria, the rites of, p. xxi, v. 421 ; 
origin of the name from Remus, 
V. 445 ; as All Souls' Days, p. 424 ; 
use of beans in connexion with, 
pp. 423-424; connexion with the 
Argei, p. 428 

Leucas, the leap at, v. 630 

Leucippus, father of Phoebe and 
Hilaira, v. 702 

Leucothea, Ino becomes, vi. 501, 

Levy, F. W., joint editor of Fasti, 
p. xxvi 

Leyden manuscript of the Fasti, 
p. xxxi 

Libations, derivation of, iii. 733 

Liber bears Ampelus to the stars, 
iii. 414. See Bacchus 

Libera. See Ariadne 

Lion constellation, setting of, i. 
655, iL 77 

Livia, wife of Augustus, founds 
temple of Concord, i. 649, vi. 637 ; 
restores temple to the Good God- 
dess, V. 157 

Livy, lost books of, p. xviii ; a 
source for Fasti, p. xxii ; on the 
Luperci, p. 392 

Lobeck on the Regifugium, p. 395 

Loeb, Dr. James, acknowledge- 
ments to, p. xxvi 

Lotis and Priapus, i. 416 

Lucina. See Juno Lucina 

Lucretia, source of story, p. xxiii ; 
wife of Tarquinius CoUatinus, 
ii. 741 ; desired by SextusTarquin, 
ii. 761, 784 ; dies in the presence 
of husband and father, ii. 815, 831 

Lupercal, origin of term from the 
wolf, ii. 381, from Mt. Lycaeus 
ii. 423 ; position of, p. 389 ; image 
of the god in, p. 392 

Lupercalia, Ovid's origins of rites 
of, p. xxii, ii. 283; the goat thong 
custom at, ii. 425 ; a purificatory 
rite, pp. 390, 394 ; explanation of 
rites of, pp. 390-391 ; Christian 
explanation of, p. 890 ; part of 
Vestal Virgins in, p. 391 ; 44 b.c. 

Julius Caesar presented crown 

at, p. 891 ; a magical rite, pp. 392- 

393; compared with "beating 

the bounds," p. 393 ; Mannhardt's 

theory of, pp. 393-394; pastoral 

theory of, p. 394 
Luperci, the, purification by, ii. 

31 ; and Faunus, ii. 267, v. 101 ; 

Colleges of, ii. 375, pp. 389, 393 ; 

god served by, p. 392 
Lupercus, signification of the term, 

p. 393 
Lyaeus, i. 395 
Lycaeus, Mt, Luperci named after, 

ii. 423 
Lycaon, vi. 235 

Lycurgus expels Bacchus, iii. 722 
Lydus, Joannes, on Mamurius, p. 

398 ; on Anna Perenna, p. 406 ; 

on Nerine, p. 409 
Lynceus wounds Castor, v. 709 
Lyre, the, constellation, i. 316, 

654, ii. 76, V. 415 
Lyre invented by Mercury, v, 


Macer, p. x 

Macrobius, on Anna Perenna, p. 
406 ; on Lake Cutilia, p. 433 

Maenalus (Arcadia, q.v.), ii. 192, 
V. 89 

Maeonides, ii. 120 

Maera, iv. 939 

Maia, of the Pleiades, iv. 174, v. 
85; mother of Mercury, v. 88, 
664, who gives May her name, 
V. 103, vi. 35 ; the Good Goddess 
identified with, p. 423 

Mains, the third month. See May 

Majesty, birth of, v. 25 ; guardian 
of Jupiter, v. 45 

Mamuralia. See Mamurius 

Mamurius, commemorated by Salii, 
iii. 260 ; makes replicas of the 
ancile, iii. 383, p. 393 ; rewarded 
by the Salii's invocation, iii. 392 ; 
explanation of the rites connected 
with, p. 398 ; is the " Old Mars," 
p. 899 

Maniplaris, origin of name, iii. 118 

Maulius Capitolinus, M., 390 b.o., 
vi. 185 

Mannhardt, on the Lupercalia, p. 
393 ; on the Argei, p. 426 

q2 453 


Maori calendar, the, p. 386 
Marcellus, Musa's cold-water treat- 
ment of, p. 434 
March, the first month, i. 39, iii. 
135, p. 385 ; named from Mars, 
iii, 4 
Marcia, daughter of L. Marcius 

Philippus, vi. 802 
Mark Antony as Master of the 
Luperci offers Julius Caesar the 
crown, pp. 391-392 
Mars, the first month given to, by 
Romulus, i. 39, iii. 73 ; father of 
Romulus, i. 39, iii. 39, iv. 57, v. 
465, p. 481 ; as the Marching God 
(Gradivus), ii. 861 ; possesses 
Silvia, iii. 21 ; early worship of, 
iii. 79, p. 398 ; months in foreign 
calendars named after, iii. 87 ; 
reason for festival kept by 
Matrons, iii. 170 ; loves Minerva, 
iii. 681, p. 407 ; Anna Perenna 
beguiles, iii. 685, p. 407 ; Venus' 
month next to that of, iv. 130 ; 
and Sterope, iv. 172 ; birth of, v. 
229 ; as the Avenger visits temple 
built by Augustus, v. 550 ; festival 
of, in Jime, vi. 191 ; appeals to 
Jupiter regarding Gallic siege of 
Rome, 390 b,c., vi. 354 ; as God of 
War, p. 397 ; God of Agriculture 
and Vegetation, pp. 397-399 
prayer to, by Hersilia, p. 407 
Nerio as wife of, pp. 407-409 
sacrifice of October horse to, p. 
Marsyas, first flautist, vi. 703 
Startial on Anna Perenna, p. 406 
Masinissa defeats Syphax, vi. 769 
Matralia, the mothers' festival, vi. 

Matrons, festival of (Matronalia), 
reasons for being in March, iii. 
170 ; worship of Juno Lucina at, 
iii. 247 
Matuta, festival of (Matralia), vi. 
479 ; identified with Ino (q.v.), vi. 
545 ; her dislike of slaves, vi. 551; 
temples to, vi. 480, 669, p. 442; 
goddess of mothers, vi. 559 
Mavors, Father, iv. 828, vi. 53 
May, the third month, i. 41 ; 
derivations of, v. 1 ; as Majesty, 
V. 25 ; as the month of the Elders, 


V. 74, 427, Vi. 88 ; from Maia ot 
the Pleiades, v. 84, vi. 35 ; ill 
luck to wed in, v. 490, p. 408 
Medea, the Phasian witch, ii. 42 ; 

Jason's wife, ii. 627 
Medusa, iii. 451, v. 8 
Megalesia, feast of Cybele, iv. 182 ; 
reason for being the first games, 
iv. 357 
Meleager, v. 305 

Melicertes, son of Ino, vi. 494 ; 
becomes Palaemon, vi. 501, 547, 
and Portunus, vi. 547 
Melite (Malta), Anna at, iii. 567 
Merchants, Mercury worshipped by, 

v. 671 
Mercury, and Lara, ii. 608 ; son of 
Maia, v. 88 ; worship of, v. 90, 
brought to Latium by Evander, 
V. 100 ; gives mother's name to 
May, v. 103 ; worshipped by 
thieves, v. 104, 690, and mer- 
chants, V. 671 ; explains Lemuria, 
V. 447 ; entertained by Hyrieus, 
V. 496; attributes of, v. 663; 
temple of, v. 669 ; explains 
origin of Twins constellation, 
V. 698 
Merkel, R., edition of Fasti by, 

p. XXV 

Merope of the Pleiades, marriage to 

Sisyphus, iv. 175 
Metamorphoses, the (Ovid), pp. 

xi, xvii 
Metanira, wife of Celeus, iv. 539 
Metellus, L. Caecilius, saves sacred 
things from temple of Vesta, 
vi. 444 
Metellus, Q. Caecilius, founds 

temple to Cybele, iv. 348, 351 
Mezentius helps Turnus and is 

slain, iv. 881 
Mildew. See Robigalia 
Mind, sanctuary to, vi. 241 
Minerva, warlike aspects of, iii. 5, 
809 ; goddess of arts and crafts, 
iii. 176, 815 ; Mars in love with, 
iii. 681, p. 407 ; Capta, shrine of, 
iii. 837; sacrifices to, iii. 850; 
birth of, V. 231 ; armed figure of, 
at Troy (the Palladium), vi. 421, 
is brought to Rome, vi. 424, 
435; explains the rite of the 
flute-players, vi. 652 ; inventor 


o<" the flute, vi. 696; identified 
with Nerio, pp. 407 et seq. 

Mommsen, Th., commentaries on 
Roman Calendars by, p. xxiii n. ; 
on the port of the Tiber, p. 441 

Months, names and order of, i. 1, 
p. 385 ; division of, i. 55 ; African 
division of, pp. 385-386 

Moon, worship of, iii. 884 

Mulciber, father of Gaeus, i. 554, 
vi. 626 

Mundus, the, signilicance of rites 
connected with, and analogies, 
pp. 417-418 ; shape of, pp. 418-419 ; 
position of, p. 419 ; times of 
opening, p. 419 ; modern dis- 
coveries and theories regarding, 
pp. 419-420 

Munich manuscript of Faiti, pp. 
XXV, xxviii-xxix 

Musa, Antonius, cold-water treat- 
ment at Cutilia by, pp. 434-435 

Muses, explain rites attending 
Cybele's feast, iv. 191 ; explain 
derivation of May, v. 9 

Muta. See Tacita 

Mutina, Battle of, iv. 627 

Mycenae, worship of Juno in, 
iii. S3 

Narcissus, v. 225 

Nasica, P. Scipio, receives Cybele, 

iv. 347 
Nefastus, days thus marked, i. 47 
Negro calendars, pp. 385-386 
Nenii, priest of Diana at, iii. 264, 

p. 403 
Nephele defeats Ino's plot, iii. 863 
Neptune embraces Alcyone and 

Celaeno, iv. 173 
Nerio, wife of Mars, connexion 
with Minerva, iii. 675, pp. 407-409 
New Year, reason for beginning in 
winter, i. 149 ; and lawsuits, 
i. 165 
Nouacris, ii. 275 

Nones, no guardian god for, i. 67 
Numa Pompilius, adds two months 
to calendar, i. 43, iii. 152 ; sanctu- 
ary of, ii. 69 ; reforms of, iii. 276 ; 
learns how to expiate the fall of 
the thunderbolt, iii. 2S9 ; receives 
the ancile, iii. 377, and orders 
Mamurius to make replicas, iii. 

383 ; appeals to Faunus in famine, 
iv. 641, 663 ; worship of Majesty 
by, V. 48 ; builds teniple to Vesta, 
vi. 260 ; birthday of, p. 412 ; 
institutes Robigalia, p. 421 

Numicius, Anna a nymph of, iii 
647, 653 

Numitor, iv. 53 

Nundinae, the, i. 54 

Ocean, marries Tethys, v. 81 ; father 
of Hyades, v. 168 ; references, 
v. 21, 233 

Ocresia of Corniculum, mother of 
Servius TuUius, vi. 628 

October Horse, the, and the Purilia, 
pp. 413-415 

Oebalus, i. 260 

Old Calabar, expulsion of devils 
in, p. 427 

Olenus, flower from fields of, v. 

Omphale, mistress of Hercules, li. 
305 ; her encounter with Faunus, 
ii. 352 

Ops, mother of Juno, Ceres and 
Venus, vi. 286; identified with 
the Good Goddess, p. 423 

Orion, constellation of, setting, Iv. 
388, V. 493, 543; birth, v. 534; 
guardian of Latona, v. 537; rising, 
vi. 719 

Ostia, Cybele arrives at, iv. 291 ; 
port of the Tiber, p. 441 

Othryades, ii. 665 

Ovens, Feast of. ii. 527, vi. 314 

Ovid, birth and birthplace, pp. vii- 
viii ; parentage, p. viii ; career, 
pp. viii-ix ; contemporaries, pp. 
ix-x ; travels of, p. x ; marriages, 
p. X ; daughter of, p. xi, vi. 219, 
233 ; banishment to Tomi by 
Augustus, pp. xi et seq. ; life at 
Tomi, pp. xiv-xvi ; refers to his 
Art of Love, iv. 7 ; regrets exile 
from Sulmo, iv. 81 ; in the College 
of the Ten, iv. 383 ; visits 
Carseoli, iv. 683 ; returns from 
Nomentum and sees Robigalia, 
iv. 905, 907 ; verses on Vertuin- 
nus, pp. 439-440 

Oxen, sacrifice of, i. 362, 383 

Oxford manuscript of the Fasti, 

p. XXX 



Paean (Delphic Apollo) sends 
envoys for Cybele, iv. 263 

Palaemon, Melicertes becomes, vi. 
501, 547 

Palatine, the, i. 199, iii. 184, p. 411 

Palatua, guardian of the Palatine 
Hill, p. 411 

Pales, ashes of calves for, iv. 640 ; 
rites of festival, iv. 722, p. 411 ; 
shepherd's prayer to, iv. 747, 
p. 416 ; sex of, p. 411 ; analogy 
with St. George, pp. 412, 413, and 
Beltane, pp. 415-417. See also 

Paley, F. A., edition of Fasti by, 

p. XXV 

Palilia festival. See Parilia 
Palladium, the, at Rome, vi. 424, 

Pallas, son of Evander, i. 521 
Pallas, worship of, iii. 80, vi. 728. 

See also Minerva 
Palmer, H. R., on the succession of 

kings by killing, p. 405 
Pan. See Faunus 
Panope receives Ino and Melicertes, 

vi. 499 
Parentalia. See Feralia 
Parilia, rites of, and explanation, 

p. xxii, iv. 721, 783, pp. 411, 412 ; 

Rome founded on festival of, iv. 

820, vi. 257, pp. 411, 418 ; analogy 

with St. George's Day and 

Beltane, pp. 412-413, 415-417 
Paris, judgement of, vi. 15, 16, 44 
Paris manuscript of Fasti, p. xxx 
Parthians, defeat of, by Augustus, 

v. 585 
Pasiphae, iii. 499 
Patroclus. See Actorides 
Patulcius, name for Janus, i. 129 
Peace, and Ceres, i. 704 ; celebra- 
tion of, i. 709 
Pegasus constellation, iii. 450, v. 8 
Pelasgians, the, ii. 281 
Peleus, cleansing of Actorides by, 

ii. 39 ; cleansed by Acastus, ii. 40 ; 

reference, v. 408 
Pelignian country, Ovid's native 

land, iv. 685 
Pennant, Thomas, description of 

Beltane festival by, pp. 415-416 
Pergrubius, Lithuanian god of the 

spring, p. 418 


Persephone, daughter of Ceres, 
carried away by Pluto, iv. 445, 
583; daughter of Jupiter, iv. 
587; in heaven for twice three 
months, iv. 614 

Persia, sacrifice of the horse in, i. 

Peter, Hermann, edition of Fasti by, 

p. XXV 

Phaedra, love for Hippolytus, vi. 

Phaethon, iv. 793 
Philippi, Battle of, iii. 707 
Philippus, L. Marcius, restoration 

of Hercules Musarum by, vi. 801 
Philoculus, calendar of, tlie Mamu- 

ralia in, p. 398 
Philomela, Tereus' cruelty to, ii. 

Phoebe carried off by Castor, v. 

699. See also Diana 
Phoebus, i. 291, ii. 247, 718, iv. 951. 

V. 17 
Pholoe, Mt., ii. 273 
Phrixus, Ino's plot against, iii. 858 ; 

saved by the Ram, iii. 867 
Pictor, Quintus Fabius, source 

for Fasti, p. xxii 
Picus teaches Numa how co expiate 

the fall of a thunderbolt, iii. 291 
Pig, sacrifice of, to Ceres, i. 349, 

iv. 414 
Pine, cleansing properties of, ii. 28 
Plautius, censor 312 b.c, helps 

flute-players to return to Rome, 

vi. 685 
Plautus on Nerio, p. 407 
Pleiades constellation, daughters 

of Pleione and Atlas, iii. 105, iv. 

169, V. 84, 599 
Pleione, mother of the Pleiades, 

V. 83 
Pliny, on the Robigalia, p. 421 ; on 

Vacuna, pp. 432, 433 
Plutarch, Lives, p. vii ; on the 

Lnpercalia, p. 394 ; on the Regi- 

fugiura, p. 094; on themundus, pp. 

417, 418 ; on the Argei, pp. 426, 428 
Pluto. See Dis 
Pollux, carries off" Hilaira, v. 700 ; 

with Castor becomes a eonstella 

tion, V. 715 
Polyhymnia explains May as 

Majesty, v. 9 


Pomona, Vertumnns woos, p, 440 
Pompeia divorced by Julius Caesar, 

p. 424 
Pompey, his title of " Great," i. 

Pontifex Maximus, Augustus' title 

of, iii. 422 ; origin of, pp. 430-431 
Porphyrion on Neriene (Nerio), p. 

408 ; on Vacuna, p. 432 
Porrima, i. 633 
Portunalia, the, p. 441 
Portuntis, Melicertes becomes, vi. 

547 ; antiquity of worship, p. 440 ; 

derivation of name and function 

of, pp. 441-442 ; site of temple of, 

pp. 441, 442 
Postumius, consul 173 b.c., v. 330 
Postumus (Silvius), iv. 41 
Postverta, i. 633 

Priam, loss of Palladium by, vi. 431 
Priapus, desires Lotis, i, 391, 415, 

416, Vesta, vi. 319, and is betrayed 

by Silenus' ass, i. 433, vi. 342 
Prime Warden proclaims Feast of 

Ovens, ii. 627 
Proca, attacked by screech-owls 

restored by Crane, vi. 147 ; refer- 
ence, iv. 52 
Procne, Tereus' cruelty to, ii. 629, 

Proculus, Julius, sees the deified 

Romulus, ii. 499 
Propertius, Ovid's friendship with, 

p. ix ; elegies of. Fasti suggested 

by, p. xxiv ; on Mamurius, p. 399 ; 

on Vertumnus, pp. 438 et seq. 
Proteus restores the bees of Aris- 

taeus, i. 367 et seq. 
Public Fortune, temple of, iv. 376, 

V. 729 
Publician road, the, v. 294 
Publicius Malleolus, L., and 

Manlius, aediles 240 B.C., fines 

imposed by, v. 288, used for road, 

v. 294 
Puppy's Gate (Porta Catulo.ria), pp. 

Pygmalion, brother of Dido, iii. 574 
Pyrrhus, vi. 203, 732 
Pythagoras, iii. 158 

Quinctialee or Quinctilii, College 
of the Luperci, origin of, ii. 878, 
pp. 389, 393 

Quinquatrus, Greater, festival of 

Minerva, iii. 810, vi. 694 
Quinquatrus, Lesser, vi. 661 
Quintilis, interpolated explanation 

of, p. xviii ; first of numbered 

months, iii. 149 
Quirinus, the deified Romulus, q.v., 

ii. 475, 482 ; temple to, ii. 511, vi. 

796 ; arms of, p. 441 
Quirites, gave Romulus name 

Quirinus, ii. 479 ; Romulus sends 

message to, by Proculus, ii. 506 

Ram constellation, the, origin of, 
iii. 852 ; the sun leaves, iv. 715 ; 
setting of, iv. 903 

Ramsay, William, on the dual 
character of Mars, pp. 397-398 

Raven constellation, origin of, ii. 243 

Reate, dedications to Vacuna at, p. 

Regifugium, origin from the ex- 
pulsion of theTarquins, p. xxii, ii. 
685 ; time of, v. 728 ; as an apology 
or sin-offering, pp. 394-395 ; ex- 
plained from temporary king of 
intercalary period, pp. 395, 306 ; 
compared with Saturnalia, pp. 

Remulus, iv. 50 

Remuria, day in honour of Remus, 
v. 479 

Remus, overleaps the wails of Rome 
and is killed, ii. 134, 143, 486, iii. 
70, iv. 841, V. 452 ; connexion with 
the Fabii, ii. 365, p. 393 ; birth of, 
ii. 383, iii. 41, iv. 56 ; abandoned by 
Amulius, ii. 385, iii. 49 ; suckled 
by a wolf, ii. 415, p. 389 ; choice 
of founder of Rome between 
Romulus and, iv. 813, v. 151 ; 
Romulus' farewell to, iv. 850; 
ghost of, asks for a day of honour, 
V. 479 

Rex Nemorensis, explanation of, and 
an African parallel, pp. 403-405 

Rhea, wife of Saturn, birth of Jove 
to, iv. 201 

R,liine, the, in triumph of German!- 
ens, i. 286 

Riese, A., edition of Fasti by, pp. 
XXV, xxviii 

River-god, the Argei a sacrifice to, 
p. 428 



Kobigalia or Robiginia, festival 
to goddess Mildew, rites and 
sacriflces of, iv. 911, pp. 420- 

Robigus or Robigo, Goddess of Mil- 
dew, question of sex, p. 421 

Rock, the (Aventine), v. 150 

Romaea, later name of the Parilia, 
p. 412 

Roman Festivals of the Period of the 
Republic (Fowler), {>, xxiii n. 

Rome, founding of, by Romulus, and 
walls built, p. XX, iv. 801, 807, 821, 
pp. 390, 417 et seq. ; early, i. 198, 
iii. 180 ; birthday of, on Parilia, 
iv. 820, p. 411 ; greatness of, iv. 
857 ; siege of, 390 B.C., vi. 351 ; 
sewers of, vi. 401, pp. 436-438 ; 
round huts of, p. 432 

Romulus, division ot the calendar, 
and months named by, i. 29, 37, 
iv. 23, V. 76, vi. 84 ; poverty of, i. 
199 ; contrasted with Augustus, 
ii. 133 ; and the Quinctilii, ii. 
365, p. 393 ; birth of, ii. 383, iii. 
41, iv. 56 ; abandoned by Amulius, 
ii. 385, iii. 49 ; suckled by a wolf, 
ii 415, p. 389 ; rapes the Sabines, 
ii. 432, iii. 197, and is reconciled, 
vi. 93 ; deified as Quirinus, ii. 475, 
482 ; kills Amulius, iii. 67 ; builds 
Rome, iii. 69, iv. 808, vi. 64, pp. 
390, 417 et seq. ; names first month 
after his father Mars, iii. 76, 97 ; 
use of multiple ten by, iii. 128 ; 
palace of, iii. 184, p. 432 ; wife of, 
addresses Sabine women, iii. 205 ; 
watch on Mt. Esquiline by, iii. 
245 ; provides asylum for fugitives, 
iii. 4:U ; descent from Venus, iv. 
27, 57 ; choice of founder of Rome 
between Remus and, iv. 813 ; 
worship of Majesty by, v. 47 ; 
bestows title of Father, v. 71 ; 
gives May to the old men, v. 76 ; 
buries Remus, v. 451, and honours 
him by Remuria, v. 479 ; pleads to 
Jupiter for Rome, vi. 375 ; temple 
to Jupiter Stator by, vi. 793 

Rouse, Dr. W. H. D., notes to Loeb 
Fasti by, p. xxvi 

Rumina fig-tree, origin of name, ii. 

Russia, St. George's Day in, p. 413 


Rutilius Lupus, P., killed by the 
Marsians, vi. 564 

Sabines, Janus aids in repulse of, 
i. 261, 273 ; spear of, called curis 
ii. 477 ; rape of, iii. 199 ; recon 
ciliation between Romans and 
iiL 215, v. 93, pp. 407-408 ; worship 
of Semo Sancus by, vi. 217 
Vacuna a goddess of, p. 432 

Sacrifice, early offerings for, i. 337 
of animals, i. 346 

Sagaritis, Attis' love for, and 
Cybele's revenge, iv. 229 

St. George's Day, shepherds'customs 
connected with, pp. 412-418, and 
the Parilia, p. 415 

Salii, origin of ceremonies of, iii 
260 ; invocation of Mamurius by, 
iii. 392 ; festival of, pp. 399-400 ; 
explanation of rites and parallels 
with, pp. 401-403 ; Sublician 
Bridge referred to in songof, p. 429 

Sancus. See Semo 

Saturn, inLatium, i. 235 ; dethroned 
by Jupiter, iii. 796, v. 34 ; oracle 
given to, iv. 197 ; deceived at the 
birth of Jupiter, iv. 205 ; god of 
heaven, v. 19 ; god of sowing, p. 

Saturnalia, mock King of, pp. 305- 
396 ; origin of ceremony, pp. 396- 

Saturnia, old name of Rome, \ i. 31 

Saviour Juno, shrines of, ii. 56 

Scipio, L. Corn., temple to Storm 
dedicated by, vi. 193 

Scorpion constellation, iii. 712, iv. 
163, V. 417 

Scotland, rites of the Beltane 
festival in, pp. 415-416 

Screech-owls, attack on Proca by, 
vi. 139 

Semele, mother of Bacchus, iii. 715; 
fate of, vi. 485 ; grove of, vi. 504 

Semo Sancus Dius Fidius, shrine of, 
on the Quirinal Hill, vi. 213 ; 
worship of, p. 429 ; ritual con- 
nected with, pp. 429-430 ; deriva- 
tion of name, and connexion 
with Jupiter, p. 430 

Seneca, on Lake Cutilia, p. 432 

Septimontium, festival of the Seven 
Hills, p. 411 


Servius on Portunus, p. 441 
Servius TuUius, murder of, p. xx, 

vt 600 ; temples to Matuta and 

Fortuna dedicated by, vi. 569, 783 
Shakespeare quoted on St. George's 

Day, p. 413 
She-goat constellation. See Capella 
She-goat's Marsh, ii. 491 
Sheep, sacrifice of, i. 362, 388 
Shepherds, rites of, for the Parilia, 

iv. 735 ; prayer to Pales, iv. 747, 

pp. 414, 416 
Sibyl of Cumae, oracles of, iv. 158, 

257, 876, V. 210, p. 403 
Silenus, ass of, betrays Priapus, i. 

399, 433, vi. 324 ; and the bees, 

iii. 745 
Silvia (Ilia), possessed by Mars, iii. 

11, 233, 598, and gives birth to 

Romulus and Remus, ii. 383, iii. 

41 ; daughter of Numitor, iv. 54 
Silvius, father of Latinus, iv. 42 
Sirius, the dog-star, v. 723 ; enemy 

of the farmer, p. 422 
Sisyphus and Metope, iv. 175 
Sky, V. 17 

Snake constellation, origin of, ii. 243 
Solinus on Square Rome, p. 419 
Solmona (Sulrao), Ovid's birthplace, 

pp. vii-viii, iv. 80 
Solymus, iv. 79 
Sow, sacrifice of, to Ceres, i. 849, iv. 

Sowing, Day of, L 658 
Sparla, worship of Juno in, iii. 83 
Square Rome, meaning and identi- 
fication of, pp. 418 et feg. 
Steiope of the Pleiades, iv. 172 
Steropes, one of the Cyclopes, iv. 

Stimula, grove of, vi. 504 
Stopfer and the Salii, p. 403 
Storm, temple to, vi. 193 
Strabo on the properties ot Lake 

Cutilia, p. 433 
Stymphalian waters, ii. 273 
Styx, iii. 802 
Sublician Bridge, Argei cast from, 

pp. 425, 426, 428 
Sulla, vi. 212 
Sulmo (Solmona), Ovid's birthplace, 

pp. vii-viii, iv. 80 
Summanus, god of the night-sky, 

vi. 781 

Sun tells Ceres of Persephone, iv. 

Swallow. See Procne 
Switzerland, Stopfer in, parallel to 

Salii, p. 403 
Syphax, defeat of, vi. 769 
Syracuse, iv. 873 
Syrians, avoidance of fish food by, 

ii. 474 

Tacita, rites in honour of, IL 672; 
her origin, ii. 583 

Talbot, P. Amaury, cited on Negro 
calendars, pp. 385-386 

Tanaquil, Ocresia handmaid of, vi. 

Tantalides (Agamemnon), v. 807 

Tantalus, ii. 627 

Tarpeia leads the Sabines, i. 261 

Tarquin the Proud, takes Gabii, ii. 
687 ; and Brutus, ii. 718 ; flight 
of, p. 394 

Tarquin Sextus, takes Gabii, ii. 691; 
at the siege of Ardea, ii. 725; 
desires Lucretia, ii. 761 ; the 
rape of Lucretia by, ii. 784 

Tarquins, expulsion of, p. xx, ii. 
851 ; Regifugium to commemorate, 
ii. 685, p. 3'J4 

Tarquinius Collatinus, visits Lu- 
cretia from Ardea, ii. 733''; 
summoned by Lucretia after the 
rape, ii. 815 

Tartarus, iv. 612 

Tatius, King of the Sabines, re- 
pulsed, i. 260, 272; subject to 
Romulus, ii. 135 ; worship of 
Janus set up by, vi. 49; reconcilia- 
tion of Romulus and, vi. 93, p. 
407 ; reference, p. 436 

Taygete of the Pleiades, iv. 174 

Ten, importance of the number, in 
early Rome, iii. 120 

Tereus, cruel treatment of Procne 
and Philomela by, ii, 629, 856 

Terminus, god of boundaries, rites 
of festival to, and functions of, 
p. xxi, ii. 61, 641 

Tertullian and statue of Seme 
Sancus, p. 429 

Tethys, wife of Ocean, mother of 
Hyades, ii. 191, v. 81, 168 

Thalia, v. 54 

Thapsus, Battle of, iv. 3S0 



Thebes, Bacchus rites in, iil. 721 

Themis, iii. 668, v. 21 

Theseus and Ariadne, iii. 460 ; and 

Hippolytus, vi. 737 
Thesmophoria, the celebration of, 

in 62 B.C., p. 423 
Thestiades (Meleager), death of, 

V. 305 
Thieves, Mercury patron of, v. 104, 

Thunderbolt, fall of, expiation for, 

iii. 288 
Thyestes, son of Tantalus, ii. 627 
Thyone of Dodona (the Hyades), 

rising of, vi. 711 
Thyrea, boundary dispute in, ii. 668 
Tiber, River, origin of name, ii. 385 ; 

explains the rite of the Argei, v. 

635, p. 425 ; festival to, vi. 228 ; 

the port of, p. 441 
Tiberinus, iv. 47 
Tiberius, Emperor, pp xv, xix, i. 10, 

533, 645, 706 
Tibullus, Ovid's contemporary, p. 

Ix ; on Pales, p. 416 ; on Vertum- 

nus, p. 440 
Tibur, walls built by Argives, iv. 

71 ; worship of Juno at, vi. 61 ; 

Roman flute-players at, vi. 656 ; 

Salii at, p. 400 
Toga virilis, its connexion with 

Bacchus, iii. 771 
Tolenus, River, vi. 565 
Tomi, Ovid banished to, pp. xi 

et seq., xviii 
Torquatus, T. Manlius, 861 B.C., 

i. 601 
Trasimene, Lake, defeat at, 217 b.c., 

vi. 245 
Trinacria (Sicily), home of Ceres, 

iv. 420 
Triptolemus the first ploughman, 

iv. 550 
Tritonia (Athena) explains rites of 

the flute-players, vi. 655 
Tritonia, inventor of the flute, 

vi. 696 
Trivia, sacrifices to goddess of, 

i. 389 
Tros, iv. 83 

Troy founded by Ilus, vi. 419 
Tubertus, Posturaius, victor of 

Mt. Algid us, vi 723 
Tubilustria, the, iii. 849, v. 726 


TuUia incites the murder of Servius 

Tullius, vi. 587 
Turnus, i. 4G3, iv. 879 
Tusculum, iv. 71 
Twins (Gemini) constellation, v. 

694, vi. 727 ; origin, v. 700 ; the 

patrons of sailors, v. 720 
Tychius inventxjr of shoemaking, 

iii. 824 
Tydeus, i. 491 
Tyndarids, the. See Castor and 

Typhoeus, i. 573, iv. 491 
Typhon pursues Dione, ii. 461 

Ulysses visits the Laestrygonians, 
iv. 69 ; and the Palladium, vi. 433 

Unconquered Jupiter, the, vi. 650 

Ur of the Chaldees, the Arch found 
at, p. 488 

Urania'explains Mayas from Elders, 
V. 55 

Usener, H., on Anna Perenna, p. 409 

Vacuna, sacrifices to, vi. 308 ; a 
Sabine goddess of health or 
medicine, p. 432 ; goddess of Lake 
Cutilia, pp. 433, 435 

Varro, lost books of, p. xxi; a source 
foT Fasti, p. xxiii; on corruption of 
Di into J, pp. 387-388 ; on Janus, 
p. 885 ; on Mamurius, p. 898 ; on 
Nerio, p. 409 ; on conjugal rela- 
tions of the gods, p. 409 ; on the 
Parilia, pp. 411, 412 ; on the 
Argei, p. 425 ; on Vacuna, pp. 432, 
433 ; on the site of the Forum, 
p. 436; on the Portunalia and 
Portunus, p. 441 

Vatican manuscripts of Fasti, pp. 

Vedjovis, temple of, consecrated, 
iii. 430 

Veil, the, destroy the Fabii, 477 b.c., 
ii. 195 

Venus, April dedicated to, i. 39, iv. 
1, andher claims to, iv. 86; descent 
of Julius Caesar from, iv. 20, 36, 
124; descent of Romulus from, 
iv. 57 ; Greek origin of, iv. 62 ; at 
Troy, iv. 119 ; Paris's judgement 
on, iv. 121 ; origin of washing 
statue of, iv. 136 ; the Sibyl orders 
temple to be built to, iv. 158 ; 


hastens the sunset on April 15th, 
iv. 673 ; celebration of, by the 
common wenches, iv. 865 ; 
brought to Rome, iv. 875 ; temple 
of, near the CollineGate, iv. 871 ; 
pleads to Jupiter for Rome, vi. 
375 ; Nerine identified with, p. 
409. See also Dione 

Verticordia (changer of the Heart), 
name for Venus, iv. 160 

Vertumnus, the Etruscan god of 
Volsinii, vi. 409, pp. 438-439; 
Roman derivation of name, p. 
439; functions of, pp. 439-440; 
Ovid's verses on, p. 440 

Vespasian, Emperor, fatal results of 
water at Cutilia to, pp. 434, 435 

Vesta, temple of, ii. 69, vi. 227, its 
annual cleansing, vi. 227, 713, 
rites connected with, vi. 295, and 
incident of fire at, vi. 437 ; March 
rites of, iii. 141 ; Augustus' con- 
nexion with, as Pontifex Maximus, 
iiL 421 ; refers to murder of Julius 
Caesar, iii. 698 ; at the founding 
of Rome, iv. 828 ; day dedicated 
to, iv. 949. vi. 249, p. 391 ; Numa 
introduces worship of, vi. 259 ; 
connexion with Earth, vi. 263, 
460; daughter ofOps and Saturn, 
vi. 286 ; and Priapus, vi 319 ; 
pleads for Rome, vi. 376 ; origin 
of worship, p. 430; connexion 
with the king, pp. 480-431 ; shape 
of temples of, pp. 431-432 

Vestal fire brought to Rome, i. 528 

Vestal Virgins, fumigating materials 
for Parilia provided by, iv. 639, 
pp. 413 414; cast the Argei, v. 
621, pp. 425, 426; in the siege of 
Rome, 390 B.C., vi. 365 ; punish- 
ment of, for uncbastity, vi. 457 ; 

in the Lupercalia, p. 391 ; at the 

Thesmophoria, p. 423 
Vestibule, derivation of, vi. 303 
Via Nova, the, vi. 396 
Victor, a title of Jupiter, iv. 621 
Victory (Nike), identitication of 

Vacuna with, pp. 432, 433, 435 
Vinalia, the, iv. 863 ; a festival of 

Venus, iv. 877, but belongs to 

Jupiter, iv. 878 
Vindicta, the, vi. 676 
Virbius, Hippolytus becomes, vi. 

Virgil, Ovid's contemporary, p. ix ; 

on Portunus, p. 441 
Vitnivius on the water of Lake 

Cutilia, p. 433 
Volsinii, Voltumnus the god of, pp. 

Voltumna, wife of Voltumnus, p. 439 
Vortumnus. See Vertumnus 
Vulcan, worshipped in Lemnos, iii. 

82 ; crown given to Venus by, iii. 

514 ; day of, v. 725 : father of 

Servius Tullius, vi. 627 

Walpurgis Night, p. 402 

"Week, the Roman, i. 54 ; the African, 

pp. 385-386 
Whitethorn used against witches, 

vi. 129, 165 
Wissowa on Portunus, p. 442 
Woodpecker, iii. 37 
Woolley, Mr., excavations at Ur of 

the Chaldees by, p. 438 

Yate,Rev.W.,ontheMaori calendar, 
p. 386 

Zephyr weds Flora, v. 201, 319 
Zeus, corrupted from Dios, p. 388 

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Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. {Srd Imp.) 
Manetiio. W. G. Waddell ; Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. {Srd Imp.) 
Marcus Aurelius. C. R. Haines, {^th Imp. revised.) 
Menander. F. G. Allinson. {Srd Imp. revised.) 
Minor Attic Orators. 2 Vols. K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burtt. (Vol. I 2nd Imp.) 
NoNNos : DioNYSiACA. W. H. D. Rousc. 3 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
Oppian, Collutiius, Tryphiodorus. a. W. Mair. {2nd Imp.) 
Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. {2nd Imp.) Literary Selections 

(Poetry). D. L. Page. {3rd Imp.) 
Parthenius. C/. Longus. 
Pausanias : Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 

(Vols. I and HI Srd Imp., Vols. II, IV and V 2nd Imp.) 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I-V. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker; Vols. VI-IX. F. H. Colson. (Vol. IV U/i 

Imp., Vols. I, II, V-VII Srd Imp., Vols. HI, VIII, IX 

2nd Imp.) 

Two Supplementary Vols. Translation only from an 
Armenian Text. Ralph Marcus. 
Philostratus : The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I Uh Imp., Vol. II Srd Imp.) 


Philostbatus : Imagines ; Callistratus : Descriptions. 

A. Fairbanks. {2nd Imp.) 
Philostratus and Eunapius : Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright, {^nd Imp.) 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. {Sth Imp. revised.) 
Plato I : Euthyphro, Apology, Chito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler, (llth Imp.) 
Plato II : Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. {Uh 

Plato III : Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler ; Ion. 

W. R. M. Lamb. {Uh Imp.) 
Plato IV : Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. 

W. R. M. Lamb. (3rd Imp. revised.) 
Plato V : Lysis, Symposium, Gobgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 

{5th Imp. revised.) 
Plato VI : Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, 

Lesser Hippias. H. N. Fowler, {ith Imp.) 
Plato VII : Timaeus, Cbitias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epi- 

STULAE. Rev. R. G. Bury. (3rd Imp.) 
Plato VIII : Chabmides, Alcibiades, Hippabchus, The 

LovEBS, Theages, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 

{2nd Imp.) 
Plato : Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 
Plato : Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 5th Imp., 

Vol. II 4th Imp.) 
Plutabch: Mobalia. 14 Vols. Vols. I-V. F.C. Babbitt; 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold ; Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 

B. Einarson; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler; Vol. XII. H. 

Cherniss and W. C. Helmbold. (Vols. I-VI, X 27id Imp.) 
Plutabch t The Paballel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

(Vols. I, II, VI, VII and XI 3rd hnp.. Vols. III-V and 

VIII-X 2nd Imp.) 
PoLYBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 
Procopius : Histoby of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

(Vol. I 3rd Imp., Vols. II-VII 2nd Imp.) 
Ptolemy : Tetbabiblos. C/. Manetho. 
QuiNTUs Smybnaeus. a. S. Way. (3rd Imp.) Verse trans. 
Sextus Empibicus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vol. I 4,th 

Imp., Vols. II and III 2nd Imp.) 
Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I lOth Imp., Vol. II 

Sth Imp.) Verse trans. 
Strabo : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. (Vols. I, 


V and VIII 3rd Imp., Vols. II-IV, VI and VII 2nd 

Theophrastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds ; Hebooes, 
etc. A. D. Knox. {3rd Imp.) 

Theophrastus : Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort 
2 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 

Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I 5th Imp., Vols. 
II and IV 4>th Imp., Vol. Ill 3rd Imp.) 

Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 

Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I 
4>th Imp., Vol. II 3rd Imp.) 

Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Sympo- 
sium. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. I 
and III 3rd Imp., Vol. II 4th Imp.) 

Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Mar- 
chant. {3rd Imp.) 

Xenophon : Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant. (3rd Imp.) 



Aristotle : History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus. a. H. Armstrong. 


Babrius and Phaedrus. B. E. Perry. 




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